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Full text of "History of Bristol County, Massachusetts, with biographical sketches of many of its pioneers and prominent men"

UMASS/AMHERST 




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1998 



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UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS 
LIBRARY 



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STRAY 


PLATE 


IN BACK 


POCKET 



HISTOKY 



OF 



BRISTOL COUNTY, 



MASSACHUSETTS, 



WITH 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



OP MANY OF ITS 



Pioneers and Prominent Men. 



COMPILED UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF 

D. HAMILTON HURD. 



ILLUSTRATED. 



PHILADELPHIA: 

J. W. LEWIS & CO. 

188 3. 



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Copyright, 1883, by J. W. Lewis & Co. 



PRESS OF 

J. B. LIPPINCOTT & CO., 

PHILADELPHIA. 



PREFACE. 



The province of the historian is to gather the threads of the past ere they elude forever his 
grasp, and weave them into a harmonious web, to which the art preservative may give immortality. 
Therefore, he who would rescue from fast-gathering oblivion the deeds of a community and send 
them on to futurity in an imperishable record, should deliver "a plain unvarnished tale," — 

" Nothing extenuate, 
Nor set down aught in malice." 

In such a spirit have the compilers of the following pages approached the work of detailing 
the history of the territory embodied herein, and trust they have been fairly faithful to the task 
imposed 

It has been their honest endeavor to trace the history of the development of this section from 
that period when it was in the undisputed possession of the red man to the present, and to place 
before the reader an authentic narrative of its rise and progress to the prominent position it now 
occupies among the counties of New England. That such an undertaking is attended with no 
little difficulty and vexation none will deny. The aged pioneer relates events of the earlv settle- 
ments, while his neighbor sketches the same events with totally different outlines. Man's memory 
is ever at fault, while time paints a different picture upon every mind. With these the historian 
has to contend, and while it has been our aim to compile an accurate history, were it devoid of all 
inaccuracies, that perfection would have been attained which the writer had not the faintest con- 
ception of, and which Lord Macaulay once said never could be reached. 

From colonial and other documents in the State archives, from county, town, and village 
records, family manuscripts, printed publications, and innumerable private sources of information, 
we have endeavored to produce a history which should prove accurate, instructive, and in every 

■ 

respect worthy of the county represented. How well we have succeeded in our task, a generous 
public — jealous of its reputation and honor, of its traditions and memories, of its defeats and 
triumphs — must now be the judge. 

AVe desire to acknowledge our thanks to the editorial fraternity generally for much valuable 
information which has greatly lessened our labor in the preparation of this work, to each and 
every one who has assisted us in the compilation, and would cheerfully make personal mention 
of each, but it is impracticable, as the number reaches nearly a thousand. 

D. H. H. 

Philadelphia, May 4, 1883. iii 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. page 
Geographical and Descriptive 1 

CHAPTER II. 
Indian History 2 

CHAPTER III. 
Bench and Bar 8 

CHAPTER IV. 

Medical Histort. 

Bristol North and South Districts of the Massachusetts Medical So- 
ciety... 35 

CHAPTER V. 

Military History. 

The Third Regiment— The Fourth Regiment— The Seventh Regi- 
ment — The Eighteenth Regiment — The Twenty-third Regiment 
— The Twenty-sixth Regiment — The Twenty-ninth Regiment— 
The Thirty-eighth Regiment— The Thirty-ninth Regiment— The 
Fortieth Regiment — The Forty-seventh Regiment 39 

CHAPTER VI. 

New Bedford. 

Geographical — Topographical — First Record Reference to Old 
Dartmouth — Early Settlement — Indian Deed — Wasamequen and 
Wamsutta to William Bradford and others — Incorporation of the 
Town — The First Representative — Other Early Representatives — 
The Rus'ells— King Philip's War 48 

CHAPTER VII. 

New Bedford. — (Continued.) 

Persecution of the Quakers — " Presented" for Non-attendance at 
Church — Various Rules and Regulations — Punishments — Fine 
for Attending Quaker Meeting — Arthur Rowland fined for making 
" Motion of Marriage" — The Kemptons — Other Early Settlers — 
The Russells — Pioneer Whaling — Early Locations — Joseph Rotch 
— Isaac Howland — Privateers — View of the Village upon the Eve 
of its Destruction by the British 52 

CHAPTER VIII. 

New Bedford. — (Continued.) 

War of the Revolution : New Bedford a Rendezvous for Privateers — 
Arrival of the British Fleet — Burning of the Village — Gen. Charles 
Grey's Official Report — Account by Judge Edward Pope — Elijah 
Macomber's Account — Reminiscences of John Gilbert — Reminis- 
cences collected by Capt. Lemuel S. Aiken — Statement of Charles 
Grinnell — List of Property Destroyed — Some Doubtful Points — 
The Extent of the Calamity — Personal Sketches — Gen. Grey's 
Life and Character — Facts and Incidents 55 

CHAPTER IX. 

New Bedford. — (Continued.) 

The Whale Fishery: The First New England Whaling — Cape Cod — 
Nantucket— New Bedford in 1T40— Early Settlers— The' "Ten- 
Acre Purchase" — Bedford Village— Growth Checked by War of 
Revolution — Privateers — Close of the War — Returning Prosperity 
— Edmund Gardner— The Ship " Rebecca"— Early Voyages— The 
Development of the Business — Success — Highest Point reached 



PAGE 

in 1857 — Destruction of Whalers by Confederate Cruisers — List of 
Vessels Destroyed — The Disaster of 1871 — The Whaling Interest 
in 1883 66 

CHAPTER X. 

New Bedford. — (Continued.) 
Ecclesiastical History : First Congregational Society, Unitarian 
Church— The North Congregational Church— The Trinitarian 
Church— First Baptist Church— The North Baptist Church— The 
Second Baptist Church — Salem Baptist — County Street Methodist 
Episcopal Church— The Front Street Methodist Episcopal Church 
— Allen Street Methodist Episcopal Church— Pleasant Street 
Methodist Episcopal Church— African Methodist Episcopal Zion 
— African Methodist Episcopal Bethel — Grace Church — St. James' 
Church— North Christian Church— Middle Street Christian Church 
— South Christian Church — Christian Union Church — Spruce 
Street Christian — The Universalist Church — Society of Friends — 
Seamen's Bethel — Roman Catholic Churches — Portuguese Church 
— Howland Chapel — Second Advent Church — Union Church, 
Plainville — Olivet Chapel — Rockdale Union Free Chapel Associa- 
tion — Missionary Chapel — Extinct Churches: Pacific Church, 
Third Christian, Cannonville Union Church, Mount Pleasant 
Church 73 

CHAPTER XL 
New Bedford. — (Continued.) 
Press, Educational, Banks, etc.: The Medley, or New Bedford Marine 
Journal— The Mercury— The Standard— The Whaleman's Ship- 
ping-List — The New Bedford Signal — Numerous other Newspapers 
— Friends' Academy— Free Public Library— The National Bank 
of Commerce — The Merchants' National Bank — The Mechanics' 
National Bank — The First National Bank — The Citizens' National 
Bank — Institution for Savings— Five-Cent Savings-Bank— Water- 
Works— New Bedford and Fairhaveu Street Railway — Post-Office 
— Wamsutta Mills — Potamska Mills — Grinnell Mills — Gosnold 
Mills, etc. — Masonic — Star in the East Lodge — Eureka Lodge — 
Adoniram Chapter R. A. M. — Sutton Commandery — Early Physi- 
cians — Fire Society, 1809— The Ship " Rebecca" — Miscellaneous... 94 

CHAPTER XII. 
New Bedford. — (Continued.) 
Civil History — Military History: Incorporation of the Town — Set- 
ting off of Fairhaveu — Part of Dartmouth annexed to New Bed- 
ford — Part of Acushnet annexed to New Bedford — Incorporation 
of the City — List of Mayors — City Debt — Military Record — War 
of 1812 — War of the Rebellion — Representatives to General Court 
— List of Soldiers — Roll of Honor — Soldiei-s' and Sailors' Monu- 
ment 114 

CHAPTER XIII. 
Acushnet 161 

CHAPTER XIV. 
Berkley 174 

CHAPTER XV. 

Dartmouth. 
Geographical — Bartholomew Gosnold — His Visit to these Shores in 
1602 — The Grant of Dartmouth — Original Bounds — Origin of the 
Name — Ecclesiastical Troubles — Resisting Taxation — Court Or- 
ders — Stringent Laws — The Town Indicted — Imprisonment of Se- 

• v 



VI 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

lectmen of Dartmouth and Tiverton— Petition to the King— The 
Taxes Remitted and Prisoners Released— History of Early Set- 
tlers and Proprietors 191 

CHAPTER XVI. 

Dartmouth. — (Continued.) 

Documentary History 197 

CHAPTER XVII. 

Dartmouth. — (Continued.) 

War of the Revolution : First Action of the Town— The Town-Meet- 
ing of 1774— The Resolves— Patriotic Women— They Resolve to 
Discontinue the Use of Tea— Interesting Incident— Revolution- 
ary Soldiers— Extracts from Town Records 200 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

Dartmouth. — (Continued.) 

Ecclesiastical History: Apponegansett Meeting— First Christian 
Church— Congregational Church— The South Dartmouth Baptist 
Church— The Second Christian Church— Methodist Episcopal 
Church— Smith Mills Christian Church— Christian Church in 
Bakerville 203 

CHAPTER XIX. 

DlGHTON 214 

CHAPTER XX. 

Dighton . — {Coyilinued.) 
First Deed of Philip, Chief Sachem of Pokanoket, to William 
Brenton and others of Land in the South Purchase, heing the 
upper Three Miles 256 

CHAPTER XXI. 
Fairhaven 267 

CHAPTER XXII. 
Freetown 283 

CHAPTER XXIII. 
Fall River. 
Geographical— Topographical— Original Purchase of 1656— The In- 
dian Deed— The Pocasset Purchase in 1680— Incorporation of 
Freetown and Tiverton — Disputed Boundaries— division of Po- 
casset Purchase— Early Settlers— Col. Benjamin Church— John 
Borden— The Pioneer Grist-, Saw-, and Fulling-Mill— Early Valu- 
ations—Slow Growth of the Settlement— The Village in 1803— 
Increased Population— Census of 1810— The First Cotton-Fac- 
tory—Col. Joseph Durfee— Fall River in 1813— A New Era 308 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

Fall River. — (Continued.) 
War of the Revolution : Reminiscences of Col. Joseph Durfee— Early 
Incidents— 1777— Fall River exposed to the British— Organization 
of a Guard of Safety— The British approach the Town by Boats- 
Fired upon by the Guard at the Bay— Retreat of the Guard— Pur- 
suit by the Enemy— Battle near the Bridge — The Enemy defeated 
— Burning of Buildings by the British— Capture of Richard Borden 
— Retreat of the Enemy 311 

CHAPTER XXV. 

Fall River. — (Continued.) 

The Manufacturing Interest: The Pioneer Cotton Manufacturer in 
Fall River— Col. Joseph Durfee— The First Mill— The Fall River 
Manufactory— The Troy Cotton and Woolen Manufactory— The 
Pot-asset Manufacturing Company — The Annawan Manufactory — 
The Metacomet Manufacturing Company— The American Linen 
Company — Union Manufacturing Company — The Granite Mills 
—The Robeson Mills— The Tecumseh Mills— The Durfee Mills— 
The Davol Mills— The Merchants' Manufacturing Company — The 
Mechanics' Mills— The Stafford Mills— The Weetamoe Mills— 
The Slade Mills— The Richard Borden Manufacturing Company — 
The Wampanoag Mills — The Narragansett Mills — The King 



page 
Philip Mills— The Crescent Mills— The Montaup Mills— The Os- 
born Mills— The Chase Mills— The Flint Mills— The Borden City 
Mills— The Sagamore Mills— The Shove Mills— The Barnard 
Manufacturing Company — The Conanicut Mills — The Globe Yarn- 
Mills— The Bourne Mill— The Laurel Lake Mills— The Barnaby 
Manufacturing Company— The Fall River Bleachery — Wamsutta 
Steam Woolen Mill— The Wjwming Mills — The Massasoit Manu- 
facturing Company— Fall River Merino Company— Fall River 
Spool and Bobbin Company — The Fall River Iron-Works Com- 
pany — Fall River Machine Company — Hargraves Manufacturing 
Company — The Fall River Gas-Works — The Manufacturers' Gas- 
Light Company — Watuppa Reservoir Company — American Print- 
ing Company — Union Belt Company — Globe Street Railway — The 
Quequechan Mills —An Old Landmark 314 

CHAPTER XXVI. 

Fall River. — (Continued.) 

The Banking Interest: The National Union Bank — The Fall River 
National Bank — The Massasoit National Bank — The Metacomet 
National Bank — The Pocasset National Bank — The First National 
Bank — The Second National Bank— The Fall River Savings-Bank 
— Citizens' Savings-Bank — The Fall River Five-Cent Bavbias- 
Bank — The Union Savings-Bank 328 

CHAPTER XXVII. 
Fall River. — (Continued.) 
Miscellaneous: The Fall River Monitor — The Moral Envoy — The 
Village Recorder — The Patriot — The Archetype — The Gazette — 
The Argus— The Flint and Steel — The Mechanic— The Wampa- 
noag — All Sorts — Journal — People's Press — The Labor Journal — 
L'Echo du Canada— The Spark— The Fall River News— The Daily 
Evening News — The Fall River Daily Herald — The Advance— The 
Daily Record— The Daily Sun— The First Stage Line between Fall 
River and Providence — The Fall River Line of Steamers — The 
Clyde Line— Voters in 1830— The Fire of 1843— List of Buildings 
Destroyed — Custom-House and Post-Office — The City Hall — Edu- 
cational—Schools in 1703 — Present Conditiou of Schools — Mrs. 
Mary B. Young's Gift — The Public Library — The Skeleton in 
Armor — Water-Works — Fire Department — Oak Grove Cemetery 
— The North Cemetery — Civil History — Incorporation of Town — 
Name Changed to Troy — Subsequently to Fall River — Incorpora- 
tion of the City— First Officers— Mayors from 1854 to 1884 — 
Members of Congress Residents of Fall River — State Senators — 
Representatives from 1803 to 1884— Town Clerks from 1803 to 
1854— City Clerks from 1864 to 1884— Present City Officers- 
Valuation from 1854 to 1882— Population from 1810 to 1882 332 

CHAPTER XXVIII. 

FALL River. — (Continued.) 

Ecclesiastical History : The First Congregational Church — The Cen- 
tral Congregational Church — The Third Congregational Church 
—The First Methodist Episcopal Church— St. Paul's Methodist 
Episcopal Church — Brayton Methodist Episcopal Church — The 
North Methodist Episcopal Church — Quarry Street Methodist 
Episcopal Church — Maple Street Methodist Episcopal Church — 
Primitive Methodist Church — North Main Street Methodist Epis- 
copal Church — The First Baptist Church — Second Baptist Church 
— Third Baptist Church— Church of the Ascension — St. John's 
Church — Christian Church, Franklin Street — North Christian 
Church— Church of the New Jerusalem — Society of Friends — 
United Presbyterian Church — Hebrew Worshipers — Roman Cath- 
olic Churches 347 

CHAPTER XXIX. 

Fall River.— (Continued.! 362 

CHAPTER XXX. 
Eastox 416 

CHAPTER XXXI. 
Easton. — (Continued.) 422 

CHAPTER XXXII. 
Mansfield 435 



CONTENTS. 



VI 1 



CHAPTER XXXIII. 

Rehoboth. page 

Geographical — Indian Purchase — Original Bounds — The First Pur- 
chase — The Second Purchase — The North Purchase — The First 
White Settlers — First Meeting of Original Planteis — Valuation 
of Original Lands — Names of Proprietors — Early Townsmen — 
Documentary History — Deed from King Philip — Names of Inhab- 
itants in 168'J 463 

CHAPTER XXXIV. 

Rehoboth. — (Continued.) 

Indian History: Rehoboth in the War — Garrison-Houses — Burning 
of the Town — Pierce's Fight — Philip Slain at Mount Hope — Cap- 
ture of Annawan — Annawan's Rock — Col. Benjamin Church — 
His Account of Annawan's Capture 468 

CHAPTER XXXV. 

Rehoboth. — (Continued.) 

War of the Revolution 474 

CHAPTER XXXVI. 

Rehoboth. — ( Continued.) 
Eccksiastico i #&«,„,. First Congregational Church— Oak Swamp 
Church— 'The Hornebine Church— The Irons Church— Methodist 
Episcop: tl Church— The Union Baptist Church 477 

CHAPTER XXXVII. 

Seekonk. 

Geographical — Incorporation of the Town — Act of Incorporation — 
The First Town-Meeting — Documentary History — Fortification at 
Kettle Point — Representatives — Senators — Changing of Bound- 
ary—Military History — Names of Soldiers 494 

CHAPTER XXXVIII. 

Seekonk. — (Continued.) 

Ecclesiastical History : Congregational Church — The Baptist Church 
—The Hebron Church 497 

CHAPTER XXXIX. 

Attleborough. 

Rehoboth North Purchase — How and by whom Purchased — Bound- 
aries — Wamsutta'8 Deed — Thomas Willett, Character and Ser- 
vices — List of Proprietors — Proceedings of Proprietors — First 
Regular Division 506 

CHAPTER XL. 

Attleborough. — (Continued.) 

Incorporation — Origin of the Name — William Blackstone — His His- 
tory, Settlement, etc. — John Woodcock — His Garrison — First Ordi- 
nary — History of his Settlement here — First Mill in Town— Attack 
on Joshua Barrows — His Petition for Allowance of Land — Grant 
Made to him — Agents Employed in England on Disputed Boundary 
— Angle Tree — Angle Monument 514 

CHAPTER XLI. 

Attleborough. — (Continued.) 

Indian War — Pierce's Fight; or, Battle on the Blackstone — Nine 
Men's Misery — Threatened Attack on Wrenthaui 524 

CHAPTER XLIL 

Attleborough. — (Continued.) 

First Parish and Church in Town — Notices of Habijah Weld, Wilder, 
and others — Division of the Town into two Parishes — East Parish, 
its History — Notices of the Ministers — North Baptist Church — 
Notices of its Pastors — Notices of Modern Religious Societies 527 

CHAPTER XLIII. 

Attleborough. — (Continued.) 

Revolutionary War — Proceedings of the Town 537 



CHAPTER XLIV. 

Attleborough. — (Continued.) page 

Genealogical Notices of some of the Early Settlers — List of Repre- 
sentatives of the Town from its Incorporation — Biographies of 
Daggett, Maxcy, Mann, May, Ide, and Others— List of Graduates 
in Brown University, etc. — Dr. Hebert Mann's Death, and Wreck 
of the Brig "General Arnold" — Miscellany — Topography, etc. — 
Character of Early Inhabitants — Their Condition, etc. — Con- 
clusion 543 



CHAPTER XLV. 

Attleborough. — (Continued.) 
Schools — Industries — Societies, etc 



556 



CHAPTER XLVI. 

Norton. 
Geographical — Original Purchasers — Original Bounds — Petition for 
Precinct — Incorporation of Town — The First Settlements— Ex- 
tracts from Records — Early Settlers 599 

CHAPTER XLVII. 

Norton. — (Continued.) 
The Heroes of Five Wars : The Old French War— 



Military History 
The French and Indian War — War of the Revolution 
1812— War of the Rebellion, 1861-65 



-War of 



605 



CHAPTER XLVIII. 

Norton. — (Continued.) 
Ecclesiastical History — Educational : The Congregational (Unitarian) 
Church — The Trinitarian Congregational Church— The Baptist 
Church — Wesleyan Methodist Church — The Methodist Episcopal 
Church — Roman Catholic Church — Wheaton Seminary. 610 

CHAPTER XLIX. 

Norton. — ( Continued.) 

Manufacturing Interests 618 

CHAPTER L. , 
Norton. — (Continued.) 
Miscellaneous : Physicians— College Graduates— Stocks and Whip- 
ping-Post—Gas-Works — Runaway Wife — Witchcraft — Masonic — 
Post-Office— The Town Hall 020 

CHAPTER LI. 
Norton. — ( Continued.) 
Civil History— Military History : Representatives— Selectmen — Town 
Clerks— Deputy Sheriffs— State Senators— Councilors— Judges of 
Court of Common Pleas— Judges of Probate— Judge of Sessions 
— Register of Probate — Members of Congress— Taxes— Population 
— Military Record 624 

CHAPTER LII. 

Somerset. 
Geographical— Shawomat Purchase, 1680— The First Meeting of 
Purchasers— List of First Purchasers— Early Schools— Schoolmas- 
ters— Incorporation of Somerset— The First Town-Meeting— Offi- 
cers Elected— The First Representative to the General Court- 
Valuation and Tax-List for 1833— Present Valuation— Somerset in 
1848— Representatives— Ecclesiastical History— Society of Friends 
—The First Baptist Church— Methodist Episcopal Church— Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, South Somerset— The First Christian 
Church— The First Congregational Church— Roman Catholic 
Church— Military History 635 

CHAPTER LIII. 

Swansea. 
Geographical— Incorporation of the Town— " Wannamoisett"— 
Documentary History— Early Inhabitants— Division of Lands- 
King Philip's War— Original Grant— Capt. Thomas Williams' 
"Proposals"— Admission of Inhabitants— First Deputy Elected— 
John Allen— Town Officers of 1670— Extracts from Early Records 
—Revolutionary War— Committee of Inspection — Various Votes 



via 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

concerning the Revolutionary Period— Election of 1780 — Pioneer 
Schools— First Schoolmaster— John Myles— 1702, Town Fined for 
not Having School 652 



CHAPTER LIV. 

Swansea. — (Continued.) 
Pioneer History — King Philip's War 



657 



CHAPTER LV. 

Swansea. — ( Continued.) 

Ecclesiastical History : The First Baptist Church — The Non-Sectarian 
Christian Church — Christ Church, Swansea Village — The Six- 
Principle Baptist Church — The Universalist Church 664 

CHAPTER LVI. 
Westpoet 678 

CHAPTER LVII. 

Raynham. 
Geographical — Early History — The First Iron-Works in America — 
The Leonards — Indian History — Pioneer Families — The Old Leon- 
ard House — The Revolutionary War — Votes of the Town — Names 
of Soldiers — Seth Dean — Ecclesiastical History — The Congrega- 
tional Church— The Baptist Church — The Unitarian Church — 
Educational — Early Schoolmasters— Their Salary — School Money 
in 1777 — List of College Graduates— Militia Officers — Early Mer- 
chants — Physicians — Longevity — Justices of the Peace — High 
Sheriffs — Villages — Incorporation of the Town — First Town-Meet- 
ing — Officers Elected — Selectmen — Representatives and Town 
Clerks from 1731 to 1884— Early Votes— Military Record 707 

CHAPTER LVIII. 

Taunton. 
Boundaries — Topography— City Organization — Population 728 

CHAPTER LIX. 

Taunton. — (Continued.) 

Early Explorations— First Settlement — Acquisition of Territory 729 

CHAPTER LX. 

Taunton. — (Continued.) 

Military Affairs During the Colonial Period 736 

CHAPTER LXI. 
Taunton. — (Continued.) 749 



CHAPTER LXII. 

Taunton. — (Continued.) page 

The Farms of Mr. Hooke and Mr. Street— Notices of Early Settlers. 770 

CHAPTER LXIII. 

Taunton. — (Continued.) 

Ancient Burying-Grounds and Inscriptions from Old Gravestones — 
List of Officers, 1638-91 781 

CHAPTER LXIV. 

Taunton. — (Continued.) 

Ecclesiastical History 786 

CHAPTER LXV. 

Taunton. — (Continued.) 

The Educational Interests — Bristol Academy — Taunton Water- 
Works — Taunton Lunatic Hospital — The Old Colony Historical 
Society — Public Library — Bible Society — Good Templars — Hu- 
mane Society — Early Physicians — Mount Pleasant Cemetery 799 

CHAPTER LXVI. 

Taunton. — (Continued.) 

Civil History— Representatives from Taunton, 1693 to 18^ *~ Citv 
Officers — Postmasters — Councilors 817 

CHAPTER LXVII. 

Taunton. — ( Continued.) 

Manufacturing Interests 822 

CHAPTER LXVIII. 

Taunton. — (Continued.) 
Corporations, Banks, Societies, etc 840 

CHAPTER LXIX. 

Taunton. — (Continued.) 

Taunton in the War of the Revolution— The War of 1812-15— Taun- 
ton Companies and Men in the Rebellion 844 

CHAPTER LXX. 

A Sketch of the Courts and Bar of Bristol County 887 

CHAPTER LXXI. 
Homoeopathy in Bristol County and its Practitioners 893 

CHAPTER LXXII. 
Miscellaneous 897 

Eeeata 922 



CONTENTS. 



IX 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 



PAliE 

Abbe, E. P 151 

Alden, Cyrus 31 

Aldricb, J. M 397 

Alger, Isaac 596 

Almy, Charles 153 

Almy, Frederick 214 

Almy, Thomas 207 

Almy, Thomas 382 

Almy, William 206 

Ames, Oakes 429 

Ames, Oliver, Sr 428 

Ames, Oliver, Jr 430 

Amlros, Rev. Thomas 191 

Archer, J. J 390a 

Babbitt, William 1S7 

Bacon, Rufus 34 

;:-',,<:■■ *- *eo 

Barker, ^'" 'am, Jr 208 

Barney, E. » ls 

Barnes, D. ^ 25 

Bartlett. i- H 137 

p u> it, Anselm 27 

iJassett, Ezra 9 

Battelle, Hezekiah 31 

Baylies, Alfred 863 

Baylies, Edmund 861 

Baylies, Francis 26 

Beauvais, J. A 145 

Bennett, E. H 28 

Blackinton Family (The) 576 

Blaisdell, J. C 32 

Blake, Mortimer 871 

Blanding, W. W 489 

Bliss, Abiah 493 

Bliss, George W 491 

Boomer, F. A : 30 

Borden, Christopher 700 

Borden, Cook 379 

Borden, Jefferson 411 

Borden, N. B 370 

Borden, Richard 374 

Borden, T. J 393 

Borden, Alansen 18 

Bourne, Jonathan 144 

Brabrook Family (The) 867 

Braley, H. K 33 

Brigham, L. F 17 

Briggs, D. S 190 

Brown, Joseph 502 

Brown, J. P 877 

Brown, W. A 676 

Brownel), E. P 702 

Buflinton, Darius 651 

Buffinton, James 414 

Buffi D ton, Edward P 390b 

Capron, J. W 580 

Case, S 506 

Chace, A. H 308 

Chace, Augustus 399 

Chace, Oliver 378 

Chaffee, Oliver 502 

Chace, Edmund 388 

Church, Nathaniel 280 

Clark, C. E 173 

Clifford, C. W 20 

Clifford, J. H 12 

Cobb, W. H 2t 

Cobbett, Sabiu 461 

Codding, Abiel 587 

Coffin, T. G 8 



PAGE 

Colby, H. G. 9 

Congdon, J. B 135 

Covel, Benjamin 405 

Crane, A. B 189 

Crane, G. B 631 

Crapo, H. H 129 

Crapo, W. W 18 

Crocker, George E 137 

Crocker, Oliver 137 

Crocker, S. L 858 

Cushmau, Hercules 34 

Cummings, J. W 33 

Daggett, H. N 538 

Daggett, John 33 

Daggett, L. W 583 

Danforth, H. L 27 

Davis, A. H 211 

Davis, Nathan 650 

Davis, R. T 386 

Davol, Wm. C 413 

Davol, Stephen 386 

Dean, Barzillia 433 

Dean, C. H 415 

Dean, E. G 885 

Dean, L. W 581 

Dean, Theodore 864 

Dean, Thomas H 433 

Deane, L. B 632 

Drake, H. P 434 

Dunbar, S. 885 

Durfee, Nathan. 412 

D welly, Jerome 399 

Earl, Benjamin 408 

Earle, L. S 402 

Earle, Weston 262 

Eddy, W. H 34 

Eliot, T. D 10 

Eldridge.E. H 884 

Ellis, James 26 

Emery, S. H 872 

Fales, Samuel 2i 

Fessenden, C. B. H 14 6 

Fish, II. H 868 

Fisher, S. P 579 

Fletcher, P. H m 

Ford, James 2 8 

French, Job B 388 

French, George R • 389 

Gifford Family (The) 697 

Gifford, Benjamin. 70 ° 

Gifford, George H •• 698 

Gifford, William 6 " 

Greene, D. R 133 

Greene, William S 413 

Grinnell, Joseph 139 

Gooding, C. II 263 

Gordon, William A 208 

Hall, John W. D - 886 

Harris, J. George 14 7 

Haskell, Edward 159 

Hathaway, Joseph 34 

Hatheway, Nicholas 32 

Hathaway, Washington 3 4 

Hatheway, E. P 34 

Hathaway, G. H 3 °4 

Hathaway, Alden, Jr 407 

Hathaway, John B 407 

Hathaway, Samuel 377 

Hathaway, William, Jr 156 

Hawes, John A 28 ° 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Hawes, J. C 159 

Hawes, Simeon 158 

Hayward, C. E 598 

Henry, James 406 

Hicks, Andrew 696 

Holmes, Charles 32 

Holmes, G. B. N 34 

Horton, Danforth 401 

Horton, E. J 595 

Horton, E. S 593 

Horton, N. B 492 

Howard, A. F 873 

Howland, A. Franklyn 46 

Hunt, C. D 282 

Huttlestone, Henry 279 

Jennings, A. J 33 

Jones, E. U 878 

Jones, Samuel 726 

Keith, Edwin 886 

Kilburn, E. C 395 

Kimball, John 433 

King, George W 724 

Koowles, Joseph 136 

Knowlton, IF. M 21 

Ladd, Warren 155 

Lawton, George 706 

Leland, P. W 377 

Leonard, C. H 138 

Leonard, Cromwell 630 

Leonard, Ebenezer 173 

Leonard, E. T 414 

Leonard, J M 051 

Leonard, Daniel j:; 

Leonard, W. A 33 

Lincoln, J. T. 384 

Lindsey, C. E 394 

Lindsey, William 391 

Lothrop, T. J 877 

Lovering, Willard 859 

Luther, S. M 404 

Mackie, Adam 20 

Mackie, Andrew l.">2 

Mackie, J. H 153 

Macomber, Israel 705 

Macomber, Leonard 701 

Mandell, Thomas 131 

Mars ton, George 16 

Marvel, William 403 

Mason, William 391 

Mason, William 865 

May, E. G 592 

Medbery, Vaill 503 

Merritt, H. D...: 590 

Morse, E. J. W 431 

Morton, Marcus 26 

Morton, J. M 33 

Morton, Nathaniel 27 

Newcomb, Nathaniel 629 

Nichols, T. G 306 

Nichols, W. D , 188 

Nye, Obed .' 283 

Osborn, J. M 401 

Osborn, Weaver 400 

Parker Family (The) 133 

Parker, Frederick 160 

Parker, J. A 127 

Paul, A. W 265 

Padelford, S 23 

Page, J. II. W 12 

Paine, R. T 22 

Perrin, P. 1 884 

Perry, Albert 402 

Perry, Otis 491 

Perry, William F 45S 

Pierce, Alfred 596 

Pitman, R. C 18 



TAQE 

Phillips, J. M 870 

Phillips, W. H 869 

Phillips, William 149 

Pierce, E. W 45 

Porter, Burrill, Jr 590 

Pratt, Horatio 27 

Presbrey Family (The) 875 

Prescott, Oliver 16 

Price, George 577 

Read, H. C 591 

Reed, H. G 866 

Reed, Milton 390b 

Reed, Washington 305 

Reed, C. 1 27 

Richards Family (The) 588 

Richards, E. H 598 

Richards, H. M 572 

Richardson, Stephen 573 

Robinson, Charles 718 

Robinson, Enoch 719 

Robinson, Willard 575 

Rogers, John .. 4T.7 

Rotch Family (The) ',4l 

Russell, J. S 9 

San ford, S. T 7 04 

Shaw, N.W 722 

Sherman, C. E. W 593 

Skinner, N. H 8li 

Slade, Abner 673 

Slade, A. P 649 

Slade, Jonathan 647 

Slade, John P 405 

Slade. Nathan 705 

Slade, William L 648 

Slocum, William R 209 

Smith, Irani 392 

Smith, T. 1 561 

Spooner, N. S 171 

Standish, T. D 266 

Stanley, S. 578 

Staples, A. B 868 

Staples, S.N 882 

Stevens, F. S 674 

Stetson, T. M 19 

Stone, S. A 

Sturdy, W. A 634 

Swift, R. N 172 

Swift, W. 0. X -.. 150 

Sproat, James 24 

Stone, J. C .'. 16 

Taber, C. S 280 

Taber, E. T 281 

Taber, Henry 148 

Talbot, G. II 635 

Tillinghast, Nicholas 25 

Tracy, John 727 

Ti afford Family (The) 213 

TrafiTord.W. B 381 

Tripp, B. F 703 

Towne Family (The) 720 

Tucker, Joseph 212 

Vickery, C. R 803 

Warren, C. H 9 

Weaver, Stephen 678 

Wheaton, Laban 627 

Wheaton, L. M 629 

Wheeler, J. F 884 

White, D. D 724 

White. J. W 723 

White, Samuel 21 

Whiting, W. D 584 

Wilbar, Joseph 860 

Wilbur, Daniel 648 

Wilcox, L.T 20 

Wilkinson, Ezra 34 

Williams Family (The) 879 



CONTENTS. 



XI 



PAGE 

Williams, A. K 884 

Williams, Eliab 29 

Williams, M.G 723 

Williams, J. M 25 

Williams, .7. R 15 



PAGE 

Williams, Lemuel g 

Wing, B.F 210 

Wood, C. L i 31 

Wood, N. M 675 



ILLTJSTBATIOITS. 



PAGE 

Abbe. E. P facing 151 

Aldrich, J. M " 397 

Alger, Isaac " 597 

Almy, Charles " 153 

Almy, Frederick " 214 

Almy, Thomas " 207 

Almy, Thomas " 382 

Almy, William " 206 

Ames, Oliver, Sr " 428 

Ames, Oliver, Jr " 430 

Ames, Oakes " 429 

.v'.i..';., J-' J " 390a 

Babbitt, Wii'ij am « 186 

Bail.-y, G. E " 460 

Barker, Wi iliam, Jr " 208 

Bartlett/I. H " 137 

"•..i.es, Alfred " 862 

Baylies, Edmund " 861 

Beauvais, J. A " 145 

Bennett, E. II " 27 

Blake, Mortimer " 871 

Blackintui), Willard " 576 

Blackinton, William " 577 

BlandiDg, W.W " 490 

Bliss, Abiah " 493 

Bliss, George W " 491 

Boomer, F. A " 30 

Borden, Cook " 379 

Borden, Christopher between 700, 701 

Borden, X. B facing 370 

Borden, Richard " 374 

Borden, T.J " 393 

Bourne, Jonathan " 144 

rook, George " 867 

Braley, H. K " 32 

Brigham, L. F " 17 

Briggs, D. S " 190 

Bristol County, map of " 1 

Brown, J. P " 876 

Brown, Joseph " 502 

Brown, 51. A " 676 

Brownell, E. P " 702 

Burhuton, Darius between 650, 651 

Case, S. facing 506 

Capron, J. W " 580 

Chace, Augustus " 399 

Chase, Edmund " 388 

Chace, A. H " 308 

Chace, Oliver " 378 

Chaffee, Oliver " 503 

Church, Nathaniel " 281 

Clark, C. E " 173 

Clifford, C. W " 20 

Clifford, J. II " 12 

Cobbett, Sabin " 461 

Codding, Abiel " 587 

Congdon, J. B " 135 

< \<\ el, Benjamin " 405 

Crane.A. B " 189 

Crane, G. B " 631 

Crapo, H. II " 129 

Crapo.W. W " 18 

Crocker, George E between 136, 137 

Crocker, S. L facing 858 

Crocker, Oliver between 136, 137 



PAGE 

Daggett, II. N facing 885 

Daggett, John " 33 

Daggett, L. W " 583 

Davis, Nathan " 650 

Davis, B. T « 387 

Davol, Stephen " 386 

Dean, Barzillia 434 

Dean, C. H facing 415 

Dean, E. G between 884, 885 

Dean, Theodore facing 864 

Dean, L. W " 581 

Dean, Thomas H 434 

Deane, L. B facing 632 

Dighton Kock (The) " 250 

Drake, H. P » 435 

Dunbar, S. " 885 

Dwelly, Jerome " 398 

Earle, L. S " 402 

Earle, Weston " 262 

Eliot, T. D " 10 

Eldridge, E. H between 884, 885 

Emery, S. H facing 872 

Fall River in 1812, 5Iap of. between 310, 311 

Fish, H. H facing 868 

Fishers, S. P " 579 

Fletcher, P. H " 187 

Freuch, Job B between 388,389 

French, George R " 388,389 

Gilford, Benjamin facing 700 

Gifford, George H " 698 

Gifford, William between 698, 699 

Gifford, William H " 698, 699 

Gilmore, E. W facing 420 

Gooding, C. H " 263 

Gordon, William A between 208, 209 

Greene, D. R facing 133 

Grinnell, Joseph " 139 

Haskell, Edward " 159 

Hathaway, John B " 407 

Hathaway, Alden, Jr " 307 

Hathaway, G. H " 304 

Hathaway, Samuel " 377 

Hathaway, William, Sr " 156 

Hawes, John A " 280 

Hawes, J. C between 15? 

Hawes, Simeon '. facing 158 

Hayward, C. E " 598 

Henry, James " 406 

Hicks, Andrew " 696 

Horton, Danforth " 401 

Horton, E. J " 595 

Horton, E.S ... " 594 

Horton, N. B between 401, 493 

Howard, A.F. facing 

Howland, A. Franklyn " 46 

Hunt, C. D " 282 

Huttlestone, Henry " 279 

Jones, E. U " 878 

Jones, Samuel " 726 

Keith, Edwin " 886 

Kilburn, E. C " 395 

Kimball, John " 433 

King, George W " 725 

Knowles, Joseph " 136 

Ladd, Warren " 155 



xn 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Lawton, George facing 707 

Leland, P. W " 376 

Leonard, C. H " 138 

Leonard, Cromwell " 630 

Leonard, Ebenezer between 172, 173 

Leonard, J. M " 650, 651 

Lincoln, J. T facing 384 

Lindsey, C.E " 394 

Lindsey, William ' 390 

Lothrop, T. J " 877 

Lovering, Willard ' 859 

Luther, S. M " 404 

Macomber, Israel ' 706 

Macomber, Leonard " 701 

Mackie, J. H " 152 

Maudell, Thomas " 132 

Marston, George ' 16 

Marvel, William " 403 

Mason, William " 391 

Mason, William 865 

May, E.G " 592 

Medbery, Vaill " 504 

Merritt, H. D between 590, 591 

Morse, E.J. W facing 431 

Morton, Marcus " 26 

Newcomb, Nathaniel " 629 

Nichols, T. G " 306 

Nichols, W. D " 188 

Nye, Obed " 283 

Osborn, J. M between 400, 401 

Osborn, Weaver '. facing 400 

Parker, Frederick ' 160 

Parker, J. A " 127 

Parker, Ward M • " 134 

Paul, A. W " 265 

Perry, Albert " 462 

Perry, Otis " 492 

Perry, William F " 458 

Perrin.P. I " 884 

Phillips, J. M " 870 

Phillips, W. H " 869 

Phillips, William " 149 

Pierce, Alfred " 596 

Pierce, E. W " 45 

Porter, Bun-ill, Jr " 590 

Presbrey, S. D " 875 

Price, George " 578 

Bead, H. C " 591 

Beed, H. G " 866 

Eeed, Washington " 305 

Richards, H. M " 572 

Richards, J. D " 589 

Bichardson, Stephen " 573 

Robinson, Charles " 118 

Robinson, Enoch " 719 

Robinson, Willard " 575 



PAGE 

Rogers, John facing 457 

Rotch, W. J " 141 

Sanford, S. T " 704 

Shaw, N. W " 722 

Sherman, C. E «• 593 

Slade, Abner " 673 

Slade, A. P " 649 

Slade, Jonathan " 647 

Slade, John P between 404, 405 

Slade, Nathan facing 705 

Slade, William L .' " 648 

Slocum. William R " 209 

Smith, Irani " 392 

Smith, T.I " 561 

Skinner, N. H " 874 

Spooner, N.S " 171 

Standish, T. D " 266 

Stanley, S. between 578, 579 

Staples, A. B " 868,809 

Staples, S.N " 882,883 

Stetson, T. M facing 19 

Stevens, F. S " 674 

Stone, S. A ' Wi 

Sturdy, W. A • " 634 

Swift, R. N " 172 

Swift, W. C. N " 150 

Taber, C. S between '.?80, 281 

Taber, E. T " 28n, >L„ 

Taber, Henry facing 148 

Talbot, G. H " 635 

Taunton, Map of between 768,769 

Towne, E. 15 facing 721 

Tracy, John " 727 

Trafford, W. P. " 381 

Tripp, B. V " 703 

Tucker, Joseph " 212 

Vickery.C.R " 803 

Weaver, Stephen " 678 

\Vl,,aton, Laban " 627 

Wheaton, L. M " 628 

Wheeler, J. F " 883 

White, D. D " 724 

White, J. W betweeu 722, 723 

Whiting, W. D facing 584 

Wilbar, Joseph " 860 

Wilbur, Daniel between 04.S, 649 

Williams, A. II facing 881 

Williams, A. K " 882 

Williams, Eliab " 29 

Williams, Francis " 879 

Williams, Francis K " 880 

Williams, John R between 880, 881 

Williams, M. G " 722. 723 

Wing,B. F facing 210 

Wood, C. L " 131 

Wood. N. M " 675 



HISTORY 

OF 



BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

«. ■ KOGRAPHICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE. 

Bristol County is situated in the southern sec- 
ti-ir. of Massachusetts, its centre thirty-five miles from 
Boston, and two hundred miles from New York. It is 
bounded on the north by Norfolk, and east by Ply- 
mouth Counties, on the south by Rhode Island and 
the Atlantic Ocean, and on the west by Rhode Island. 
Its area is about six hundred square miles. It was in- 
corporated in June, 1685, bearing the name of its 
shire-town until 1746, when Bristol, Barrington, Little 
Compton, and Warren were set off to Rhode Island 
by a new division line drawn between the two States. 
In 1675 the county included but eleven towns, viz.: 
Attleborough, Berkley, Easton, Dighton, Dartmouth, 
Freetown, Raynham, Norton, Rehoboth, Swansea, 
and Taunton, aggregating a population of twenty- 
two thousand five hundred and seventy-one. Fall 
River, New Bedford, Acushnet, Fairhaven, Mans- 
field, Somerset, Seekonk, and Westport had not been 
incorporated. 

Taunton was made the capital, or shire-town, where 
all courts were held until 1828, when New Bedford, 
having become an important seat of navigation, with 
a population of six thousand three hundred and thirty- 
two, the largest town in the county, by legislative en- 
actment was created a half-shire town, with its court- 
house and other county appendages. In 1860 another 
line was drawn, severing Pawtucket and a portion of 
Seekonk from this county, adding them to Rhode 
Island, and in exchange taking a portion of Tiverton 
to Fall River from that State. In 1877, Fall River 
havinggrown into an important manufacturing border 
city of forty-six thousand inhabitants, it was assigned 
by legislative grant the third seat of justice in the 
county, and a court- room fitted for that purpose. 

There are three cities and sixteen towns ; three 
senatorial districts, with three senators ; ten repre- 
sentative districts, with eighteen representatives in 
the Legislature from this county. The population in 
1776 was 26,700; in 1790, 31,709; in 1800, 33,880; in 
1 



1810, 37,168; in 1820, 40,908; in 1830, 49,592 ; in 
1840, 60,195; in 1850, 76,192; in 1860, 93,794; in 
1870, 102,886 ; and in 1880, 139,040 ; showing a gradual 
progressive increase for a hundred years, or since the 
Revolution. The valuation (as appears by State De- 
partment records) of the county was in 1800, $234,- 
410.27; in 1810, $321,036.24; in 1820, $398,581; in 
1830, $11,346,916; in 1840, $19,493,685; in 1850, $39,- 
243,560 ; in 1860, $66,294,256 ; in 1870, $80,425,791 ; 
in 1880, $100,029,138 ; exhibiting a larger relative pro- 
portionate increase in wealth than in population. 

The southern coast of the county is indented with 
numerous streams, inlets, bays, and harbors, affording 
great facilities for navigation, commercial intercourse, 
fishing, and maritime trade. Several rivers flow 
through the county, — Taunton River being the prin- 
cipal, taking its rise in Norfolk, flowing through the 
west part of Plymouth, draining the east section of 
this county, and emptying into Mount Hope Bay, — 
furnish motive-power, co-operating with steam, for 
the extensive manufacturing interests, especially cot- 
ton, iron, and jewelry. The surface of the territory 
is diversified, undulating, rocky, hilly, but generally 
level in the northern and western portion, with a 
sandy and clayey soil, not very productive, but in the 
middle and southern rather prolific. The geological 
formation, granite, carboniferous, feldspathic, con- 
glomerate, etc., with frequent evidences of glacial 
visitations in past ages, from the numerous boulders 
observed in the central section of the country. Bog- 
iron ore is also largely developed in many northern 
locations, which from one to two hundred years ago 
was extensively utilized into bar-iron and cooking 
utensils. 

The Old Colony Railroad threads in systematic net- 
work nearly all the cities and towns of Bristol and 
adjoining counties, furnishing accommodations for 
freight and travel, and facilities of communication 
with all the cities and localities in the State, and the 
great thoroughfares north, south, east, and west. The 
Boston and Providence Railroad also passes through 
the northwest part of the county. 

There are in this county, according to the last 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



census, 30,015 families and 22,093 dwellings; 1025 
manufacturing establishments; number of persons 
employed, 34,068; wages paid during the year, $11,- 
125,200; capital invested, $42,128,950; amount of 
stock used, $24,884,704; value of products, $46,127,- 
452. Number of persons employed in agriculture, 
5161; farms, 2730; value of farms, $8,631,243 ; value 
of live-stock, $759,892; acres of tilled and meadow 
land, 97,222 ; woodland, 77,480 ; tons of hay per year, 
30,057; bushels of potatoes, 248,256; bushels of corn, 
117,294; gallons of milk, 2,339,682; pounds of butter, 
313,040; cheese, 5584; dotens of eggs, 846,624; value 
of annual farm products, $1,554,456. In the manu- 
facture of cotton goods there are 50 establishments 
and 19,273 persons employed; wages paid, $5,154,331; 
capital invested, $29,368,558; stock used, $11,599,735; 
value of product, $21,412,623. In cotton and woolen 
goods, 4 establishments and 21 persons employed; 
wages paid, $58,332; capital invested, $3,966,385; 
stock used, $2,637,708; value of products, $5,600,000. 
In metals and metallic goods, 224 establishments; 
persons employed, 5849; wages paid, $2,478,318; cap- 
ital invested, $5,070,921 ; stock used, $4,252,932 ; value 
of product, $8,621,697. Machines and machinery, 31 
establishments, 1419 persons employed; wages paid, 
$686,150 ; capital invested, $1,232,625; stock, $891,907 ; 
value of product, $1,756,509. In lumber, 45 establish- 
ments, 158 persons employed; wages paid, $39,100; 
capital, $147,200; stock, $71,037; value of product, 
$158,480. In 9 brick, etc., manufactories, 119 per- 
sons employed ; wages paid, $28,274; capital invested, 
$105,100; stock, $14,095 ; value of product, $60,930. 
Carriages and wagons, 57 establishments, 133 per- 
sons employed ; wages paid, $106,164; capital, $184,- 
750 ; stock used, $135,516 ; value of products, $323,151. 
Food preparations, 68 establishments; persons em- 
ployed, 385; wages paid, $144,935; capital, $475,200; 
stock used, $1,715,215; value of product, $2,143,612. 
Printing and publishing, 22 establishments, 213 per- 
sons employed ; wages paid, $95,446 ; capital, $172,- 
400 ; stock used, $107,616 ; value of product, $274,300. 



CHAPTER II. 



INDIAN HISTORY. 1 



That distinguished chieftain, the great and good 
Massasoit, resided at Pokanoket, that subsequently 
became the township of Bristol, now in the State of 
Rhode Island, but which until 1747 formed a part of 
Bristol County, Mass., wherein it was the shire or county 
town for the term of some sixty-two years. What 
therefore at the landing of the Pilgrims in 1620 was 
the seat of empire to the Indians throughout the 
widely extended domains of Massasoit became the 

l By Gen. E. W. Peiice. 



chief seat of justice to those European settlements in- 
corporated in 1685 as the county of Bristol. 

Although Bristol County was not formed or incor- 
porated until some fifteen years after the death of 
Massasoit, English settlements had been commenced 
within what subsequently became its limits nearly or 
quite twenty-five years before his decease, and he 
lived to see two of these, viz., Taunton and Rehoboth, 
incorporated as towns. Wamsutta, as chief ruler of 
the Indians, succeeded his father, Massasoit, at the 
death of the latter in or about the year 1662, and the 
brief reign of Wamsutta ending within one year from 
its commencement, he was in turn succeeded by his 
younger brother Pometacom, commonly known as 
King Philip, whose reign continued about fourteen 
years, during which time two other English settle- 
ments, viz., Dartmouth and Swansea, were incorpor- 
ated as towns. The first or earliest communication of 
white men with the Indian inhabitants of that 8e"tf«6fi 
of country, subsequently incorporated as thL county 
of Bristol, probably occurred in the month \srf May, 
1619, when Capt. Dermer came in a vessel to Panr^^j;. 
now Plymouth, where, from the assistance rendered 
him by an Indian named Squanto, he was enabled to 
communicate with the Indian chieftain Massasoit, 
whose principal place of residence was then, as after- 
wards, at Pokanoket, or Mount Hope. 

Capt. Dermer, in a letter dated Dec. 27, 1619, thus 
described the event : " I traveled along a day's jour- 
ney to a place called Nammastaquet, where, finding 
inhabitants, I dispatched a messenger a day's journey 
farther west to Pocanokit, which bordereth on the 
sea, whence came to see me two kings, attended with 
a guard of fifty armed men, who, being well satisfied 
with that my savage and I discoursed unto them, 
gave me content in whatever I demanded, where I 
found that former relations were true. Here I re- 
deemed a Frenchman." The Nammastaquet here 
named was doubtless Nemasket, now Middleborough, 
and the two kings who met Capt. Dermer were prob- 
ably Massasoit and his brother Quadequina. 

The first visit of white men to the locality, now 
Bristol County, probably occurred in June or July, 
1621, when Massasoit, at his home in Pokanoket, was 
sought out and visited by Edward Winslow and Ste- 
phen Hopkins, accompanied by the Indian Squanto, 
who acted as their interpreter. During the lifetime 
and reign of Massasoit his sub-chiefs appear to have 
been called or ranked as captains, though sometimes 
sachems, among whom was Caunbitant, whose resi- 
dence was at a place then called Mettapoiset, now 
known as Gardner's Neck, in Swansea; and at the 
visit Mr. Winslow made to Massasoit, in March, 1623, 
on coming to the ferry, in Caunbitant's country, was 
informed that Massasoit was dead, which caused the 
Governor and his attendants to feel considerable un- 
easiness, lest Caunbitant, who had been one of Mas- 
sasoit's most renowned captains, should become his 
immediate successor as chief sachem or king. This 



INDIAN HISTORY. 



uneasiness and fear arising from the fact that not 
long before Caunbitant, being at Nemasket, com- 
menced a murderous attack upon the Indian Squanto, 
who appears to have barely escaped death at his 
hands ; and the Ply mouthians had lost no time in send- 
ing out fourteen soldiers, under Capt. Miles Standish, 
which force so harassed Caunbitant that he, in Sep- 
tember, 1621, had felt compelled to go to Plymouth 
and submit to certain demands, and signing at the 
same time a treaty of amity and peace. 

The English still considered Caunbitant as being, 
at heart, their enemy, and that he was only waiting a 
convenient opportunity to make it known ; and the 
Governor and his attendants feared that convenient 
opportunity had now arrived. Said Mr. Winslow, 
concerning Caunbitant, " Although he were but a 
hollow-hearted friend toward us, I thought no time 
so fit as this to enter into more friendly terms with 
him and the rest of the sachems thereabout; hoping, 
through the blessing of God, it would be a means in 
that unsettled state to settle their affections towards 
us ; and though it were somewhat dangerous in re- 
spect of our personal safety, because myself and 
Hobbamock had been employed upon a service 
against him, which he might fitly revenge, yet esteem- 
ing it the best means, leaving the event to God in his 
mercy, I resolved to put it in practice if Master 
Hamden and Hobbamock durst attempt it with me, 
whom I found willing to that or any other course that 
might tend to the general good. So we went towards 
Mattapuyst, and went to the sachem's comaco, for so 
they called the sachem's place, though they call an 
ordinary house wites ; but Caunbitant, the sachem, 
was not at home, but at Puckanokick, which was some 
five or six miles off. The squa-sachem, for so they 
call the sachem's wife, gave us friendly entertainment. 
Here we inquired again concerning Massasowat ; they 
thought him dead, but knew no certainty. Where- 
upon I hired one to go with all expedition to Puck- 
anockit, that we might know the certainty thereof, 
and withal to acquaint Conbatant with our there 
being. About half an hour before the sun setting 
the messenger returned and told us that he was not 
dead." 

When Mr. Winslow and his friends were returning 
from Pokanoket, at the earnest request of Caunbitant, 
who accompanied them, they stopped and stayed one 
night at his house, in what is now Swansea ; and Mr. 
Winslow informs that they never received better 
entertainment from any Indians than they then had 
from Caunbitant. What became of Caunbitant is 
unknown. That section of country now Little Coinp- 
ton was formerly known as Seaconnet, or Seconet, and 
here the Indians for a time were under the direction 
of a woman named Awashuncks, who was usually 
known as the squaw-sachem of Seaconnet. She was 
wife of an Indian named Tolony, and she was mother 
of a son named William Mommynewit, who, being 
sent to school, learned the Latin language, and was 



intended for college, but prevented, being seized with 
the palsy. She had another and older son named 
Peter. Awashuncks first came prominently into no- 
tice in 1671, when the colony of Plymouth planned a 
warlike expedition against her, proposing to send a 
force of one hundred and two men, that were to as- 
semble for that purpose at or near what is now Asso- 
net Four Corners, in Freetown, on the 8th day of 
August, 1671 ; but the war was prevented by articles 
of agreement signed by her July 24, 1671. 

She comes again prominently into notice in the 
spring of 1675, when King Philip sent messengers to 
engage her and her people to unite with him in the 
great and bloody conflict, still known as " King 
Philip's war." Those messengers consisted of six 
Pokanoket Indians, who, having their faces painted 
and hair so cut as to represent a cock's comb, with 
powder-horns and shot-bags, made an imposing ap- 
pearance, and influenced Awashuncks so as to induce 
her to call the principal of her people together to a 
great dance. Capt. Church, the soon after renowned 
Indian hunter, had then recently settled in her neigh- 
borhood, and, singularly enough, Church was among 
the guests bidden to the dance. Taking with him an 
interpreter, Church repaired to the place, where he 
said that he found hundreds of Indians, and Awa- 
shuncks, in a foaming sweat, leading the dance. 
Church's arrival being announced to her, she stopped 
short, sat down, called her chief men into her presence, 
and then called Church, to whom she communicated 
a message that she had received from King Philip. 
Church advised her not to accede to his request ; 
whereupon she called in the six Pokanoket Indians. 
Church then told Awashuncks that if Philip was re- 
solved on war her best way would be to kill the six 
Pokanoket Indians and place herself under the pro- 
tection of the English. At this advice the Pokano- 
kets became silent, but two of Awashuncks' men that 
had recently been to Mount Hope, and were very 
favorably inclined to the proposed measures of King 
Philip, expressed themselves with great indignation 
at the rash advice of Church, and one of Awashuncks' 
council, called " Little Eyes," was so enraged that he 
would have put Church to death had he not been 
prevented. Awashuncks agreed to join herself and 
people with the English, instead of the Indians, 
placing herself under the protection of the former. 
She sent two of her men to guard Church back to his 
house, and desired him to go to Plymouth and com- 
municate her decision, which he did on the 7th of 
June, 1675 ; and had the Plymouth colony govern- 
ment taken immediate measures to protect Awa- 
shuncks, doubtless she, and at least most of her 
people, in the war that immediately ensued, would 
have joined with the English instead of the Indians ; 
but neglecting to communicate with Awashuncks, 
she was soon after compelled to join with Philip, and 
thus continued to act for nearly a year. 

About the middle of May, 1676, Capt. Church 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



found means to communicate with Awashuncks, who 
agreed to serve the English during the remainder of 
the war. Quite a number of her warriors then en- 
tered the service under Capt. Church, and she, with 
the non-combatants of her tribe, were, for the time 
being, ordered to take up their residence in the town 
of Sandwich. Peter, a son of Awashuncks, was her 
chief captain in King Philip's war, and when, in 
1676, Awashuncks re-engaged herself to the English, 
Peter, her son and chief captain, addressing Mr. 
Church, said, " Sir, if you will please accept of me 
and my men, and will head us, we will fight for you, 
and will help you to Philip's head before the Indian 
corn be ripe." These peace measures saved the Se- 
conet Indians from total destruction, so that some 
twenty-five years later one hundred men of the Se- 
conet tribe were still alive, and the General Court 
of Massachusetts appointed an Indian, named Nura- 
paus, to be their captain. He lived to be an old man, 
and died in or about the year 1748. Not far from the 
year 1700 they erected a meeting-house, in which the 
Rev. Mr. Billings preached to them one Sunday in 
each month, and besides which they enjoyed the 
ministrations of an Indian preacher named John 
Simon. A large part of the remnant of the tribe 
were swept away by a fever that prevailed in or about 
the year 1750, and at the beginning of the present 
century not more than ten families remained. 

The Indian Seconet, afterwards a part of the town- 
ship of Little Compton, formed a part of Bristol 
County until 1747, when it was set off, and has since 
been in the government of Rhode Island. 

Adjacent to the Seconet tribe were the Pocasset 
Indians, their former home being in what afterwards 
became the township of Tiverton, that until 1747 was 
in Bristol County, but then set off to Rhode Island. 
The Pocasset Indians were probably more numerous 
and powerful than those at Seconet, and were the 
subjects of a squaw-sachem named Weetamoo, who 
had formerly been the wife of Wamsutta, older 
brother of King Philip, and sister to Wootonekanuske, 
King Philip's wife. Thus connected to or with the 
royal family, one would have supposed that Weetamoo 
would have been among the first and foremost to have 
espoused the cause of King Philip, her former hus- 
band's brother and her sister's husband, but still the 
evidence is quite conclusive that this was not the 
case ; but, instead, that she demurred, and would 
have kept herself and those over whom she ruled 
entirely out of the conflict if she could. 

Wamsutta, as before remarked, died in 1662, and 
Weetamoo, thus left a widow at some time before 1675, 
became the wife of an Indian named Pentonowowett, 
whom the English called Ben, and Church's history 
speaks of as Peter Nunuit. 

Weetamoo, who was sometimes called Nanumpum, 
and also Tatapanum, became the wife of Wamsutta, 
oldest son of Massasoit, in or before 1653, and during 
the brief reign of Wamsutta in 1662, Weetamoo must 



have been queen of the Wampanoag nation. At the 
death of Wamsutta in 1662, his brother came to the 
throne, when Weetamoo as queen was succeeded by 
her sister Wootonekanuske, two brothers having mar- 
ried these sisters, and the ex-queen thenceforth is 
mentioned in history only as "squaw-sachem of Po- 
casset." At the commencement of King Philip's war 
(in 1675) the Pocasset Indians were so numerous that 
Weetamoo's armed men able to go out upon the war- 
path were supposed to number three hundred, and 
her lands at Pocasset were deemed to be of great 
value. She had, as before remarked, in her widow- 
hood become the wife of an Indian named Petonowo- 
wett, who could not by King Philip be induced to 
join with him in the war, but aided the English in 
that conflict. 

When Capt. Benjamin Church was on his way to Ply- 
mouth, carrying the message of Awashuncks, squaw- 
sachem of Seconet, passing through Pocasset, now 
Tiverton, he met Petonowowett, the husband of Wee- 
tamoo. who had just come to shore from Mount Hope, 
and unreservedly told Church that there certainly 
would be war, that King Philip had held a war-dance 
and entertained young Indian warriors from all parts 
of the country, and had promised them that they 
might on the next Sunday, when the English had 
gone to meeting, plunder their houses and kill their 
cattle. 

Petonowowett invited Church to visit his wife Wee- 
tamoo in their camp on a hill not far distant, and near 
what is now known as Howland Ferry bridge. 

Church accepted the invitation, and repaired to the 
Indian camp, where he found Weetamoo in a melan- 
choly mood, her warriors having left her and gone to 
Philip's war-dance, which act.of theirs, she declared, 
was much against her will. 

Circumstances are said to make men, and why may 
not circumstances control women ? Weetamoo evi- 
dently preferred peace, and could she have controlled 
her warriors, although she could not have had peace, 
she could, doubtless, by joining with the English, have 
saved herself and them from the almost total anni- 
hilation which now awaited them ; but, as a choice of 
evils, doubtless she accepted that she was least able 
to resist by joining herself and her fortunes with King 
Philip, although this act forever separated her from 
her husband, who adhered to 'and assisted the Eng- 
lish in the war just then commencing, and for his 
services therein was by his employers appointed to 
take charge of those Indians that after the war were 
permitted to reside between Sipecan and Dartmouth. 
And thus it was that in people's minds she came to be 
chargeable "next unto Philip in respect of the mis- 
chief done." 

After separating from Petonowowett Weetamoo be- 
came the wife of Quinapin, an Indian of the Narra- 
gansett tribe, second in command in the great swamp 
fight, in what is now Kingston, R. I., Dec. 19, 1675. 
Quinapin was captured in 1676, taken to Newport, 



INDIAN HISTORY. 



R. I., and shot, and Weetamoo, the wife, fled to the 
Niantic country, or what is now Westerly, R. I., 
where, being pursued, she returned to Mettapoisett, 
now Gardiner's Neck, in Swansea, where she was be- 
trayed by a deserter from her camp, and a force from 
Taunton was thus enabled to capture all her followers; 
but Weetamoo, with a resolution equal to the dis- 
tressing circumstances, attempted to escape upon a 
hastily-constructed raft of broken pieces of wood that 
perished or sunk under her, when, as the last des- 
perate resort, she doubtless attempted to swim, as her 
naked corpse drifted ashore, and was soon after found 
on the beach of Gardiner's Neck, in Swansea. 

That greatest and most bloody of New England 
conflicts, although waged in several different colo- 
nies, had its commencement and ending within the 
limits of what became Bristol County, Mass. 

On Sunday, the 20th of June, 1675, open hostilities 
were commenced by the Indians in the town of 
Swansea by plundering the houses of English inhab- 
itants while the latter were absent at meeting. On 
that day seven or eight of King Philip's Indians went 
to the house of an inhabitant of Swansea, whom they 
found at home, and requested the privilege to grind 
a hatchet, which was objected to on the part of the 
Englishman, who told the Indians that it was the 
Sabbath, and God would be very angry if he per- 
mitted them to grind the hatchet that day, to which 
they are said to have returned the answer that they 
knew not who his God was, and that they would 
grind the hatchet for all him or his God either. The 
same day these Indians meeting an Englishman upon 
the road told him to do no work on his God's day, 
and that he should tell no lies, and then suffered him 
quietly to pass on. 

Four days later, as the English were returning 
from religious worship, they were fired upon by the 
Indians, killing one and wounding two others, and 
two men sent for a surgeon were overtaken by the 
Indians and slain. Two men in another part of 
Swansea were that day slain by the Indians and 
scalped, and thus upon the 24th of June, 1675, were 
five of the English inhabitants of Swansea killed 
outright and two wounded, and an Englishman slain 
at what is now Falls River. The first succor that the 
English at Swansea received was from a company of 
seventeen mounted men from Bridgewater, who left 
their homes on the 21st of June and arrived at a 
fortified house at Mettapoisett, now Gardiner's Neck, 
in Swansea, the next day. 

These Bridgewater troops were quartered at the 
house of a man named Bourne, where were also col- 
lected seventy of the English people, viz., sixteen 
men and fifty-four women and children, whom they 
defended till reinforced, when the house was aban- 
doned, and the non-combatants for greater safety 
were transported to the island of Rhode Island. Great 
was the alarm throughout the several colonies, and 
on the 26th of June several companies of soldiers left 



Boston for the seat of war, where they arrived a little 
before night on the 28th. 

Plymouth Colony troops had been ordered to ren- 
dezvous at Taunton preparatory to uniting with those 
from Boston, where, although so far from the chief 
seat of war, they were severely harassed by the In- 
dians, and Lieut. John Freeman, in a letter dated at 
Taunton, said, "This morning three of our men are 
slain close by one of our courts of guard, houses are 
burned in our sight, our men are picked off at every 
bush. The design of the enemy is not to face the 
army, but to fall on us as they have advantage." 

Among the houses that Lieut. Freeman said were 
burned in their sight at Taunton was probably that 
of John Tisdale, that the Indians destroyed by fire 
June 27, 1675, also slaying Tisdale and taking his gun, 
that was retaken at Rehoboth, Aug. 1, 1675, being 
found with the body of an Indian there slain. 

The forces assembled at Swansea consisted of a com- 
pany of infantry under Capt. Daniel Henchman, and 
a company of hastily collected volunteers, one hun- 
dred and ten in number, under Capt. Samuel Moseley, 
and a company of mounted men under Capt. Thomas 
Prentice. These three companies being furnished by 
the colony of Massachusetts Bay, added to which was 
a company from Plymouth Colony under Capt. James 
Cudworth, of Scituate. 

The house of the Rev. John Myles, a Baptist clergy- 
man, that stood near a bridge in what is now called 
Barneyville, was so strengthened as to resist attack, 
and here the combined forces of Massachusetts and 
Plymouth Colonies were assembled and placed under 
the command of the ranking officer, Capt. James Cud- 
worth, who for the time being became commander- 
in-chief. 

Flushed with their successes thus far the Indians 
became encouraged, and seemed to lurk almost every- 
where, shooting at all passengers, and killing many 
who ventured abroad, venturing so near the gar- 
risoned house as to shoot down two of the sentinels,. 

A detachment of the cavalry of Capt. Prentice, 
under the command of Quartermasters Gill and 
Belcher, accompanied by Benjamin Church, was sent 
forward, but were no sooner over Myle's Bridge than 
fired upon from an ambuscade, when William Ham- 
mond the pilot, who was probably a resident of 
Swansea, was killed, Belcher's horse shot under him, 
and both himself and Mr. Gill wounded, which so 
surprised and terrified the troopers that they became 
panic-stricken, wheeled their horses, and fled in the 
utmost disorder, regardless alike of the threats and 
entreaties of their officers, and but for Gill and Church 
the dead body of Hammond would have been left in 
the possession of the enemy. 

June 29, 1675. The Indians appeared boldly in 
view, and by their shouts and yells seemed to chal- 
lenge the English to come out and fight. Capt. 
Moseley with his company rushed furiously upon 
them, when the Indians immediately fled to their 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



coverts, there making a momentary stand, where, 
being fired upon, they again fled. Capt. Moseley pur- 
sued about a mile, slaying five or six Indians and sus- 
taining no loss on his own part save the wounding of 
his ensign, Mr. Savage, who received a musket-ball 
in his thigh and a bullet passed through his hat, and 
even this, some authorities state, was by mistake, and 
that he was fired upon by one of his own company. 
Capt. Moseley pushed on, and at Keek-a-muit his sol- 
diers found the heads of eight Englishmen slain by 
the Indians set on poles. These heads they took down 
and buried. 

The English now traversed Mount Hope Neck, 
found King Philip's deserted wigwam, but himself 
and nearly all his followers had fled, and with their 
wives and children, bag and baggage, had gone, made 
a good and successful retreat, and taken all their 
canoes with them. 

King Philip had outwitted his pursuers, got off with 
little or no loss of his men, made a change of base, 
gained a more defensive position, and by going over 
to Pocasset, as he had done, was enabled to enforce 
the squaw-sachems Weetamoo and Awashuncks to 
join him with their warriors; in fact, he had out- 
flanked his foes and commenced to deal death and 
destruction to those who thought themselves safe in 
the rear of the English army, and the frontier town 
of Swansea was at that moment the safest locality in 
Plymouth Colony. 

Capt. Church very justly said, "The enemy were 
not really beaten out of Mount Hope Neck, though 
it was true they fled from thence, yet it was before 
any pursued them. It was only to strengthen them- 
selves and to gain a more advantageous post. How- 
ever, some and not a few pleased themselves with the 
fancy of a mighty conquest. A grand council was 
held and a resolve passed to build a fort there to main- 
tain the first ground they had gained by the Indians 
leaving it to them, and, to speak the truth, it must be 
said that as they gained not that field by their sword 
nor by their bow, so it was rather their fear than their 
courage that obliged them to set up the marks of their 
conquests." Church further said that he looked upon 
this act of remaining and building the fort and talked 
of it with contempt, and urged hard the pursuing of 
the enemy on the Pocasset side. 

Meanwhile there arrived from Boston at Swansea a 
reinforcement of one hundred and twenty men under 
Maj. Thomas Savage. 

June 30th, Capt. Prentice, with his troop, for more 
convenient quarters, went to lodge at Rehoboth, and 
as they Avere returning on the morning of July 1st 
came upon a company of Indians burning a house, 
but taking advantage of the fences, over which the 
horses could not go, the Indians escaped to a swamp. 
Capt. Prentice's lieutenant, Mr. Oaks, with a part of 
the troopers, discovered another body of Indians, that 
they pursued on an open plain, overtook, and slew 
four or five of them, one of whom was Peebe or Phebe, 



who was one of the counselors of King Philip. In 
this action John Druce, one of the troopers, received 
a wound in the bowels, of which he died. 

King Philip in the mean time was laying waste the 
English settlements in what afterwards became the 
towns of Little Compton, Tiverton, Dartmouth, Free- 
town, Fall River, New Bedford, Westport, Fairhaven, 
and Acushnet, and frightening the English inhabit- 
ants out of what is now Berkley and Middleborough. 

Benjamin Church finally succeeded in persuading 
the commander at Myles' garrison, in Swansea, to send 
under Capt. Fuller a company of thirty-six men to 
Pocasset, in hope to get an opportunity to treat with 
the Pocasset and Seconet Indians, which force soon 
after arriving divided, one part starting off under 
Capt. Fuller and the other under Church. 

Fuller encountered Indians, and two of his men 
were wounded, and all so hard pressed as to be obliged 
to seek shelter in a deserted house, from which they 
escaped to a vessel. 

Church and his party were also pursued, and driven 
on board Capt. Goulding's vessel, and thus barely 
escaped. This was on the 8th of July, 1675. The 
Indians were so well supplied with arms and ammuni- 
tion that they put many bullet-holes into the stern of 
Goulding's vessel and through his sails as he was taking 
off Church and his men. 

Soon after a detachment of soldiers was put on 
board a sloop and sent to the Quequechan (now Fall 
River), there disembarked and marched into Weeta- 
mo's country, overtook and killed one Indian and 
alarmed many more that succeeded in escaping to 
a swamp ; but as soon as the English were ordered 
back those who had been pursued in turn became 
pursuers, and chased the English back to the sloop 
and wounded two soldiers. They returned the next 
day to the camp in Swansea. 

July 18, 1675, an expedition was sent against Philip 
in his camp in a Pocasset swamp, now Tiverton. The 
English forces, arriving late in the afternoon, discov- 
ered a few Indians on the edge of the swamp, on 
whom they rushed with ardor, the Indians meanwhile 
gradually retreating, and thus drawing their pursuers 
into an ambuscade, by which, when fired upon, fif- 
teen of the English were shot down, and were soon 
ordered to fall back and give up the pursuit. One 
hundred wigwams, newly constructed of green bark, 
were found near the edge of the swamp. The loss in 
that fight sustained by the Indians was probably very 
small when compared with that of the white men, 
and the latter, instead of renewing the contest the 
next day, fortified themselves on the outskirts of the 
swamp, and there remained in the hope of starving 
the Indians into submission, and extorting from King 
Philip terms of capitulation, neither of which they 
were able to accomplish, as about the last of that 
month Philip and his followers one night suddenly 
decamped, and in canoes un pursued reached the other 
shore in safety en route for the Nipensic country, now 



INDIAN HISTORY. 



in the county of Worcester. King Philip, with his 
forces, would have got off not only unperceived but 
unharmed but for the Rev. Noah Newman, of Reho- 
both, who, as the Indians were passing through that 
town (Aug. 1, 1675), brought out the " home guards," 
who, with Oneko and some Mohegan and Natic 
Indians, did some spoil upon King Philip, slaying 
one of his chief men called Nimrod. Oneko was the 
son of Uncas, and had been to Boston, where he had 
engaged to fight for the English, and being with some 
Mohegan and Natic Indians en route for Swansea, 
happened to be in Rehoboth just as King Philip was 
passing through. 

On Sunday, March 26, 1676, was fought near 
Pawtucket, but within the original limits of Bristol 
County, a sanguinary battle between the English 
under Capt. Michael Peirce, of Scituate, and the 
Indians led by the chieftain Canonchet. Capt. 
Peirce and nearly all his command were slain, and the 
loss of the Indians even exceeded that of the English. 

Tuesday, March 28, 1676, the Indians burned at 
Rehoboth (afterward Seekonk), forty-five dwelling- 
houses, twenty-one barns, two grist-mills, and one 
saw-mill, and slew an Irishman named Robert Beers. 
King Philip is said to have been present at the burn- 
ing of Rehoboth, and the frame-work of an ancient 
chair is still preserved in which tradition saith he sat to 
witness the conflagration. 

April 9, 1676, Canonchet was captured in or near 
Pawtucket. 

April 27, 1676, Woodcock's fortified house; in what 
was then Rehoboth, now Attleborough, suffered an 
Indian attack ; Nathaniel Woodcock and another 
Englishman slain, John Woodcock wounded, and 
Nathaniel Woodcook's house burned. 

Some time in May, 1676, four Taunton men were 
slain by the Indians, viz., Sergt. James Philips, James 
Bell, Henry Andrews, and Edward Babbitt. Thus 
were left thirty-two fatherless children. 

May 24, 1676, Capt. Thomas Brattle, of Boston, 
with a company of about fifty mounted men, being 
joined by a body of infantry, marched to the Paw- 
tucket Falls, where, arriving on the easterly side of 
the river, the Indians were discovered on the opposite 
bank of the stream. 

Leaving the infantry at the falls, the cavalry pro- 
ceeded up the river to a fording-place, crossed over, 
proceeded down on the other side, making a sudden 
attack upon the Indians, killing several of them and 
capturing an Indian boy, taking two horses, several 
guns, and some ammunition. Lieut. Jacob Elliot, of 
the cavalry, was wounded in the hand, and one cav- 
alry soldier killed. 

The Indians first attempted to retreat through the 
river, but discovering the infantry upon the opposite 
side hastily turned about, retraced their steps to the 
shore, and took refuge in a swamp. 

June 19, 1676, Swansea was again attacked by the 
Indians, and nearly all the remaining houses burned. 



Some authorities say all save five were burned, and of 
these, four were garrisoned. 

June 26, 1676, the Indians captured Hezekiah Wil- 
lett in or near Swansea ; he was twenty-five years of 
age, and a son of Capt. Thomas Willett. The In- 
dians cut off the prisoner's ears and nose and then 
set him at liberty ; he probably soon after died, as 
some of the authorities state that he was slain by the 
Indians. 

A negro who was captured by the Indians at Swan- 
sea, and who is supposed to have been a slave of 
Capt. Thomas Willett, escaped, fled to Taunton, and 
informed the people that the Indians proposed at- 
tacking that place. Being warned, the Taunton 
people prepared themselves for the attack that was 
made on the 11th day of July, 1676, and in which two 
houses were fired by the Indians and one Englishman 
slain. 

Aug. 1, 1676, Wootonekanuse, the wife of King 
Philip, together with his son, aged about nine years, 
and several women and children, were taken captives 
by the English. 

At about this time a battle between the English and 
Indians came off in what is now the town of Norton, 
at a place called Lockety Neck, in which the Indians 
were defeated. 

Aug. 6, 1676, twenty Taunton men captured at 
Gardiner's Neck, in Swansea, the few remaining fol- 
lowers of Weetamoo, squaw-sachem of Seconet ; she 
sought to escape by attempting to cross Taunton 
River on a hastily-constructed raft, but was drowned, 
and her dead body being found on the shores in Swan- 
sea, her head was cut off and carried to Taunton. 

Saturday, Aug. 12, 1676, early in the morning King 
Philip was slain near Mount Hope, in Pokanoket, now 
the town of Bristol. 

Aug. 28, 1676, Philip's great captain, Anawan, who 
had in like capacity served his father, Massasoit, and 
at the death of Philip became chief sachem, or king 
of the Wampanoag tribe or nation, was captured by 
Capt. Benjamin Church at a place still known as Ana- 
wan's Rock, in the easterly part of the town of Reho- 
both, a few rods south of the turnpike road leading 
from Taunton to Providence, about eight miles from 
Taunton, and ten from Providence. 

This rock is upon the northerly border of a wooded 
country formerly known as Squanakonk Swamp, an 
area of nearly three thousand acres. 

Indian Reservations.— When what subsequently 
became Freetown was purchased of the Indians in 
1659, reservations were made for the Indians Tabada- 
cason and Pianto; the first for the benefit of those In- 
dians that maintained a ferry across Taunton River, 
which doubtless was to remain while the ferry was so 
kept, and the other for planting land, the Indian title 
to which should end at Pianto's death. That first 
reservation is thought to have been a point of land 
lying between Taunton River and Barnaby's Cove so 
called. 



8 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



Beside these reservations was another of nearly two 
hundred acres lying within what formerly was the 
township of Freetown, but now an easterly part of 
Fall River, at what is sometimes called Indian Town, 
and is still appropriated to the uses of that race, one 
lot having been assigned to and still possessed by Mrs. 
Zerviah Gould Mitchell, a lineal descendant in the 
seventh generation of the "good old Massasoit," king 
of the Wampanoags, and "Sassacus the Terrible," 
king of the Pequots. Mrs. Mitchell is descended 
from Massasoit through his daughter Amie and her 
husband Tuspaquin, known in history as the black 
sachem, chief of the Assawampsett and Nunasket 
Indians, who was slain by the English in or near 
September, 1676. Amie, the wife, was a sister of 
Wamsutta, alias Alexander, the successor of Massa- 
soit and Pometacom, alias King Philip, successor to 
Alexander and Sonkanuhoo, who is supposed to have 
been slain at the swamp fight in Pocasset, now Tiver- 
ton. 

July 18, 1675, Benjamin, a grandson of tbe black 
sachem Tuspaquin, married Mercy Felix, a grand- 
daughter of the educated Indian John Sassamon, 
whose wife was a daughter of Sassacus, and Benjamin 
and wife Mercy were the grandparents of Mrs. Zervia 
Gould Mitchell, who now has her home upon the In- 
dian reservation at Betty's Neck, so called, in Lake- 
ville. 



CHAPTER III. 



BENCH AND BAR.i 



Among the prominent agencies which give shape 
and order in the early development of the civil and 
social condition of society, the pulpit, press, and bar 
are perhaps the most potential in moulding the in- 
stitutions of a new community ; and where these are 
early planted, the school, academy, and college are 
not long in assuming their legitimate position, and 
the maintenance of these institutions secures at the 
start a social and moral foundation upon which we 
may safely rest the superstructure of the county, the 
State, and the nation. 

The establishment of courts and judicial tribunals, 
where society is protected in all its civil rights under 
the sanction of law, and wrong finds a ready redress 
in an enlightened and prompt administration of jus- 
tice, is the first necessity of every civilized community, 
and without which the forces and press of society, in 
its changeable developments, even under the teach- 
ings of the pulpit, the directions of the press, and 
the culture of the schools, are exposed to peril and 
disaster from the turbulence of passion and conflicts 



1 The editor acknowledges his indebteduess in the preparation of this 
chapter to Hon. W. W. Crapo, ex-Attorney-General Geo. Marstou, Hon. 
E. L. Barney, Thomas M. Stetson, Hon. Lincoln F. Brigham, Charles W. 
Clifford, Esq., and Rev. S. Hopkins Emery. 



of interest ; and hence the best and surest security 
that even the press, the school, or the pulpit can find 
for the peaceful performance of its highest functions 
is when protected by and intrenched behind the bul- 
warks of law, administered by a pure, independent, 
and uncorrupted judiciary. 

The Bristol County bar has from its beginning 
numbered among its members able jurists, tal- 
ented advocates, and safe counselors. Here many 
have lived, flourished, and died, while others still 
are upon the stage of action who have been promi- 
nent in the advancement of the interests of the 
county and figured conspicuously in the councils of 
the State. 

New Bedford. — One of the earliest members of the 
Bristol bar, and a leading lawyer of his day in the 
State, was Timothy Gardner Coffin, who was born in 
Nantucket in 1790 of humble Quaker parentage. He 
early developed a remarkable degree of intelligence, 
brightness, and activity of mind. He was educated 
at Brown University, studied law in the office of 
Kilburn Whitman in Plymouth County, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1811. He opened an office in 
New Bedford, and very quickly became a leading 
lawyer in the county of Bristol, and in the counties 
of Nantucket, Dukes, Barnstable, and Plymouth, and 
for more than forty years was engaged in almost every 
case of importance before the courts of these counties. 
His contemporaries were Marcus Morton, of Taun- 
ton, William Baylies, of Bridgewater, L. Eddy, of 
Middleborough, Charles Holmes, of Rochester, and 
N. Marston, of Barnstable, all of whom were eminent 
and skillful lawyers, and Mr. Coffin was an equal 
of either of them. He was very quick to observe 
the weakness of his opponent's cause and to present 
his client's best points. At times he was eloquent. 
He was a very sharp cross-examiner of witnesses, and 
few witnesses could evade his keenness. He was very 
ready at repartee, and quick to answer every inquiry 
of counsel or court, and his arguments were difficult 
to answer. 

He was married to Betsey, daughter of the Hon. 
John Avery Parker, of New Bedford, a leading mer- 
chant of that city, and at his death the richest man 
in New Bedford. 

Mr. Coffin never held office of any particular con- 
sequence, but confined his attention, time, and skill 
to his profession, and at his death, September, 1854, 
he was without question the ablest lawyer in South- 
ern Massachusetts. It is said that Daniel Webster, 
after a hard-fought case at Nantucket, in which Mr. 
Coffin was engaged against Mr. Webster, speaking 
afterwards about the case, and in answer to a ques- 
tion, " Who is Tim Coffin?" said, "He is the ablest 
lawyer in the United States. He is one I should 
prefer not to meet of all others I know of." 

It is said that he once, after a very able argument 
before the Supreme Court, in answer to the inquiry of 
the court (Chief Justice Shaw), "If he had any au- 



BENCH AND BAR. 



9 



thority to cite to the court to sustain his view and 
legal points?" replied, "No, your honor, that is for 
the court to be responsible for its decision. I should 
prefer not to." He was a very generous and liberal 
man, with a very kind heart. He was very strong in 
his likes and dislikes, so that he was a most ardent 
friend and a very disagreeable enemy. His body lies 
in the South Cemetery, New Bedford, and where a 
fine monument was erected to his memory by his 
children. 

John S. Russell was born in New Bedford in 
1797, and was the son of Charles Russell and Martha 
Tillinghast. He studied law in the office of Lemuel 
Williams, at New Bedford. After his admission to 
the bar he practiced law in Taunton. He afterwards 
moved to New Bedford, opened a law-office, and con- 
tinued in practice until his death in 1834. He was a 
well-read lawyer and well grounded in the principles 
of his profession. He was a Quaker. He acquired 
the reputation of being an honest lawyer ; by that I 
suppose he was slow to advise men to go to law, acting 
out his religious convictions as well as his profes- 
sional observation. To this day, nearly fifty years 
since his death, whenever spoken of he is mentioned 
as one that maintained the honor of his professional 
life. He died in 1834, much esteemed and regarded 
by his neighbors and fellow-townsmen. 

Lemuel Williams was a lawyer who practiced in 
New Bedford some fifty years ago. He was at that 
time one of the leaders of the bar. He was at one 
time collector of customs in New Bedford, but many 
years ago he removed from New Bedford to Worces- 
ter, and so much of his professional life was spent 
out of the county, we have not thought it proper to 
say more about him, as he more properly belongs to 
Worcester County than to Bristol. 

Charles H. Warren was also one of the early 
lawyers in New Bedford. He occupied a very hon- 
orable position, was an able advocate, was for several 
years district attorney before 1836, afterwards was 
made judge of the Court of Common Pleas, and was 
an upright and faithful judge. After he returned 
from the bench he was made president of the Boston 
and Providence Railroad, which office he held until 
his death. 

Ezra Bassett was born in Rochester, in the com- 
monwealth of Massachusetts. His parents were poor 
people. He studied law with his brother, Anslem 
Bassett, Esq., at Taunton, and commenced the prac- 
tice of the law in Taunton. He also for a short time 
had an office in Attleborough. In 1834 he came to 
New Bedford, and there remained, having a consider- 
able share of the law business until his death, in De- 
cember, 1843. He was a good lawyer, had consider- 
able admiralty practice, and was earnest, energetic, 
and faithful in his client's interest. He had a large 
and well-selected law library, perhaps the best law 
library at the time of any lawyer in New Bedford. 
He is frequently spoken of by the present members 



of the bar in the city of New Bedford with much 
respect. There is now only one member of the bar 
(Judge Prescott) at New Bedford who was practicing 
law at his death. 

Hon. H. G. 0. Colby 1 was the son of Rev. Philip 
and Harriet (Sewall) Colby, born 1807 in Hallowell, 
Me. His father was born in Sanbornton, N. H., July 
30, 1779, and he was the son of Isaac Colby, a farmer 
of great industry and strong mind, strict integrity, 
stern common sense. The maiden name of the wife 
of Isaac Colby was Phebe Hunt, daughter of Philip 
Hunt, of Newburyport, Mass., very domestic in her 
habits, and of a very tender, loving heart. They had 
nine children. In the year 1800, Philip, the father of 
Judge Colby, went to Portland, Me., as a merchant's 
clerk, and afterwards established himself in mercantile 
pursuits in Hallowell, Me., which he followed for eight 
years. Six of these years he had been married to his 
first wife,Miss Harriet Sewall, daughter of Mr. Thomas 
Sewall, of Vassalborough, Me. They were married 
the 28th of June, 1804. They had two children. 
On the 24th of October, 1810, the eldest, a lovely 
boy of five years, died. "A very remarkable boy," 
writes Miss Caroline, a daughter of Judge Colby ; 
" his name Hamilton Van Renssalaer." In February 
of the following year, the 28th, 1811, the mother also 
died. "A woman of very fine and most lovely char- 
acter," writes again Miss Caroline, adding, " these, 
the mother and the son, are buried side by side at 
Augusta, Me." 

This was the beginning of the Christian life of the 
father of Judge Colby. He joined himself to the 
church of Rev. Mr. Gillett, Hallowell, with his wife 
in her sick-room, and dedicated not only himself but 
his family to the Lord. He soon relinquished his 
secular business, and removing to Salem, Mass., spent 
nearly four years studying with Rev. Dr. Worcester, 
of the Tabernacle Church, and secretary of the Amer- 
ican Board of Missions. This course of study addi- 
tional to his academic course in Gilmanton, N. H., 
and supplemented by a large acquaintance with men 
and things in a long mercantile life, above all, aided 
and enforced by the teaching which comes from 
above, well furnished him for a successful and most 
useful pastorate with the church in North Middle- 
borough, Mass., continuing from the summer of 1817 
to the time of his death, Feb. 27, 1851, thirty-four 
years. 

Harrison Gray Otis Colby, the subject of our 
present notice, was the only surviving child of the 
first marriage of the minister. He gave promise 
even in his boyhood of future eminence. So schol- 
arly was he that his mother's brother, the eminent 
Dr. Sewall, of Washington, took charge of his educa- 
tion and saw him through college. 

After completing his study of law he was admitted 
to the Bristol County bar, taking up his residence in 



i By. Rev. S. Hopkins Emery, of Taunton. 



10 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



Taunton. Subsequently he removed to New Bedford, 
having married his wife there, a daughter of John 
Avery Parker, Esq. Mr. Colby easily took rank among 
the foremost of the lawyers of the commonwealth. It 
was no surprise when he was promoted from the bar 
to the bench. He was of a tall, commanding figure, 
resembling in this respect his father, and, like this 
father, he was dignified, courteous, " every inch a 
gentleman." 

His daughter Caroline, in 1876, writes : " My father 
died Feb. 22, 1853, and is buried in New Bedford. 
Four children, three daughters and a son, survived 
him, the latter being the youngest child, and now an 
officer in the United States navy. I have the honor 
and privilege of being the eldest of the family, and my 
mother has all her daughters with her, except the be- 
loved sister next to myself, who died ten years since, 
leaving a daughter, the only grandchild, as none of the 
others have ever married." 

I will add, the widow of Judge Colby became the 
wife of Rev. Dr. Lambert, a distinguished clergyman 
of the Protestant Episcopal Church in Charlestown, 
Mass. 

Thomas Dawes Eliot was born March 20, 1808, 
in Boston. His father, William Greenleaf Eliot, was 
of a Boston family, though a resident of Washington 
for the latter part of his life. His mother's family 
for many generations were also of Boston. He was 
named for his grandfather, Judge Thomas Dawes, of 
the Supreme Judicial Court, whose father was Col. 
Thomas Dawes, of the Boston Committee of Safety in 
the Revolutionary period. Mr. Eliot married in 
1834, Frances L. Brock, of Nantucket. His brother, 
Dr. William G. Eliot, is chancellor of the Washing- 
ton University, at St. Louis, and has been long known 
as a distinguished Unitarian clergyman in that city. 
His youngest brother, Capt. Frank A. Eliot, of Phila- 
delphia, was killed at the battle of Chancellorsville in 
1863. 

Mr. Eliot was graduated in 1825 from Columbia 
College, in the District of Columbia, and delivered 
the Latin salutatory address. He soon after com- 
menced his law studies with his uncle, Chief Justice 
Cranch, of the Circuit Court of the district, and de- 
voted himself to a profession which never lost its 
charms to him. About 1830 he went to New Bed- 
ford, completed his studies with Judge Charles H. 
Warren, then in full practice, and upon his admission 
to the bar was invited to a partnership by Mr. War- 
ren. Alter Mr. Warren went upon the bench, Mr. 
Eliot's practice became very large, comprising com- 
mon law causes in Bristol, Plymouth, Barnstable, 
and the island counties, also an extensive equity busi- 
ness, and employment in admiralty causes, then be- 
coming very numerous in Southern Massachusetts. 
He was for about thirty years a regular attendant at 
all the jury terms in this part of the State, and in ad- 
dition to his business as senior counsel, kept up his 
own office business in all branches except criminal 



practice. He was a thorough legal scholar as well as 
practitioner, master both of the great principles of 
the law and of its development by the decisions of the 
court, fully equipped and ready in the varying as- 
pects of a trial by jury, and also in the statelier and 
more scientific debates in banc. 

Among the causes which attracted public attention 
in which he was engaged we note the great litigation 
between the two divisions of the denomination of 
Friends, where the title to the Quaker meeting-houses 
in Massachusetts and Rhode Island was at risk, and 
in which the usages and faiths of the respective sects 
underwent legal investigation ; also the contests in 
this county, where he maintained the chartered powers 
of the Massachusetts Medical Society on issues raised 
by physicians of the homoeopathic school. We note 
also a private suit, but which from its novelty and 
magnitude drew general professional and public at- 
tention, as the result depended upon the execution, 
force, and effect of mutual wills. This was the suit 
of Hetty H. Robinson vs. Thomas Mundell, involving 
an estate of three millions. The subject of marine 
insurance was of great and growing importance 
during his practice. The whaling fleet of New Bed- 
ford alone contained about four hundred vessels, and 
we find his name in the reports of nearly all the 
causes which grew out of the losses of this great 
fleet, and the curious peculiarities of whaling-ships 
and whaling. His tastes were so professional that he 
twice declined an appointment to the bench. He 
had no desire for office-holding as such, and after 
serving in the Massachusetts House of Representa- 
tives and Senate, as the young lawyers were expected 
to do, kept aloof from political action for many years, 
devoting himself to practice in the courts, where his 
reputation for skill, force, and honorable methods 
was an enviable one. He was of great industry, 
close application, and conscientious fidelity to his 
clients, and never lost their confidence. 

In 1854 he was invited by the Whigs of the First 
Congressional District to become their candidate for 
Congress for an unfinished term. His election fol- 
lowed, and he took his seat in the Thirty-third Con- 
gress, in the midst of the intense excitement attendant 
upon the introduction of the Kansas-Nebraska bill, 
took part in the debate, and his printed speech was 
circulated by the Whig party to prove its concurrence 
with the growing anti-slavery sentiment of the State. 
The next year the Whig party went down before the 
Native American organization. Its State ticket and 
all its members of Congress were defeated, and the 
party never again appeared in political action. 

The slavery issues were now engaging political 
attention. The "Conscience Whigs," so called in 
Massachusetts, deemed their old party useless for the 
situation, and sought, with the aid of the Free-Soil 
organization and practical anti-slavery men of all 
schools, to organize anew. The result was the Re- 
publican party. Mr. Eliot was greatly interested in 




- 








^ 



BENCH AND BAR. 



11 



its formation. He organized the first meeting of the 
new party in this county. He was unanimously 
nominated as its candidate for attorney-general of 
the commonwealth, but declined the nomination, and 
later presided at its State Convention. After he had 
been absent from Congress for two congressional 
terms, the First District again elected him by an 
immense majority. From this re-election he con- 
tinued in Congress without opposition till his refusal 
of further service in 1869. He was early identified 
in Congress with the anti-slavery spirit of the North. 
In 1854 he made the first effort for repeal of the 
Fugitive Slave Law by offering a bill for that pur- 
pose. In the session of 1861-62 he urged the adop- 
tion of views by the government that should enforce 
its loftiest authority, and his speeches and debates 
show how little he regarded all forms and traditions 
which stood in the way of the safety of the people, 
which is the suprema lex. He insisted that the pro- 
tection of the endangered national life justified the 
strongest measures. He ridiculed the idea of war 
upon peace principles, and the notion then prevalent 
of protecting rebels in their slave property when those 
slaves were wanted for the national defense. In this 
session he introduced a resolution declaring the right 
and duty of military commauders to emancipate the 
slaves of rebels, and supported it by a speech. In 
1862, as chairman of the Select Committee on Con- 
fiscation, he reported two bills, one for the confiscation 
of rebel property and one for the emancipation of 
slaves of rebels. The former was passed, but the 
latter passed the House only. In 1864 he was chair- 
man of the Committee on Emancipation, and reported 
and advocated the bill establishing a Bureau of Freed- 
men's Affairs, which became a law. It was in the 
conception, formation, and passage of this bill, and 
in his watchful care of the interests of the bureau 
when organized, that he performed a service which 
places his name not only among far-seeing statesmen, 
but among the wisest and best philanthropists. It is 
one of the enduring honors of the nation's statute- 
book, a high-water mark of the humanities of civil- 
ized legislation. It was vetoed by President Johnson, 
and was only carried over his veto by the unflagging 
zeal and devotion of Mr. Eliot. 

He was the author of the Coolie Bill, and its pas- 
sage was due to his efforts. The system of importa- 
tion of Chinese coolies bound by labor contracts was 
leading to a system hardly less abominable and degrad- 
ing than actual slavery. Under his lead the Thirty- 
seventh Congress enacted a stringent law prohibiting 
American vessels from engaging in this trade, a result 
deemed by the anti-slavery sentiment of England and 
America as second only to the abolition of the African 
slave trade. 

At the end of the war Mr. Eliot desired to leave j 
Congress, but the urgent call of the district prevented, | 
and he remained in failing health till 1869, and then 
absolutely declined a renomination after a service of 



eleven years. He then hoped to resume practice at 
the bar, but increasing illness prevented. His death 
occurred June 14, 1870. 

Eminent as he was in forensic and parliamentary 
debate, he was not less so in conscientious fidelity to 
duty, for unselfish patriotism and his noble advocacy 
of human rights. He had the well-won esteem of 
the bar and bench. In public life, too, he was com- 
pletely trusted by his associates and respected by his 
political opponents. His position was never doubtful ; 
he felt it the duty of statesmen to try to lead the people 
where they should go, and was willing to take the risks 
of such a course. An anecdote may be in place here 
showing how the astute head and kindly heart of 
President Lincoln recognized the same qualities in 
Mr. Eliot. 

A citizen of Massachusetts of good character was 
indicted for embezzlement from a post-office. The 
trial was a difficult one upon evidence mainly cir- 
cumstantial, and the result a conviction and heavy 
sentence. 

An application for pardon was made to the Presi- 
dent by the neighbors of the defendant, who had long 
known him and could not believe him guilty. 

Mr. Lincoln referred the topic to the Law Depart- 
ment, and this led to an adverse and positive report 
from the United States attorney who had tried the 
case. Mr. Lincoln was not satisfied. He had ac- 
quired doubts of the propriety of the conviction, 
partly from his own examination of the case and 
partly from the zeal of the prosecuting officer, which 
he said was praiseworthy but might be too partisan. 
At last he wrote upon the papers " referred to Hon. 
T. D. Eliot. — Abraham Lincoln." Mr. Eliot made a 
careful investigation, was convinced that the verdict 
was wrong, and so reported to the President. 

A pardon followed with a promptness that sur- 
prised and rather provoked the prosecuting officers. 
When Mr. Eliot next met Mr. Lincoln the latter ad- 
vanced with both hands extended and face full of sat- 
isfaction, " Well, Eliot," said he, "we've got our man 
clear." 

We close this sketch of Mr. Eliot by an extract from 
the New Bedford Mercury, written at the time of his 
death : 

" Mr. Eliot was pure-minded, kind-hearted, of ster- 
ling integrity, and of a most catholic spirit. In our 
unreserved intercourse with him, we can recall no 
instance in which he indulged in any unkind, un- 
charitable, or disparaging remarks about even those 
who had maligned him. He spoke no ill of his 
neighbor, but evinced a spirit of charity as beautiful 
as it is rare. 

" He was a deeply religious man, always ready with 
good words, and as ready with good works. Of his 
labors in the Sunday-school of the Unitarian Church, 
where for years he was superintendent, many of our 
readers have grateful recollections. His heart was in 
the work, and he deeply regretted the necessity of its 



12 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



relinquishment. Thousands will call to mind his in- 
valuable services as president of the National Con- 
ference of Unitarian Churches and also of the Amer- 
ican Unitarian Association, his admirable tact in the 
chair, his hearty zeal and enthusiasm, and his earnest 
and successful exertions for fraternal union. He was 
a generous man, prompt to give to every good object, 
and foremost in his contributions of money or of labor 
to sustain all benevolent enterprises. Better than any 
triumph at the bar or the highest honors won in po- 
litical life is the simple record of his unselfish 
Christian life. He rests from his labors, and his 
works do follow him." 

John Ham Williams Page 1 was born at Gilman- 
ton, N. H., and was graduated at Harvard College in 
the class of 1826. In September of that year he took 
charge of Friends' Academy at New Bedford, where 
he continued until the spring of 1829, when impaired 
health compelled him to resign that position. After 
a brief season of rest he commenced the study of the 
law, and was for a time at the Dane Law School in 
Cambridge. He was admitted to the bar in June, 
1832, and at once opened an office at New Bedford, 
where he soon acquired a remunerative practice. His 
vigorous mind and capacity and method of applica- 
tion had mastered the principles of legal science, and 
his quickness of apprehension and practical industry 
soon made him familiar with the details of business. 
His vigor, earnestness, and evident ability attracted 
and retained clients, who never had occasion to regret 
their selection of counsel. If he excelled in any one 
branch of professional service more than another it 
was in the application of the law to the affairs of active 
business. He had grown into ripeness of experience 
and preparation when the disturbed condition of prac- 
tical affairs, before and in the year 1837, before there 
was any insolvent law or bankrupt law, furnished 
abundant occupation for bright, energetic, and capa- 
ble lawyers. Mr. Page had at this time a large client- 
age, and no one was more faithful and indefatigable 
than he was in his employment. He maintained a 
leading position at the bar of Bristol County, prac- 
ticing also in the counties of Plymouth, Barnstable, 
Nantucket, and Dukes County, until he removed to 
Boston to assume the duties of treasurer of the Law- 
rence machine-shop, a large manufacturing establish- 
ment, in which place he continued for many years. 

Before this he was a member of the House of Rep- 
resentatives, and was chairman of the Railroad Com- 
mittee. During his service there a charter was 
granted for a railroad from Middleborough to Sand- 
wich, as the Cape Cod Branch Railroad, in which Mr. 
Page took a strong interest, and a few years later he 
was chosen president of that railroad corporation, and 
remained as such until his death. He supervised the 
financial affairs of the railroad company daring the 
extension of the road from Sandwich to Hyannis, 



and assisted largely to maintain its credit and make 
it finally successful. He was vigilant to understand 
all the details of the affairs of the company, and was 
thoroughly informed in railroad management. 

He took a deep and practical interest in agriculture, 
and was for a number of years the president of the 
Bristol County Agricultural Society, which was never 
more successful than while under his efficient manage- 
ment. 

While Mr. Page showed great capability in all the 
various matters with which he was concerned, in none 
was he more conspicuous than as a lawyer. It was an 
evident mistake that he left a profession the duties of 
which he was so well suited to fill and adorn to enter 
quite late in life upon the more uncertain field of 
business, and in which he was not wholly successful. 
Mr. Page was an excellent scholar as well as lawyer, 
and his social qualities endeared him closely to those 
who knew him best and understood him best. 

John Henry Clifford, 2 the sixth of thirteen 
children of Benjamin and Achsah (Wade) Clifford, 
was born in Providence, R. I., on the 16th of January, 
1809, and graduated at Brown University in 1827. 
He was admitted to the bar of Bristol County in 
1830, after completing his course in the study of law, 
under the direction of Hon. Timothy G. Coffin, at 
New Bedford, and of Hon. Theron Metcalf, after- 
wards one of the judges of the Supreme Judicial 
Court of Massachusetts at Dedham, Norfolk Co., 
Mass. On the 16th of January, 1832, he married 
Sarah Parker Allen, daughter of William Harland 
and Ruth (Parker) Allen, the latter a daughter of 
Hon. John Avery and Averie (Standish) Parker, who 
was a descendant in the sixth generation from Capt. 
Miles Standish. 

He practiced law in New Bedlord from the time of 
his admission to the bar to the day of his death, at 
first, for a brief period, as the partner of Hon. Timo- 
thy G. Coffin, subsequently, for nearly ten years, as 
the partner of Harrison G. O. Colby, Esq., his class- 
mate in college. From 1845 to 1853 his student of 
law, Lincoln F. Brigham, now chief justice of the 
Superior Court of Massachusetts, was his junior 
partner, and after 1853 he had no partner in the 
practice of law. 

His first appearance in public life was in 1835, 
when he was a representative of New Bedford in the 
Legislature of Massachusetts. It was the year of the 
revision of the statutes of the commonwealth, and he 
did good and faithful service on the large committee 
which had that subject in charge. In 1836 he be- 
came one of the aides-de-camp of Governor Everett, 
and retained that position until, by a single vote out 
of a hundred thousand votes, Mr. Everett's chief 
magistracy was brought to a close in 1840. 

Before Mr. Everett went out of office, however, 
in 1839, he had conferred upon Col. Clifford, in 



1 By Hon. George Mar-ton. 



- By Hun. L. F. Brighiini. 




E * - '-by 



JmtcJ/r(7c$, 




BENCH AND BAR. 



13 



whom he had the highest confidence, the appoint- 
ment of district attorney for the Southern District of 
Massachusetts, an office in which he served the com- 
monwealth assiduously and successfully for nearly 
ten years. 

Meantime, in 1845, the county of Bristol had 
elected him a member of the Senate of Massa- 
chusetts, where he gave renewed evidence of his 
ability and accomplishments as a debater and a legis- 
lator. 

In 18-19 he entered upon the duties of an office 
which was to be the field of his longest and most 
distinguished public service. In that year he re- 
ceived from Governor Briggs the appointment of 
attorney-general of the State. 

Early in the following year it fell to his lot to con- 
duct a memorable trial, with which his name will be 
always most prominently and honorably associated. 
No trial in the history of our country for many gen- 
erations, if ever, has excited a deeper interest or 
challenged a more anxious and critical attention than 
that of Professor John W. Webster for the murder 
of Dr. George Park man. 

In Blackwood's Magazine for June, 1850, in an 
article on " Modern State Trials," being one of a 
series of articles from the pen of the eminent bar- 
rister, Samuel Warren, the author of " Diary of a 
Physician" and of " Ten Thousand a Year," occurs 
the following passage: 

" It was our intention to have included in this 
paper a sketch of a great American trial for murder, 
that of the late Professor Webster for the murder 
of Dr. Parkman, a fearful occurrence, a black and 
dismal tragedy from beginning to end, exhibiting 
most remarkable indications, as it appears to us, of 
the overruling Providence which sometimes sees fit 
to allow its agency in human affairs to become visible 
to us. All we shall at present say on the subject is 
that the reply of Mr. Clifford for the prosecution 
cannot be excelled in close and conclusive reasoning, 
conveyed in language equally elegant and forcible. 
Its effect, as a demonstration of the guilt of the ac- 
cused, is fearful." 

In the autumn of 1852 a convention of the Whig 
party of Massachusetts nominated Attorney-General 
Clifford for Governor of the State. He accepted the 
nomination with reluctance, and although he re- 
ceived nearly twenty-five thousand votes more than 
either of the opposing candidates, he was not elected 
by the people. On the meeting of the Legislature, 
however, he was chosen by the votes of the two 
branches, and was inaugurated as Governor of Mas- 
sachusetts on the 14th of January, 1853. 

In his inaugural address he used the following 
characteristic words : 

"The law is our only sovereign. The loyalty which in other coun- 
tries is rendered to the mere accident of birth is here due to that invisible 
but omnipresent power which we have voluntarily enthroned and 
established for our protection and guidance under the majestic name 
of Law."' 



Governor Clifford discharged the duties of the 
chief magistracy with great fidelity and dignity, and 
it was only for him to say whether he should remain 
in the office for a second year. But his interest in his 
profession determined him to decline a renomination, 
and on the election of Governor Emory Washburn 
as his successor he was at once called on by him to 
resume his place as attorney-general of the common- 
wealth. He continued to hold that office — by execu- 
tive appointment for one year, by legislative election 
for another, and again for a third by the choice of the 
people of the State — until 1858. He had thus served 
the commonwealth as its highest law-officer for a full 
term of seven years in all, and in that capacity had 
certainly rendered his best public service and acquired 
his greatest public distinction. 

In retiring finally from his position he did not 
abandon his professional labors, but was frequently 
to be found in the highest courts of the common- 
wealth and of the nation in the argument of impor- 
tant cases. During the terrible civil war which soon 
afterwards afflicted the country he omitted no efforts 
in his power to sustain the cause of the Union accord- 
ing to the convictions of his own conscience. More 
than once he was summoned to Washington to hold 
council with cabinet officers in regard to measures in 
contemplation. At home, too, he spared neither time 
nor money in encouraging the soldiers who went out 
from his own city or county. In 18G2 he accepted an 
election to the State Senate, and was at once chosen 
president of that body, in that capacity rendering 
conspicuous service to the commonwealth at the most 
critical period of the war. In 1868 he was one of the 
electors at large, and united in giving the vote of 
Massachusetts to President Grant. 

In the previous year, however, 1867, he had en- 
tered upon a line of life which was finally to separate 
him from further professional or political service, and 
to confine him to the routine of practical business. 
Assuming the charge of the Boston and Providence 
Railroad corporation as its president, he devoted 
himself to its affairs with all his accustomed earnest- 
ness and energy. 

He was a member of the American Academy of 
Arts and Sciences. He was also a member of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society. But he rendered 
larger services to Harvard University at Cambridge, 
of which he was for many years one of the overseers 
and repeatedly the president of the board, in which 
capacity it became his duty to officiate at the induc- 
tion iu 1853 of the late Rev. Dr. Walker, and in 1869 
of Charles W. Eliot, Esq., as presidents of the uni- 
versity. He received the degree of LL.D. from 
Brown University and also from Harvard University. 

Governor Clifford was also one of the original board 
of trustees of the great education fund established 
by the munificence of George Peabody, his personal 
friend, for the impoverished and desolated States of 
the South. No one was more faithful to that noble 



14 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



trust, and no one will be more affectionately and 
gratefully remembered by all who were associated 
with him in its labors and responsibilities. 

In the spring of 1873 he was compelled to abandon 
all occupation and fly to the salubrious airs of Florida. 
In the spring of 1875 a visit to Europe was recom- 
mended to him, and he sailed for Liverpool on the 
24th of April of that year. 

Before Governor Clifford embarked for Europe he 
had declined appointments as United States Minister 
both to Russia and to Turkey, which had been suc- 
cessively offered to him by the administration at 
Washington. He had, however, previously accepted 
an appointment as United States Commissioner on 
the Fisheries under the arbitration treaty with Great 
Britain, and had always contemplated fulfilling that 
appointment. 

But his work was ended, public and private. In- 
deed, he had hardly reached his home in New Bed- 
ford, after a brief stay in Boston, where he arrived, 
and was but just beginning to receive from his old 
friends and neighbors the tokens of welcome which 
had awaited him, when a disease of the heart, which 
had given mysterious indications in former years, 
was now unmistakably manifested. A very few weeks 
sufficed to bring it to a crisis, and on the morning of 
the 2d of January, 1876, he died at New Bedford, in 
the house in which he had enjoyed for more than 
forty years the rarest domestic felicity, although from 
it again and again beloved children, in the most en- 
dearing stages of their lives, had been taken by the 
angel of death. His wife, two daughters, and three 
sons _Charles Warren Clifford, Walter Clifford, both 
members of the bar of Bristol County, and Dr. 
Arthur Clifford, since deceased — survived him. 

The following tribute to Governor Clifford was of- 
fered by a distinguished statesman of Virginia (the 
Hon. Alexander H. H. Stuart) when his death was 
announced at the annual meeting of the Peabody 
trustees at the White Sulphur Springs, in Virginia, 
in August, 1876 : 

"There was a quiet dignity and grace in every 
movement, and his countenance beamed with intelli- 
gence and benignity. To a mind of great power he 
united a heart which throbbed with generous im- 
pulses, and a happy facility of expression which gave 
a peculiar charm to his conversation. There was a 
frankness in his bearing and a genial urbanity about 
him which at ouce commended confidence and in- 
spired good will. Every one who approached him 
felt attracted by a species of personal magnetism 
which was irresistible." 

This biography of John Henry Clifford would be 
inadequate as a testimonial of his life and career if 
it did not include a statement of the following public 
demonstrations in memory of him which upon his 
death emanated from the political, charitable, literary, 
commercial, and professional institutions in which he 
had exercised conspicuous and beneficent functions : 



Telegram from the State Department of the United States: 

" Washington, Jan. 3, 1876. 
" The announcement of the death of your most excellent father is re- 
ceived with the deepest regret. The country loses a good and pure man. 
The President tenders his sincere condolence. Be assured of my sym- 
pathy and sorrow. 

" Hamilton Fish, Secretary of Stale. 
"Charles W. Clifford, Esq., New Bedford." 

Extract from Governor Rice's Inaugural Message to the Legislature of Mas- 
sachusetts, Jan. 6, 1876. 

" Nor can you or I forget that even now the earth is receiving to its 
bosom the remains of a past chief magistrate of the commonwealth, 
who embodied in his character and exemplified in his life all that we 
recognize as highest and noblest in the name of Christian and scholar, 
statesman, gentleman, and friend." 

"In Senate of Massachusetts, Jan. 11, 1$>76. 

"The committee on the death of ex-Governor Clifford, to whom was 
referred the communication of His Excellency the Governor, report the 
accompanying resolutions: 

" ' Resolved, That in the death of John Henry Clifford, ex-Governor of 
Massachusetts, the commonwealth has lostone of its most useful, accom- 
plished, and distinguished citizens. Whether his varied and well-trained 
powers were exerted in the cause of education or in the execution of 
the laws, or exercised in debate in either branch of the Legislature of 
this State, or tested in the responsible executive duties devolving upon 
him as the chief magistrate of this commonwealth, in all the positions 
of public trust he so worthily filled he illustrated the ardor of his pa- 
triotism, the vigor of his intellectual powers, and added to the fame of 
the State which now mourns his death and honors his memory. 

"'Resolved, That his private, no less thau his public, life bore testi- 
mony to the wisdom, strength, beauty, ami grace of his personal charac- 
ter; dignified without austerity, firm and decided in his convictions, yet 
courteous and deferential to those of his associates, with a power to 
apply his varied attainments to the practical affairs of business life, he 
added to the prosperity and happiness of his fellow-citizens by his ser- 
vices and counsel, and thus exemplified the peculiar republican sim- 
plicity of our systems of government, which recognize all public posi- 
tions as temporary trusts, conferring honor only upon those who by 
wise and pure administration prove themselves worthy the no less 
honorable duties of private life.' 

" In Senate, Jan. 11, 1S76. 

" Adopted. Sent down for concurrence. 

"S. N. Giffokd, Clerk. 



"Concurred. 



" House of Representatives, Jan. 11, 1876. 
" George A. Makden, Clerk." 



Tribide of the Trustees of the Peabody Education Fund. 

"Annual Meeting, 
" White Sulphur Springs, Aug. 5, 1876. 

"The following resolutions, proposed by Hon. A. H. H. Stuart, of 
Virginia, and seconded by Gen. Richard Taylor, of Louisiana, were 
unanimously adopted: 

" ' Resolved, That we have heard with profound sorrow of the death, 
since our last annual meeting, of Hon. John II. Clifford, one of our 
original trustees, appointed by Mr. George Peabody to superintend the 
administration of his munificent donations to the cause of education in 
the Southern States. We feel that in the death of Governor Clifford we 
have lost the services and co-operation of one of the most useful, zeal- 
ous, and efficient members of our body, and that we have been deprived 
of the society of a gentleman whose eminent talents, liberal attainments, 
dignified and affable manners, and genial temper were sources of con- 
stant pleasure to all who had the good fortune to be thrown into inti- 
mate association with him. As legislator, attorney-general, and Gov- 
ernor of Massachusetts, he gave abundant evidence of his wisdom, legal 
and administrative ability, and enlightened patriotism. As a sagacious, 
energetic, and public-spirited citizen, he contributed largely to the de- 
velopment of the material interests of his native State. And in his 
private life there was a continual exhibition of those manly virtues and 
attractive graces which dignify and adorn the character of the Christian 
gentleman. 

" 'His seat at our board has been left vacant. The places that have 
known him will know him no more. He has gone to enjoy the reward 
of a well-spent life. All that is left to us is the memory of his talents, 
his eminent public services, and his many virtues. 



BENCH AND BAR. 



15 



" ' We bow with humble resignation to the will of Him in whose bauds 
are the issues of life and death, and with sorrowful hearts we now de- 
sire to inscribe on our records this imperfect tribute of reverence and 
affection for the memory of our deceased associate and friend.' 

"George Pf.aboi>y Russell, Secretary." 

" Tribute of the Overse(rs of Harvard University, Jan. 26, 1876. 

"In the death of our late associate, John H. Clifford, we recognize the 
interruption of an honorable, useful, and happy life. Born in another 
Stale, he attained the highest official station in our commonwealth; 
educated in another university, he presided for many years over the 
Overseers of Harvard ; trained to the law, he reached its high honors a 
quarter of a century before he retired from practice to gain equal pre- 
cedence in another field of labor; trusted with high public offices, he 
held in private social station an equal rank ; and whether in public or 
in private, he held no place which he did not adequately fill. Adminis- 
tering the affairs of the commonwealth or the business of his corpora- 
tion, he was wise in counsel, conservative in action, skillful in dealing 
with men. Presiding in the Senate or in this board, we well know his 
tact, his courtesy, his impartiality. In his profession, to the strength of 
a sound mind' in a sound body he did not disdain to add the grace of 
clear expression and of silver speech. As attorney-general, he gave a 
dignity to the office of public prosecutor, which in his hands partook of 
the nature of judicial service. In private life, welcome at every board, 
he welcomed bis friends to bis own with a broad, free hospitality. Suc- 
cess waited upon desert throughout his life. As a public man, no malice 
assailed, no envy touched him. In his profession, the successful prose- 
cution of a great criminal in a cause ctJUbre gave him a name at home 
and abroad. In his later business career, he left the corporation which 
he had in charge at the head of its kind in prosperity, and gave to our 
city an ornament which may stand as a monument alike of his good 
taste and his good judgment. His grace of manner, the expression of a 
kind and genial nature, attracted hosts of friends, whom bis real worth 
retained ; and in the sacred circle of home love was given and returned 
without stint or limit. He carried into public and business life the high 
sense of honor which is too often left at the home threshold ; and the 
State-House, the court-house, and the railroad felt its presence and its in- 
fluence. 

"Society has lost in him a noble gentleman, the State a useful citizen, 
this board an honored member, and many of us a dear friend." 

Tribute of the Boston and Providence Railroad Corporation. 

" At a meeting of the directors of the Boston and Providence Railroad 
corporation, railed for Wednesday, Jan. 12, 1S76, owing to the death of 
the Hon. John Henry Clifford, the late president of the company, which 
occurred suddenly at his home in New Bedford, on Sunday morning, Jan- 
uary 2d, in the sixty-seventh year of his age, the following resolutions 
wen- adopted and ordered to be entered upon the records. The acting- 
president was requested to send a copy to Mr. Clifford's family : 

"In the death of their president, his associate directors recognize the 
loss to the community — in which he had held so prominent and honor- 
able a position during a peculiarly active and useful life — of a distin- 
guished chief magistrate, of a pure, able, and eloquent public servant 
in the Senate and the forum, of a valued citizen, and of a most genial, 
cultivated, and courteous gentleman. 

" His presence will be missed from the academic exercises and advising 
council of our neighboring university, of which he was an adopted and 
favorite son, and whose honors he so greatly valued ; from the list of the 
loyal living suns of his own cherished Alma Mater, and from the board 
of trustees who were charged with the liberal educational bequest of 
the late George Peabody. 

" The grief of the house of mourning for its beloved head is known 
but too well. 

"The general government, whose proffers of diplomatic life he felt 
obliged to decline, the commonwealth and the bar, with many learned 
bodies of which he was a member, have already offered their tributes 
to the memory of Mr. Clifford ; but, as intimately associated with him 
in his official position as president of this corporation, we wish to make 
some simple record of the attachment and bereavement of every person 
connected with it. 

" And it is therefore 

"Resolved, That by the death of President Clifford the stockholders 
of the Boston and Providence Railroad corporation have lost the services 
of one who gave of the best years of his life to their interests, and 
during whose administration, marked as it was by enterprise, discretion, 
and a conservative liberality, the prosperity of the road was so con- 
spicuous." . . . 



Tribute of the Bar of the County of Bristol, Massachusetts. 

" New Bedfobd, Jan. 6, 1876. 

"Hon. George Marston, district attorney, presented to the court the 
following resolutions of the Bristol County bar: 

" ' Upon the decease of the Hon. John Henry Clifford, it is by the bar 
of Bristol County 

'" Resolved, That while we are saddened by the affliction which has 
removed from our sight our most eminent brother and leader, our recol- 
lection of his professional career affords the highest satisfaction. His 
love of the law, as the chosen pursuit of his life, was sincere, ardent, con- 
trolling, and unabated. His ability was unquestioned in every depart- 
ment of his profession. His learning was ample and his skill adequate 
to every exigency. The tone of his practice, whether in consultation or 
in his addresses to the jury or to the court, was always in accord with 
the purest ethics. His fidelity to his client and his cause was only 
equaled by his fidelity to the best standards of honor and duty. As the 
law officer of the commonwealth, he added dignity to the office and dis- 
tinction to the State. The fame which he attained as a lawyer was illus- 
trated by the noblest qualities of personal character.'" 

The foregoing biography has been composed mostly 
by adopting, in substance and in words, parts of a 
memoir prepared— agreeably to a resolution of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society — by Hon. Robert C. 
Winthrop, who became, in 1836, one of the aides-de- 
camp of Governor Edward Everett, and then formed 
with Col. Clifford ties which for more than forty 
years were maintained by constant correspondence 
and familiar friendship. The composer of this biog- 
raphy is one who regrets that the necessary limita- 
tions of his work do not permit him to do justice to 
the charming and endearing personality of John 
Henry Clifford, and to an experience of his abundant 
and delicate kindness of heart during more than thirty 
years of intimate professional and affectionate social 
intercourse with him. 

Joseph Ricketson Williams, son of Richard and 
Rebecca (Smith) Williams, of New Bedford, Mass., 
was born on the 14th of November, 1808, and was a 
lineal descendant of Edward Winslow, the Puritan. 
Under the instruction of Luther B. Lincoln he was 
fitted for Harvard at the Sandwich Academy. He 
gained a high rank of scholarship, and graduated with 
distinguished honors at Cambridge in 1831. He then 
entered the law-office of Hon. John Davis in Worces- 
ter, with whom he completed his studies for the prac- 
tice of law. After his admittance to the bar, he was 
offered a partnership with Hon. John H. Clifford, of 
New Bedford, which his uncertain state of health 
induced him to decline, and he relinquished his pro- 
fession, and in 1835 he accepted the agency of an 
extensive New England company for investments in 
Western lands, and went to Toledo, Ohio. There he 
built the American Hotel, and, with Mr. Pierre M. 
Irving, laid the foundation of the Toledo Blade, and 
gave it its significant name. In 1839 he took up val- 
uable lands on St. Joseph's River in Michigan, and 
built a fine flouring mill, which after a profitable 
business of several years was destroyed by fire. 

From 1837 to 1853, Mr. Williams was largely iden- 
tified with the political interests of the State of Mich- 
igan. Twice a candidate for the United States Senate 
against Gen. Cass, and three times a Whig candidate 



16 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



for Congress, owing to the overwhelming strength of 
the Democratic party, the Whigs were successively 
defeated. He was elected a member of the Constitu- 
tional Convention of Michigan in 1850. In 1853 he 
returned to Toledo, bought out the Blade, which then 
became the sturdy advocate of Republican principles. 
It nominated Salmon Chase for Governor of the State, 
and did more for the party in Northern Ohio than all 
the other papers in the State. After three years of 
editorial labor his health again failed him, and he 
accepted at the hands of the Michigan Legislature the 
presidency of the Agricultural College of Michigan at 
Lansing. Few men had written with greater ability 
on agricultural subjects, and he was marked as the 
most suitable person to inaugurate this experiment, 
the first of its kind in this country. 

The undertaking prospered, but after a year of 
laborious exertion he was forced to abandon the work 
and seek relief in Havana and the Bermudas. 

He returned in 1860 improved in health, and was 
elected to the Senate of Michigan, which body elected 
him president. His speeches to the Senate at the 
outbreak of the Rebellion are models of patriotism 
and eloquence. 

Mr. Williams was a writer of great power, his ideas 
comprehensive, and his words fitly chosen. He was 
a man of great heart, generous, and deeply sensitive 
to the misfortunes of his fellow-men. In social life he 
was a most agreeable companion, full of intelligence, 
with a large acquaintance with books and extensive 
literary acquirements, which served to adorn his 
natural powers as a conversationalist. The precarious 
state of his health prevented him from being one of 
the men of mark in his native State, and returning in 
a large measure to his Alma Mater the fruits of her 
planting. 

His death at any time would have been felt as a 
calamity, but it happened at a time when the thoughts 
of such men were needed to give tone and character 
to the public acts and enterprises of the age, and was 
felt most keenly by his associates. 

Mr. Williams died suddenly on the 15th of June, 
1861, at his old home in Constantine, and was buried 
in New Bedford. He married in Buffalo, in 1844, 
Sarah Rowland Langdon, daughter of John Langdon, 
and grandniece of Gen. John Langdon, of New 
Hampshire. 

Hon. Joshua Clapp Stone, a son of Henry B. 
and Elizabeth [Clapp) Stone, was born in Boston on 
the 28th of August, 1825. His father was cashier 
and president of the Suffolk Bank. He lived in 
Boston till 1838, and was there a pupil of Mr. T. B. 
Haywood. At an academy at Leicester, Mass., he 
prepared for Harvard College, which he entered in 
1840. He was a diligent student, and his gentlemanly 
manners, honorable bearing, sympathetic nature, and 
genial ways won and retained the universal respect 
of the faculty and his fellow-students. After his 
graduation in 1844 he entered the Dane Law School 



of Harvard. In 1846 he entered the law-office of 
Col. J. H. W. Paige, of New Bedford, remaining there 
till 1853, when he associated himself with Judge 
Brigham, of the same city, remaining with him till 
Mr. Brigham was appointed to the bench, when he 
returned to Boston. The attractions of New Bedford 
for him led him back to that city in 1862, when he 
entered into partnership with Hon. W. W. Crapo, 
with whom he remained till his death. He was at 
one time justice of the Court of Insolvency for the 
county of Bristol. In 1866 and 1867 he represented 
the Eleventh Representative District in the Massa- 
chusetts Legislature. 

Sept. 17, 1850, Mr. Stone married Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of Nathaniel and Anna Hatheway, of New Bed- 
ford. He died in that city Jan. 2, 1869, leaving a 
widow and five children, four sons and a daughter, 
all of whom are living. Mr. Stone was held in high 
esteem, and was a great loss not only to his family, 
but to the social and business community and to the 
legal profession. As a counselor, he was regarded as 
honorable and upright; as an advocate, convincing, 
persuasive, earnest, and logical ; as a legislator, pub- 
lic-spirited, zealous, and sincere. His associates ot 
the bar had a high appreciation of his legal knowledge 
and keen judgment ; judges before whom lie appeared 
showed their appreciation of his manliness, ability, 
and sincerity ; the Legislature felt his power, and was 
honored and strengthened by his presence. 

Oliver Prescott is now the oldest lawyer prac- 
ticing law in New Bedford. He was born in Mid- 
dlesex County, Nov. 25, 1806, was educated at Har- 
vard College, and, after teaching at the Friends' 
Academy in New Bedford, and studying law in the 
law school at Cambridge, in the office of Lemuel Wil- 
liams, Esq., of New Bedford, was admitted to the bar 
at the June term in 1832. He was appointed judge 
of probate in 1835, and held that office until the court 
was abolished in 1858. He was in 1846 appointed 
judge of the police court of New Bedford, and held 
that office until 1858, when he resigned. 

He has always been a careful, wise, and discreet ad- 
viser, and has had more experience in probate matters 
than any other lawyer in this county. He has always 
had the confidence and regard of his brethren at the 
bar, and is now held in much esteem by all classes of 
the citizens of New Bedford and adjoining towns. 

Hon. George Marston. — When in the winter of 
1868-69 the members of the New Bedford bar stood 
around the open grave of Joshua C. Stone, paying 
the last tribute of respect to one who from the first 
rank in the profession had just passed away in the 
fullness of his great powers, the thought must have 
passed through the minds of many, " Who will fill 
his place?" The older members of the bar had then 
all either passed away, retired from active practice, 
or gone upon the bench, and while others were dis- 
tinguished in other branches of the profession the 
mantle of leadership in the courts had fallen upon 





Ijljlxl 




LL 




Ujlxj^C^ 



BENCH AND BAR. 



17 



Stone and Stetson. To this high position made va- 
cant by the death of Mr. Stone the name of no heir- 
apparent appeared upon the roll of the New Bedford 
bar, which at this time was very limited in number, 
and it was evident that Mr. Stone's successor must be 
found elsewhere. The reputation which George Mars- 
ton, of Barnstable, then district attorney for the South- 
ern District, had already achieved throughout South- 
ern Massachusetts determined the selection, and on 
Feb. 1, 1869, Mr. Marston removed to New Bedford 
and took the vacant chair. 

Burn at Barnstable, Oct. 15, 1821, he was educated 
at the common schools of his native town, and com- 
pleted his professional education at the Harvard Law 
School, and was admitted to the bar at the September 
term, 1845. But no adequate conception of his op- 
portunities in the preparation for his professional ca- 
reer would be gained without remembering that he 
had the good fortune to sit at the feet of Nynphas 
Marston, his uncle, whose influence, inspired by the 
respect and affection and confidence in which he was 
held by the people of his county, was said to be so 
great that a Barnstable County jury could not give a 
verdict against Nynphas Marston, and it was un- 
doubtedly from this source that the nephew acquired 
those characteristics which, on a wide field, enabled 
him to repeat his uncle's experience. While a resi- 
dent of Barnstable he was, from March, 1853, to De- 
cember, 1854, register of probate, and judge of probate 
from 1854 to July 1, 1858. For nearly twenty years 
(January, 1860-79) he held the office of district at- 
torney for the Southern District with such marked 
ability and conscientious devotion to its delicate and 
responsible duties that when, on his promotion to the 
office of attorney-general, he resigned this office to 
which he had been seven times elected, the bar of 
Bristol united in a public testimonial of their appre- 
ciation of his public worth and distinguished services. 
Entering on the discharge of his duties as attorney- 
general of the commonwealth, January, 1879, he 
was three times re-elected, and having in the fall of 
1882 declined a renomination, he closed, in January, 
1883, a service of a quarter of a century as a prosecu- 
ting officer with a record of unsullied integrity, great 
ability, and the affectionate regard of all classes of 
people rarely equaled. But it is not only as a public 
officer that he is known and respected. For the last 
fifteen years scarcely a cause of the first magnitude 
has been tried on the civil side of the court in which 
Mr. Marston has not been engaged, and in which his 
arguments to the jury have been masterpieces of fo- 
rensic ability. Nor has his work been confined en- 
tirely to the strict line of his profession. As presi- 
dent of the Nantucket and Cape Cod Steamboat 
Company, director of the Old Colony Eailroad Com- 
pany, the Citizens' National Bank of New Bedford, 
and the Quincy Mutual Fire Insurance Company, he 
has displayed business abilities of a high order. 

And so the members of the New Bedford bar feel 
2 



that the question which was in their minds on that 
beautiful winter's day in January, 1869, has been 
fully answered, and that with untiring energy and 
pre-eminent ability, with marvelous resources and 
quickness in their use, with the keenest conception of 
the true relation of facts to each other, with an un- 
limited fertility of expression and effective and per- 
suasive diction, all united with an impressive phy- 
sique, and with all these great powers held in place 
and controlled by a fullness of heart which has won 
the affection, and a character of perfect integrity 
which has commanded the respect, of all, George 
Marston has worthily and completely continued the 
succession of the leaders of the bar of Southern Mas- 
sachusetts. 

Lincoln Flagg Brigham was born in Cambridge 
(Port), Mass., on Oct. 4, 1819, and was the youngest 
of six children, whose parents were Lincoln Brigham, 
son of Elijah and Ruth (Taylor) Brigham, of South- 
boro', Mass., and Lucy (Forbes) Brigham, daughter of 
Elisha and Hannah (Flagg) Forbes, of Westboro', 
Mass. Lincoln Brigham, father of the subject of 
this sketch, was a descendant of the sixth generation 
from " Thomas Brigham, who, aged thirty-two years, 
embarked at London for New England April 18, 
1635, in the ship 'Susan and Ellyn,' Edward Payne, 
master," and was a " townsman" of Cambridge, Mass., 
where he died in 1853, leaving three sons, who upon 
the second marriage of their mother settled in Marl- 
boro', Mass., and are supposed to have been the pro- 
genitors of all persons in the United States bearing 
the name of Brigham. 

Lincoln F. Brigham, when partially fitted for col- 
lege, entered the counting-room of Samuel Austin, 
Jr., a distinguished merchant of Boston, engaged in 
trade with Calcutta, and after remaining in this em- 
ployment between two and three years, abandoned 
his commercial education and prepared for college 
under the private tuition of Rev. David Peabody, the 
husband of his eldest sister, and afterwards Professor 
of Belles-Lettres and Rhetoric in Dartmouth College ; 
entered in 1838, and graduated from Dartmouth 
College in 1842. He immediately upon leaving col- 
lege entered the Dane Law School of Harvard Uni- 
versity, and there remained until January, 1844, 
when he entered as a student of law the office of Clif- 
ford (John H.) & Colby (Harrison G. O.) at New 
Bedford, and there studied law until he was admitted 
to the bar in Court of Common Pleas, Bristol County, 
at New Bedford, June term, 1845. H. G. O. Colby 
having a month previously been appointed a justice 
of the Court of Common Pleas, Mr. Clifford, on July 
1, 1845, received Mr. Brigham into a partnership with 
him in the practice of law, which continued until 
Mr. Clifford became Governor of Massachusetts in 
1853, when he appointed Mr. Brigham to the office of 
district attorney of the Southern District of Massa- 
chusetts, comprising the counties of Bristol, Barn- 
stable, Nantucket, and Duke's. 



18 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



On Oct. 20, 1847, Lincoln F. Brigham married Eliza 
Endicott Swain, only daughter of Thomas Swain, of 
New Bedford, and son of Thaddeus and Ruth (Hus- 
sey) Swain, both natives of Nantucket, and Sylvia 
(Perry) Swain, of New Bedford, daughter of Dr. 
Samuel and Sylvia (Clapp) Perry, and their children 
are four sons. 

Mr. Brigham held the office of district attorney of 
the Southern District, under his original appointment, 
until 1856, when, that office becoming elective, he was 
elected to and continued in it until he was appointed 
in 1859 by Governor N. P. Banks, upon the estab- 
lishment of the Superior Court, to be one of its asso- 
ciate justices, and served in that office until on Jan. 
28, 1869, upon the promotion of Seth Ames, chief 
justice of the Superior Court to the Supreme Judicial 
Court, Governor William Chaflin appointed Judge 
Brigham to the chief justiceship of the Superior Court, 
and he is now in that office. Judge Brigham resided 
in New Bedford from 1844 to 1860, in Boston from 
1860 to 1866, and from 1866 to this time in Salem, 
Essex Co., Mass. Judge Brigham has never held or 
been a candidate for any political office. 

Judge Brigham's career has been one of constant 
success; whether at the bar pleading for his client, 
or as public prosecutor enforcing the criminal laws of 
the commonwealth, or upon the bench holding with 
absolute impartiality the scales of justice, he has won 
the unqualified approval of all with whom he has 
been associated. But, better even than this, his per- 
fect mental and moral integrity, born of a conscience 
which palliates no deviation from the highest and 
most exacting standard of duty, has won for his pro- 
fessional and judicial life the respect and admiration 
of every class of men ; while his courtesy and be- 
nignity, beaming from a face of wonderful attractive- 
ness, have made Lowell's lines as true of him as they 
were of Agassiz, that 

" Where'er he met a stranger, 
There he left a friend." 

Alansen Borden, the present judge of the Third 
District Court of Bristol, holden at New Bedford, 
was born in Tiverton, R. I. (now Fall River) in 1823. 
He studied law in the office of Eliot & Kasson, in 
New Bedford, and was admitted to the bar in June, 
1849. He has been one of the School Committee of 
New Bedford a number of years, was a member of 
the Massachusetts House of Representatives, was as- 
sistant assessor under the internal revenue law in 
1864, was judge of the police court, and became judge 
of the present District Court, which office he now 
holds. He was mayor of New Bedford in 1877 for 
one year. 

Edwin Luther Barney was born in Swansea, in 
this commonwealth, on the 1st day of April, A.D. 
1827. His father was Capt. Edwin Barney, son of 
the reputed ship-builder, Moses Barney. At a very 
early age his father died, and his mother was left with 



three small children, our subject being the eldest, un- 
der the age of seven years. 

At nine years of age Mr. Barney left his home to 
get his own livelihood, and from nine to sixteen years 
of age worked upon a farm for his living, goiug to 
school winters, some four months each year. After 
about sixteen years of age he worked upon a farm 
and went to academic schools in the fall with the 
earnings of the same, and in the winters went to 
school, doing chores for his board, and thus acquired 
a sufficient education to pass, in the fall of 1846, ad- 
mission to Brown University. In March, 1849, he 
came to New Bedford, where he has since resided, 
and entered the law-office of the late Timothy G. Cof- 
fin, and in October, 1850, was admitted before the full 
court to practice law in the courts of Massachusetts. 
Mr. Barney soon afterwards entered into partnership 
with Mr. Coffin, and from November, 1850, to Janu- 
ary, 1853, the firm was Coffin & Barney. Then Mr. 
Barney at his request withdrew from the firm and 
commenced the practice of the law alone, and from 
that date to this time has been engaged in all the 
various branches of his profession. He is now in the 
prime of life, with all the vigor of a man of thirty 
years of age. Democratic in politics. 

Robert C. Pitman is a native of New Bedford. 
He came to the bar in 1847 ; was a partner for a num- 
ber of years with Thomas D. Eliot, then a leading 
lawyer in New Bedford. He was a judge of the 
Police Court of New Bedford for several years ; then 
he went to the State Senate, where he proved to be a 
leading man. He was an active temperance worker 
and legislator, and then he worked his way to the ap- 
pointment of a judge of the Supreme Court. He has 
an excellent judicial mind, and is in every way quali- 
fied for the highest court of the commonwealth. 
Judge Pitman is a hard student and honest thinker 
not only in law, but in all questions of interest to 
humanity. 

Hon. William W. Crapo, one of the leading 
members of the Massachusetts bar, was born in Dart- 
mouth, Bristol Co., May 16, 1830. 

He was educated at the public schools in New Bed- 
ford, prepared for college at Phillips Academy, 
Andover, and subsequently entered Yale, where he 
graduated in 1852. Having decided upon the legal 
profession as his life-work, he commenced the study 
of the law in the office of the late Governor Clifford 
at New Bedford, and also attended the Dane Law 
School at Cambridge. He was admitted to the bar in 
February, 1855, and commenced practice in New Bed- 
ford, where he has since resided. In April following 
his admission to the bar he was appointed city solic- 
itor, which office he held twelve years. 

In 1856, Mr. Crapo entered the political arena, 
making his first speeches for John C. Fremont, the 
first candidate of the Republican party for President. 
In the autumn of the same year he was elected to 
the Massachusetts House of Representatives, and the 




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BENCH AND BAH. 



19 



following year, 1857, he was solicited to become the 
candidate of his party for State senator, which prof- 
fered honor he declined. 

Not only did Mr. Crapo soon secure a leading posi- 
tion at the bar, but he won in an especial manner the 
confidence of the citizens of New Bedford. All move- 
ments tending to advance the interests of New Bed- 
ford have found in him an earnest supporter. He was 
chairman of the commission on the introduction of 
water, and from 1865 to 1875 was chairman of the 
water board. 

In all positions where business capacity, good 
judgment, and executive ability are needed his ser- 
vices are always in request. As guardian or trustee 
for the management of estates, his high character and 
business talent brought to him the tender of more 
business than he could possibly undertake. In the 
larger field of business enterprise and the manage- 
ment of financial affairs, his peculiar endowments 
and his entire trustworthiness have been fully recog- 
nized for many years. He has been for twelve years 
the president of the Mechanics' National Bank of 
New Bedford, is a trustee in one savings-bank and 
is solicitor for several others. He is a director in the 
Potamska Mills and the Wamsutta Mills corpora- 
tions and other manufactories, and is associated in 
the management of several railroad corporations. 
He is a prominent manufacturer of lumber, and has 
interests in shipping. In his profession he is pre- 
eminently a business lawyer, being familiar with 
large commercial transactions in all their bearings. 
With the insurance business he has been familiar 
from a boy in his father's office, and was for many 
years a director in one of the old New Bedford com- 
panies. He is also president of the Flint and Pere 
Marquette Railroad in Michigan, a part of which was 
organized and begun through his father's efforts. 

Mr. Crapo is a scholarly man of great mental grasp, 
industry, and energy, which have enabled him to 
master and successfully carry through in all their 
detail the duties devolved upon him by so many 
varied interests. 

He was elected as a representative to the Forty- 
fourth Congress to fill a vacancy, and was re-elected 
to the Forty-fifth, Forty-sixth, and Forty-seventh 
Congresses, declining in 1882 to longer be a candi- 
date. Mr. Crapo early took a prominent position in 
Congress, and in the Forty-fifth Congress was a mem- 
ber of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, and in the 
Forty-sixth was in the Committee on Banking and 
Currency. 

In the Forty-seventh Congress he was chairman of 
the same committee, and excited the admiration of 
the business men of the country by his skillful man- 
agement of the bill for extending the charters of the 
national banks, a bill which was successfully carried 
through under his leadership in spite of all obstacles. 
In the tariff legislation, through which the tax on the 
capital and deposits of banks and bankers was re- 



moved, Mr. Crapo's familiarity with the subject was 
of great service, and secured the direct application of 
the law to the national banks. Other prominent ser- 
vices might be recalled if the limits of this sketch did 
not prevent. It is sufficient to say that his value as 
a legislator was recognized and highly appreciated, 
not only by his constituents, who knew the man, but 
by the country. 

P. C. Headley, in his "Public Men of To-Day," in 
speaking of Mr. Crapo, says, " At the age of fifty Mr. 
Crapo finds himself well started in political life, in 
the full maturity of his powers, and possessing what 
some politician has so neatly termed ' the pecuniary 
basis.' In person he strongly resembles his father, a 
man of keenly intellectual physiognomy. The family 
is of French origin, regarding which there is a ro- 
mantic tradition. Both father and son have a type of 
face which is French rather than English. The strong 
mental as well as physical resemblance of the son to 
the father is a striking illustration of Galton's doctrine 
of heredity." 

Politically, Mr. Crapo is a Republican, and his po- 
litical instincts are liberal and progressive. He is an 
exceptionally able legislator, and one of the most 
honored citizens of the commonwealth. 

The degree of LL.D. was conferred upon him by 
Yale College in 1882. 

Jan. 22, 1857, Mr. Crapo united in marriage with 
Sarah Ann Davis Tappan, daughter of George and 
Serena Davis Tappan, and their children are Henry 
Howland Crapo, born Jan. 31, 1862, now in senior 
class (1883) at Harvard University, and Stanford Tap- 
pan Crapo, born June 13, 1865, now in the freshman 
class (1886) of Yale College. 

Thomas M. Stetson.— Mr. Stetson, son of the late 
Rev. Caleb Stetson, of Medford, Mass., was born in 
that town June 15, 1830. He graduated from Har- 
vard University in 1849, and studied law at the Dane 
Law School, Cambridge, and in New Bedford. In 
1854, immediately upon his admission to the bar, he 
was invited to join one of the oldest law-offices in the 
State, established more than half a century ago in 
New Bedford by the late Hon. Lemuel Williams and 
Judge Charles Henry Warren. Later the style of the 
firm was Warren & Eliot (the late Hon. Thomas D.), 
and in 1854 it was Eliot & Pitman (now Judge Robert 
C). Mr. Eliot's absence much of the time in Con- 
gress created the need of an additional partner, and 
the firm became Eliot, Pitman & Stetson, continu- 
ing a few years till the withdrawal of Judge Pitman, 
when it became Eliot & Stetson, and so remained 
until the death of Mr. Eliot in 1870. The firm now 
is Stetson & Greene (Francis B.). 

Mr. Stetson at once took high rank at the bar. The 
law never had occasion to be jealous of him, for she 
never had a more faithful and devoted lover. Nothing 
has been allowed to interfere with his legal studies, 
and as a pure lawyer, in mastery of the law, great 
principles, in affluence of legal and other learning, in 



20 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



exhaustive preparation of his cases, and in their clear 
and lucid presentation to the courts, he has no superior 
in Southern Massachusetts. 

Mr. Stetson was married in 1856 to Caroline Dawes 
Eliot, eldest daughter of the late Hon. Thomas Dawes 
Eliot. 

Adam Mackie is a Scotchman by birth, and in- 
herits a Scotch constitution. He is now about sixty 
years of age. He began life a poor boy, rose by his 
own exertions to become a lawyer, and for some 
twenty years had a large and lucrative law practice, 
especially in the admiralty courts. He often ex- 
hibited considerable skill in the conducting of cases 
before Judge Sprogen. His social qualities made him 
acceptable and welcome, and he was always so will- 
ing to aid another that none can say aught against 
him. He has not been in the practice for some ten 
years past, and has lost his health. 

A. L. West was for some years in practice with Mr. 
Mackie, but died some fifteen years ago with con- 
sumption. He was a pleasant and agreeable man. 
He was a good lawyer and safe counselor. 

Lemuel Tripp Wilcox was born in Fairhaven, 
in the county of Bristol, in August, 1835, was edu- 
cated at Yale College, and graduated in 1860. 

He studied law in the office of Eliot & Stetson, in' the 
city of New Bedford, and was admitted to the bar in I 
June, 1862. He quickly rose in his profession, and 
was early in good position, and is now a leading law- 
yer at the bar of this county. His addresses to the I 
jury and the court are always full of fine sentences, | 
clothed in the most polished words. He is now in 
active practice, and in the very prime of life. 

Charles W. Clifford, son of John H. and 
Sarah Parker (Allen) Clifford, was born Aug. 19, 
1844, at New Bedford, Mass., where he was fitted for 
Harvard College at the old " Friends' Academy," 
then in charge of the late T. Prentiss Allen. 

Entering college at the age of seventeen, he soon 
won the respect and esteem of his instructors, as well 
as his fellows, and after having borne a prominent 
part in all the literary and social enterprises of his 
time, graduated with full honors in July, 1865. 

Never, from his earliest years, having had a doubt as 
to the choice of a profession, he at once began the study 
of the law, which he pursued under instruction from 
Hon. E. H. Bennett, of Taunton ; Hon. John C. 
Dodge, of Boston, and at the Harvard Law School, 
and after being admitted to the bar in New Bedford 
at the June term, 1868, began practice in the office 
formerly occupied by his father. Here he practiced 
alone until February, 1869, when the firm of Marston 
& Crapo was formed, of which he continued a mem- 
ber until its dissolution in April, 1878, since when he 
has been an active partner of the firm of Crapo, Clif- 
ford & Clifford, one of two firms formed principally 
from the members of the old firm of Marston & Crapo. 
On May 5, 1869, he married Frances Lothrop, 
daughter of Charles L. and Elizabeth T. Wood, of 



New Bedford, who died April 28, 1872, and on March 
15, 1876, he married Wilhelmina H., daughter of the 
late Governor Crapo, of Michigan, and sister of his 
partner, Hon. William W. Crapo. 

While a member of the firm of Marston & Crapo, 
he was constantly associated as junior counsel with 
Hon. George Marston in the trial of important causes, 
the preparation of which was frequently intrusted to 
him, and the training and valuable experience de- 
rived from this association soon bore its fruit in the 
recognition of a legal ability of a high order, and a 
maturity of thought and judgment which rendered 
him a wise and valued counselor, and which led to 
his appointment as one of the commissioners to re- 
vise the judiciary system of the commonwealth in 
1876, an appointment received by the profession as 
one eminently fit to be made. 

Loyal to the principles of the Republican party, 
and earnest and energetic in maintaining its integ- 
rity and influence, he has ever been found in the 
front rank of its active supporters, and several times 
as chairman of the Republican City Committee of 
New Bedford, as delegate to and assistant secretary 
of the Republican National Convention at Chicago 
in 1880, later as a member of the Republican State 
Central Committee of Massachusetts, and as manager 
of the campaign of Hon. William W. Crapo for the 
gubernatorial nomination in 1882, has shown a readi- 
ness and ability to do whatever should be required of 
him as a supporter of Republican principles, and in 
these various positions has rendered valuable service 
to his party. 

His association with the late Charles L. Wood, his 
father-in-law and one of the leading merchants of 
New Bedford, following upon an early inculcation of 
business habits and methods by his distinguished 
father, enabled him to obtain a practical education in 
affairs such as is acquired by few lawyers, and this, 
coupled with a natural aptitude for business questions, 
has not only secured for him many clients among the 
business institutions of New Bedford, but has been 
the means of his aid and counsel being much sought 
for in the organization of new enterprises and in the 
conduct and direction of those already established. 
He has also charge of many public and private trusts, 
and his position at the bar and in affairs of business 
is thoroughly established and secure. 

Mr. Clifford's success as a lawyer is due not less to 
his natural and acquired ability than to the fact that 
his sphere of life was determined by himself and his 
parents from the beginning, and it may be truly said 
that he commenced the study of his profession in his 
earliest boyhood. To a clear, discriminating, and ca- 
pacious mind and the results of earnest study under 
the best teachers he adds an enthusiastic love of the 
law, most vigorous and efficient action in the under- 
standing of his causes, scrupulous fidelity to his 
clients in all emergencies, and a chivalrous sense of 
professional and personal honor. 



BENCH AND BAR. 



21 



Among the younger members of the bar he pre- 
serves all the freshness and humor of boyhood, and 
among the seniors he sustains the dignity of a recog- 
nized equal, and his social qualities render him a most 
delightful companion and friend. 

Wendell H. Cobb was born at Sandwich in 1838. 
He is the son of the Rev. Asahel Cobb, was educated 
at Dartmouth College, and graduated in 1861, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1865. He was a law part- 
ner with Marston & Crapo until that firm was dis- 
solved. He is now associated with Mr. Marston, the 
firm being Marston & Cobb. He is a good lawyer and 
safe counselor. 

Hosea M. Kjtowltox, the present district attor- 
ney for the Southern District of Massachusetts, was 
born in Durham, in the State of Maine, May 20, 1847. 
He was educated at Tuft's College, graduating in the 
class of 1867. He studied law in the office of the 
Hon. Edwin L. Barney, in New Bedford, and at Har- 
vard Law School, and was admitted to the bar upon 
the motion of Mr. Barney at the Supreme Court in 
June, 1870. He had an office in Boston for one year, 
and in 1872 returned to New Bedford and entered the 
office of Mr. Barney, and from the year 1872 to 1879 
was a partner with Mr. Barney. He was in 1876 
elected to the House of Representatives of Massa- 
chusetts from New Bedford, and also for the year 
1877, and the following years, 1878 and 1879, was a 
member of the State Senate. In February, 1879, he 
was appointed district attorney (to fill the place of 
the Hon. George Marston, who had been elected to 
the office of attorney-general), which office Mr. 
Knowlton now holds. He is an excellent advocate 
and wise counselor. 

The present members of the bar in New Bedford are 
as follows : 



Almy, Edward C. 
Barney, Edwin L. 
Bartlett, Frederick C. S. 
Bonney, Charles T. 
Borden, Alanson. 
Clark, A. Edwin. 
Clifford, Charles W. 
Clifford, Walter. 
Codd, Thomas A. 
Cohh, Wendell H. 
Collins, Alheit B. 
Crapo, William W. 
Desmond, Thomas F. 
Devoll, Daniel T. 
Douglass, Edwin A. 
Fessenden, Churles I». H. 
Gillingham, .lames L. 
Goodspeed, Alexander M. 
Greene, Francis B. 



Holmes, Lemuel L. B. 
Hopkins, Frederic S. 
Johnson, William H. 
Knowlton, Hosea M. 
Luce, Edward J. 
Mackie, Adam. 
Marston, George. 
Milliken, Frank A. 
Palmer, George H. 
Parker, William C. 
Perry, Arthur E. 
Pierce, John N. 
Pierce, Philip. 
Prescott, Oliver. 
Smith, William B. 
Stetson, Thomas M. 
Sullavon, Manuel. 
Tappan, Francis W. 
Wilcox, Lemuel T. 



Taunton. 1 — Hox. Samuel White, the youngest 
of eight children of Samuel anrl Ann (Bingley) White, 
was born in Weymouth, April 2, 1710, and graduated 
from Harvard College in 1731, at the age of twenty-one. 



The following notices of members of the legal profession in Taunton 
were prepared by Rev. S. Hopkins Emery. 



He was a great-grandson of Thomas White, early at 
Weymouth, whose son Joseph married, Sept. 19, 1660, 
Lydia Rogers, and was the father of Samuel, born 
Feb. 14, 1666. Anna, sister of Samuel, the subject of 
this notice, was the first wife of William Wilde, whose 
only child, Daniel Wilde, married Anna Sumner, and 
was the father of Hon. Samuel S. Wilde, justice of the 
Supreme Court of Massachusetts. 

Hon. Samuel White has the honor of leading the 
profession of law in Taunton in the order of time cer- 
tainly. No other name is recorded before him. Rev. 
Mr. Dauforth " was no contemptible lawyer" in the 
opinion of Mr. Baylies, and there were other men in 
all the generations who could do " law business," but 
to Mr. White has generally been assigned the proud 
position of the " first Taunton lawyer." His contem- 
poraries, as Mr. Alger suggests in a valuable article 
in the " Collections of the Old Colony Historical So- 
ciety," 1879, were Elkanah Leonard, of Middlebor- 
ough ; Stephen Paine, of Bristol, some years judge of 
the Court of Common Pleas ; Timothy Ruggles, of 
Sandwich, and James Otis, of Barnstable, the father 
of the distinguished patriot bearing that name. It is 
not quite certain when Mr. White commenced prac- 
tice in Taunton, but probably not far from 1739. In 
1744 he was commissioned as justice of the peace for 
Bristol County. In 1746, when the courts first began 
their sessions in Taunton, he was appointed king's 
attorney of the Court of Sessions, holding the ap- 
pointment till death. Mr. White represented Taun- 
ton in the General Court in the years 1749-53, 1756- 
59, 1764-65 ; acted as Speaker of the House in 1759, 
1764-65, and was chosen a member of the Council in 
1767-69. 

He had the honor of presiding over the House 
during the period of the Stamp Act, when Otis and 
Adams were members and made their names famous 
in American history. It was the circular signed by 
him as Speaker which led to the first Congress, as- 
sembled at New York in 1765. Thus the initiatory 
steps towards the American Revolution were taken by 
him, whose death occurred the 20th of March, 1769. 
The following inscription is found on the slab which 
marks the place of his burial on the " Plain :" 

" In memory 

of 

The Hon. Samuel W'hite, Esq., 

Colonel 

of 

a foot regiment of Militia, 

Barrister at law, 

and 

Member of the Hon. his Majesty's Council, 

who 

having been often delegated to the office of government, 

faithfully served his God, his King, and his country, 

and exhibiting, thro' an unspotted course of life, 

the virtues of a patriot, the friend A the Christian, 

fell asleep in Jesus 

March 20, MDCCLX1X., 

in the LIX. 

year of his age. 



22 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



This humble stone, small tribute of their praise, 

Lamented shade! thy weeping offspring raise. 

Oh ! while their footsteps haunt y° hallowed shrine, 

May each fair branch shoot fertile as y e vine. 

Not with thy dust be here thy virtues' tomb, 

But brightening still, each grace transplanted bloom; 

Sire, sons, and daughters share alike renown, 

Applauding angels, a celestial crown." 

Mr. White married in November, 1735, Prudence, 
daughter of Samuel Williams, of Taunton, and had 
the following children: (1) Experience, born 1738, 
and married to Hon. George Leonard, LL.D. ; (2) 
Anna, born 1741, and married to Hon. Daniel Leon- 
ard ; (3) Bathsheba, born 1746, and married to the 
Hon. William Baylies, M.D. 

The White homestead was on the old road to the 
Weir, now Somerset Avenue, not far from the inter- 
section of White Street. 

Madame Prudence White lies buried by the side of 
her husband, with the following affectionate tribute 
to her memory : " In early life she was a firm believer 
in the Christian religion, and lived in the practice of 
its precepts. By her amiable disposition she secured 
the esteem of all that knew her. With a conscience 
pure, and a constitution rendered excellent by tem- 
perance and regularity, she reached the ninety-eighth 
year of her age, and relying on the mercy of her God, 
she calmly fell asleep in Jesus, June VIII., Anno 
Domini 1808." 

Hon. Robert Treat Paine, LL.D., adistinguished 
Taunton lawyer, was born in Boston, March 12, 1731. 
His father, Rev. Thomas Paine, was born in Barnstable, 
graduated at Harvard College, 1717, and ordained at 
Weymouth, but in consequence of ill health removed 
to Boston in 1730, and afterwards resigning the min- 
istry, engaged in mercantile affairs. His mother was 
the daughter of Rev. Samuel Treat, of Eastham, the 
son of Governor Robert Treat, of Connecticut, and 
granddaughter of Rev. Samuel Willard, vice-president 
of Harvard College. 

Mr. Paine fitted for college in the Boston Latin 
School, and entering Cambridge at the age of four- 
teen, graduated in 1749. To this time, as an only 
son, he had been well supported by a father with 
abundant means, but this father losing his property, 
the son was thrown upon his own resources, and after 
keeping school for a year, made three voyages to 
North Carolina, acting as master, and in the last 
going to Fayal and Cadiz, afterwards going as master 
to the coasts of Greenland on a whaling voyage. On 
his return, in 1755, he commenced the study of law 
with his relative, Judge Willard, of Lancaster, giving 
also his attention to theology. During his law studies 
he supplied the pulpit at Shirley. Mr. Willard re- 
ceiving the appointment of colonel of a regiment to 
be raised for an expedition to Crown Point, Mr. Paine 
was appointed chaplain, and his sermons, both at Shir- 
ley and the camp at Lake George, are still preserved. 
He was admitted to the Boston bar in 1757, and re- 
moved his office to Taunton in 1761. 



Although residing in Taunton, his practice was not 
confined to any such narrow limits. His clients were 
in all parts of the commonwealth. Writes a descend- 
ant of his, " He constantly attended the courts at 
Boston, Taunton, Plymouth, Barnstable, Worcester, 
and other places. His great powers of mind, pro- 
found knowledge of law, and habits of thorough in- 
vestigation brought him a large practice, which in- 
creased till it was probably not exceeded by that of 
any lawyer in the State." Bradford, in his " History of 
Massachusetts," ranks him " among the most eminent 
lawyers of the province." He was an intimate asso- 
ciate and friend of such men as James Otis and Sam- 
uel Adams. 

In 1768, when a convention was called in Boston 
by prominent men to consult on the condition of the 
country, and the assembled wisdom of the people 
was needed, Robert Treat Paine was the choice of 
Taunton to that convention, and was at once one of 
its leading spirits. In 1770, after the Boston massacre, 
Mr. Paine was retained as prosecuting counsel by Bos- 
ton against the British soldiers, and conducted the 
trial with signal ability. 

This year he was married in Taunton to Sally, 
daughter of Thomas Cobb, Esq., and sister of Gen. 
David Cobb. His home was in the rear of what is 
now the Taunton Bank, afterwards the residence of 
Judge Fales. 

Mr. Paine was not only a good lawyer, but a warm- 
hearted, zealous patriot. Absorbed as he was with 
cases at court, he could not be spared in the public 
service. A large committee of the citizens of Taun- 
ton was appointed to attend to public affairs and re- 
monstrate against public wrong, and there was no 
other man who could serve so well as chairman. 
He drafted the high-toned resolutions which were 
passed. He represented Taunton in the letter to 
Lord Dartmouth and in the address for the Gov- 
ernor's removal, and he was chairman of the com- 
mittee on the impeachment of Chief Justice Oliver. 

He was largely instrumental in securing a Conti- 
nental Congress in 1774. He was one of the.Massa- 
chusetts delegation to that Congress. His associates 
were Thomas Cushing, Samuel Adams, James Bow- 
doiu, and John Adams. The Congress met in Sep- 
tember and October. Mr. Paine, on his return to 
Taunton in November, received an ovation from the 
Sons of Liberty. In 1775, in the winter and spring, 
he attended the Second Provincial Congress at Cam- 
bridge, and was one of the Committee on the State of 
the Province. In April he attended the Congress at 
Philadelphia, which met in May. Mr. Paine was 
prominent in that Congress, chairman of the Commit- 
tee on Supplies, and devoted himself for a year and 
eight months with ceaseless zeal and energy to the 
work of providing equipments for the army, powder, 
cannon, and fire-arms. He published an essay on the 
manufacture of gunpowder, which was very service- 
able, and devoted himself, body and soul, to the busi- 



BENCH AND BAR. 



23 



ness of making ready for the men in the field the 
sinews of war. He served on a committee to pur- 
chase clothing for the army, to establish a hospital, 
and was one of a committee, with R. R. Livingston 
and Governor Langdon, to visit the army on the 
northern frontier. On the 4th of July, 1776, he was 
one to sign the Declaration of Independence. He 
once more returned to Taunton, Dec. 30, 1776, crowned 
with honor in the eyes of his countrymen as a patriot 
who had not spared himself for his country's cause. 
Although elected to subsequent sessions of Congress, 
he declined the honor, and contented himself with a 
seat in the Legislature in 1777, of which he acted as 
Speaker, and afterwards accepted the place of attor- 
ney-general. In 1778 he was a member of the Hart- 
ford Convention ; in 1779 a member of the Executive 
Council, and a member of the committee to draft a 
new State Constitution, under which, when adopted, 
he continued to serve as attorney-general. 

The duties of this office making his residence at 
Taunton inconvenient, he removed to Boston in 1781, 
purchasing the estate once owned and occupied by 
Governor Shirley, at the corner of Milk and Federal 
Streets. In 1790 he accepted the position of judge of 
the Supreme Court, which he had declined in pre- 
vious years, and so served till 1804, when he was once 
more elected a member of the Executive Council. 
After one year he declined all further public duties, 
feeling that he had earned the quiet of home, till life's 
close, May 12, 1814, at the age of eighty-three. A 
most honorable and useful life was his, twenty years 
of which, in life's prime, were spent in Taunton. 
Judge Paine had eight children, four sons and four 
daughters. Three of the sons — Robert Treat, Thomas, 
and Charles — graduated at Harvard University and 
were educated for the bar. Robert died in 1798 of the 
yellow fever, and Thomas took his name, desiring, as 
he used to say, a " Christian" name. He died in 1811, 
having distinguished himself as a poet and writer for 
the stage. Charles was the father of Charles C. Paine, 
Esq., who married a daughter of Hon. Charles Jack- 
son, judge of the Supreme Court from 1813 to 1824. 
Antoinette Paine married Deacon Samuel Greele, of 
Boston. Another daughter, Mary, married Rev. Elisha 
Clapp, also of Boston. 

Hon. Daniel Leonard was the only child of Col. 
Ephraim Leonard (by his first wife, Judith Perkins), 
and was born in Norton, now Mansfield, in 1740. He 
graduated at Harvard University in 1760, and mar- 
ried, for his first wife, Anna, daughter of Hon. Samuel 
White. His second wife was Sarah Hammock. Mr. 
Leonard easily took high rank in his profession and 
made himself prominent in political matters. First 
he espoused the cause of the people, and advocated i 
republican principles, but afterward, as was sup- 
posed, through the influence of Governor Hutchin- 
son, became a leading loyalist. Articles which he 
published in 1774 an 1 1775 in a Boston paper called 
Draper's Paper, defending the king, the ministry, and 



the Parliament, were considered very able and worthy 
of a reply from John Adams under the signature of 
"Novanglus." Of course, in the high state of polit- 
ical excitement, Mr. Leonard found it uncomfortable, 
if not unsafe, to remain in Taunton. The house he 
occupied, afterwards the residence of Judge Padel- 
ford, bore marks of mob violence. He sought shelter 
in Boston, proceeded to Halifax in 1776, thence to 
England, where, as a reward for his loyalty, he re- 
ceived the appointment of chief justice of Bermuda. 

After discharging the duties of his office with 
ability several years he returned to London, where 
he died in 1829, at the advanced age of eighty-nine. 
He left no children, but four grandchildren, the chil- 
dren of his daughter Sarah, who married John Stew- 
art, Esq., a captain in the British army and afterwards 
collector of the port of Bermuda. Leonard Stewart 
became an eminent physician in London. The oldest 
son, Duncan, on the death of an uncle succeeded to 
a lordship in Scotland. A daughter, Emily, married 
a captain in the service of the East India Company. 
The other daughter, Sarah, married a Winslow, a 
descendant of Governor Edward Winslow, of the Ply- 
mouth Colony, and was connected with Lord Lynd- 
hurst as private secretary during his chancellorship. 

Hon. Seth Padelford, LL.D., was a native of 
Taunton, son of John and Jemima Padelford. He 
was graduated at Yale College in 1770, and honored 
with the degree of LL.D. from Brown University in 
1798. He married Rebecca, the daughter of Abraham 
Dennis, and sister of the wife of James Sproal, Esq. 
Their children were as follows: 

(1) Mary Dennis, who married Mason Shaw, Esq., 
of Raynham. 

(2) Sarah Kirby, who married Nathaniel, son of 
Judge Fales. 

(3) Melinda, who married Enoch Brown, Esq., of 
Abington. 

(4) John, who died whilst a member of Brown 
University. 

(5) Nancy, who married Samuel Edgar, son of Col. 
John Cooke, of Tiverton, R. I. 

(6) Harry, who married Susan, daughter of Robert 
Crossman, of Taunton. 

(7) Rebecca Dennis, who married John G. Deane, 
Esq., of Raynham, afterwards of Portland, Me. 

There were also five other children, who died young. 

Mr. Padelford was judge of probate. He was a 
highly dignified and polished gentleman, of great in- 
tegrity of character, and he was favored with a wife 
who adorned the society in which she moved. Long 
after they ceased to be among the living of earth their 
praise was in the mouth of those who remembered 
their wide and commanding influence. 

Judge Padelford died Jan. 7, 1810, aged fifty-eight 
years and one month. On the stone slab which covers 
his remains on the " Plain" is the following inscription: 

"For he was wise to know and warm to praise, and strenuous to tran- 
I scribe in human life the mind almighty." 



24 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



The Padelford house still remains near the court- 
house, although unoccupied. It belongs to the estate 
of Mrs. Richmond, and was owned by Hon. Daniel 
Leonard, the Tory lawyer, before it came into posses- 
sion of the Padelford family. 

Hon. Samuel Fales was a native of Bristol, R. I., 
and was born Sept. 15, 1750 (the son of Nathaniel 
and Sarah Fales, a graduate of Harvard Univer- 
sity in 1773). He married Sarah, daughter of Col. 
John Cooke, of Tiverton, R. I. Their children were 
as follows : 

(1) Nathaniel, who married Sarah K., daughter of 
Judge Padelford. 

(2) Sally, who married Hon. Nathaniel Hazzard, 
of Newport, N. C. 

(3) Eliza, who married Dr. George Leonard, of 
Taunton. 

(4) Samuel, who married Sally, daughter of John 
West, of Taunton. 

(5) Harriet Leonard, who married Hon. James L. 
Hodges, of Taunton. 

(6) John, who died single. 

(7) Almira, who married Jeremiah Niles Potter, of 
Rhode Island. 

(8) Fanny, who married Rev. Swan L. Pomeroy, of 
Bangor, Me. 

(9) Edward, who died single. 

(10) Ann, who married, first, Erastus Learned, son 
of Rev. Erastus Learned, Canterbury, Conn. ; sec- 
ond, Hon. Jonas Cutting, Judge of the Supreme 
Court, Maine. 

There were five other children, who died early in 
life. 

Mr. Fales was for many years clerk of the courts, 
and afterwards was appointed chief justice of the 
Court of Common Pleas. He was succeeded in the 
office of clerk by his eldest son, Nathaniel. I have 
in my possession a letter from Judge Fales to Judge 
Davis, in 1816, in which he copies the inscription on 
Miss Poole's monument, and adds : " I observed to 
you in Boston that this monument was erected on 
a small knoll, between the Green and the meeting- 
house, a little distance from the road. A few years 
since Dr. Swift, digging a cellar, found a part of a 
coffin, made of red cedar, under which were part of the 
bones, skull, and hair of a human body, unconsumed 
by time, all which were carefully collected and re- 
moved to the common burying-ground north of the 
Green, over which the stone was placed, bearing the 
inscription transcribed for you. The monument is of 
slate, and was procured by the late R. T. Paine, Esq., 
as agent for J. Borland, Esq." 

Judge Fales died in Boston, Jan. 20, 1818, in his 
sixty-eighth year. He was buried in Taunton, 
where you may find the following record concerning 
him on the " Plain" : " Useful and honorable activity 
distinguished the progress of his life. Having sus- 
tained for many years various important offices in the 
legislative, judicial, and executive departments of 



the government with fidelity and honor, he died 
while attending his duties as a councilor of this com- 
monwealth ; and though his tedious toils and hoary 
hairs seemed to demand a more peaceful succession of 
closing years, his friends are resigned and consoled in 
the hope of his resurrection to immortal blessed- 
ness." 

Mrs. Sally, wife of Judge Fales, died Sept. 24, 1823, 
aged fifty-eight years. It is said of her, " Among the 
benevolent and liberal she ever shone conspicuous. 
The Christian spirit enlightened the path of her mor- 
tal pilgrimage, and at last sustained and blessed her 
with its holy peace and inspiring hopes." 

The Fales mansion in Taunton was in the rear of 
what is now the " Taunton Bank" building, the former 
residenceof Robert Treat Paine, and which, after it was 
vacated by Judge Fales, was known as the " Wash- 
ington Hotel." 

The house had ample grounds, extensive grass 
lawns, a vegetable and flower garden, and was an 
attractive feature in the objects of interest around 
"the Green." Mr. Charles R. Atwood, in his inter- 
esting and valuable " Reminiscences of Taunton in 
ye auld lang syne," published by Ezra Davol, Esq., 
thus describes what he calls the " imposing and elegant 
mansion" : " It was two stories high, and running 
back, broad and deep, with a long building connected 
with the main house in the rear, two stories high, and 
with a large number of rooms for servants in the 
upper story. Adjoining were the carriage-houses, 
barn, and sheds. There was a fine front yard with a 
handsome and substantial fence : also, a sidewalk and 
a large open space between that and the street, wide 
enough for a carriage-way along the whole front- 
age. On the border, near the street, there was a row 
of splendid elm-trees (now no more), making a fine 
and grateful shade in the summer along the whole 
distance. This house was considered at that time to 
be the palace of the town. It was splendidly fitted 
and furnished. In the rear was the judge's garden. 
It was filled with fruit-trees, flowers, and shrubbery, 
and highly cultivated, producing the choicest of the 
various kinds of fruits and vegetables." 

James Sproat, Esq., was the son of Ebenezer 
Sproat, of Middleborough, Mass., who left seven chil- 
dren. James was born in 1758, December 7th, and 
settled in Taunton. He married Ann, daughter of 
Abraham Dennis, sister of the wife of Judge Padel- 
ford. Their children were as follows: 

(1) Rebecca Dennis, who married Alfred Baylies, 
M.D., of Taunton. 

(2) Sarah, who died young. 

(3) Francis Eloise, who was one of the originators 
of the first Sabbath-school in Taunton. 

(4) Emily Ann, who died early. 

(5) Ann Dennis, who married George B. Atwood, 
of Taunton. 

(6) James, who married (1) Eliza Ann, daughter 
of George Baylies; (2) Lucretia, daughter of James 



BENCH AND BAR. 



25 



Tisdale. He was for many years clerk of the courts 
in this county. 

(7) William Alexis Frederic, who married Abby, 
daughter of Jonathan Ingell. 

(8) Clarissa, who died early. 

(9) Henry, who married Priscilla J., daughter of 
Jesse Smith. 

(10) Adeline, who married Samuel B. Harris, of 
Smithfield, R. I. 

(11) Ellen, who died early. 

(12) Theophilus Parsons, who married Mary A., 
daughter of Henry Baylies, of Dighton. 

James Sproat, the father of the above, was a man 
of ready wit and the most amusing mirthfulness. The 
following story is told of him : David L. Barnes, Esq., 
was once addressing the jury, when it occurred to him 
to quote the Scripture passage, — the address of Satan 
to the Lord, — "Skin for skin, yea, all that a man hath 
will he give for his life," adding, in his forgetfulness 
of the author, "saith our Saviour." Sproat in an 
instant was on his feet, and, turning to the court, 
said, " He may be Brother Barnes' Saviour, but he is 
not mine." Mr. Sproat had a most imposing personal 
presence, and was a great favorite in the profession 
and society at large. 

The family residence was what is now known as 
the Wheaton house, adjoining St. Thomas' Episcopal 
Church. Mrs. Sproat was a most remarkable woman, 
of large intellectual endowments, and highly gifted 
as an authoress. Her series of books for children 
had a wide circulation, and her verses, like the 
" Blackberry Girl," reappear every year in the holiday 
books and juvenile literature of the land. Her 
" Family Lectures," published in Boston by Samuel 
T. Armstrong, in 1819, made her famous. In the 
preface she gives the history of the book : " It has 
been my practice on the Sabbath, after public wor- 
ship, to collect my family, and, after attending to the 
Scriptures, read them one of the following essays, 
previously written for the purpose." And so she dis- 
coursed to them on "justice, mercy, humanity, truth, 
prayer, trust in God, temptations, intemperance, pro- 
faneness, unbelief, gaming, gratitude, early religion, 
filial duty," etc., subjects considered in forty-five most 
sensible and profitable lectures. 

Mr. Sproat died Nov. 10, 1825, in his sixty-seventh 
year. His wife followed him the next year, 1826, 
January 18th, aged fifty-nine. They both lie buried 
on the " Plain." 

Hon. David Leonard Barnes was the son of 
Rev. David Barnes, D.D., minister of Scituate, Mass., 
who married Rachel, daughter of Col. George Leonard, 
the son of Judge Leonard, an original settler and 
principal proprietor of Norton. David, the subject 
of this notice, married Joanna Russell, and practiced 
law in Taunton. He subsequently removed to Rhode 
Island, where he received the appointment of district 
judge of the United States Court during the adminis- 
tration of Thomas Jefferson. 



Nicholas Tillinghast, Esq., was the son of 
Nicholas and Mary Tillinghast, of Providence, R. I. 
He received the honorary degree of Master of Arts 
from Brown University in 1793, and from Harvard 
University in 1807. Mr. Tillinghast was one of the 
eminent lawyers of Taunton in the early part of the 
present century. Judge Morton used to like to tell 
the following story, in which he figured, recommend- 
ing short pleas. An important case, which had been 
long and ably argued by the ingenious and learned 
counsel of the opposite side, was committed to the 
jury by Nicholas Tillinghast in this uncommonly 
brief but conclusive style: "Gentlemen of the jury, 
Dr. Padelford says as you have heard, and Dr. Barnes 
says as you have heard, but Dr. Mansfield says as you 
shall now hear," at the same time proceeding to read 
a single convincing contradictory statement from the 
noble lord, sufficient authority on all questions of law. 
" Now, when doctors disagree," asked Tillinghast, 
sure of his case, " who shall decide?" The jury gave 
him their verdict. 

Mr. Tillinghast married Betsey, daughter of Amos 
Maine Atwell, and had the following children : 

(1) Fanny, who died single in 1817. 

(2) Amos, who married Miss Jerould, of Pawtucket. 

(3) Mary, who married Pascal Allen, of Warren. 

(4) Susan, who died single. 

(5) Joanna, who married Hon. Silas Shepard, of 
Taunton. 

(6) Elizabeth, who died single. 

(7) Nicholas, who married (1) Sophia, daughter of 
Rev. Mr. Ritchie, of Needham ; (2) Ruby Potter, of 
Dartmouth. 

(8) William, who died single. 

(9) Joseph, who married Cornelia Armington, of 
Pawtucket. 

(10) Ruth Phillips. 

Mr. Tillinghast occupied a house where now stands 
the City Hotel, and his office was in its rear. Born 
Jan. 24, 1767, he died April 24, 1818. His wife, born 
Oct. 18, 1770, died March 19, 1834. They both are 
buried on the " Plain." 

Their son Nicholas has distinguished himself as a 
teacher, having been principal of the normal school 
at Bridgewater several years. Mary and Joanna also, 
before their marriage, were very successful teachers, 
the latter serving as preceptress in the Bristol Acad- 
emy. 

Hon. John Mason Williams, LL.D., the son of 
Brig.-Gen. James Williams, graduated at Brown Uni- 
versity in 1801, and commenced the practice of law 
in New Bedford. He afterwards located in Taunton, 
where he received the appointment of judge of the 
Court of Common Pleas, of which court he was chief 
justice for many years. Chief Justice Williams re- 
ceived the honorary degree of LL.D. from Brown 
University in 1843, and from Harvard University in 
1845. 

He married Eliza Otis, daughter of Hon. Lemuel 



26 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



Williams, the first representative to Congress from 
his Congressional district. Their children were: 

(1) Elizabeth, who married Hon. Horatio Pratt, of 
Taunton. 

(2) Maria, who married Dr. William A. Gordon, of 
New Bedford. 

(3) Joseph Otis, who married Emily, daughter of 
Dr. Keenan, of Springfield. Two others died early. 

Judge Williams was eminent for his urbanity and 
sweetness of temper in social life as for his learning 
in the profession of law. He was beloved in his life 
and lamented in his death, which took place Dec. 26, 
1868. 

Judge Williams occupied a modest mansion on 
Summer Street, which also became the home of Hon. 
Horatio Pratt, his son-in-law. 

Hon. Marcus Morton, LL.D., was born in Free- 
town in 1784, the son of Nathaniel Morton, who mar- 
ried Mary Carey, of Bridgewater. Mr. Morton grad- 
uated at Brown University in 1804, and commenced 
the practice of law in Taunton in 1807. He repre- 
sented the district in which he lived in Congress four 
years, occupied a seat on the bench of the Supreme 
Court of the State of Massachusetts fifteen years, and 
served as Governor of the commonwealth three times. 
Once, in consequence of the death of Governor Eustis, 
in 1825, the duties of the chief magistrate devolved 
upon him as Lieutenant-Governor. Again in 1840, 
and for the third time in 1843, he was invested with 
that high office. He acted also as collector of the 
port of Boston four years. He received the honorary 
degree of LL.D. from Brown University in 1826, and 
again from Harvard University in 1840. Governor 
Morton married in 1807 Charlotte, daughter of James 
Hodges, of Taunton. Their children are as fol- 
lows : 

(1) Joanna Maria, who married William T. Hawes, 
of New Bedford, a graduate of Brown University. 

(2) Lydia Mason, who married Rev. Henry W. 
Lee, D.D., of Springfield, Mass., and Rochester, 
N. Y., afterward bishop (in the Protestant Episcopal 
Church) of Iowa. 

(3) Charlotte, who married Samuel Watson, of 
Nashville, Tenn. 

(4) Sarah Carey, who married Hon. Willard Lov- 
ering, a manufacturer of Taunton. 

(5) Marcus, who married Abby, daughter of Henry 
Hoppin, Esq., of Providence. 

(6) Nathaniel, who married Harriet, only child of 
Hon. Francis Baylies. 

(7) James, who married Elizabeth, daughter of 
Hon. George Ashmun, of Springfield. 

(8) Susan Tillinghast, who married M. Day Kim- 
ball, of the firm of Faulkner, Page & Kimball, Boston. 

(9) Francis Wood, who married George Henry 
French, of Andover. 

(10) Emily Matilda, who married Daniel C, son of 
Dr. Dawes, of Taunton, a resident of Brooklyn, N. Y. 

The children's children are forty-three, of whom 



thirty-two are still living. The Morton mansion is 
on Washington Street near the intersection of Broad- 
way. 

Th<j three sons of Governor Morton, Marcus, Na- 
thaniel, and James, all graduated at Brown University, 
Marcus in 1838, Nathaniel in 1840, James in 1843. 
They were distinguished as scholars in their classes, 
and became eminent in their chosen profession of law. 
The eldest has been long on the bench of the Supreme 
Court of Massachusetts, and is its present chief jus- 
tice. 

Governor Morton, born Feb. 19, 1784, died Feb. 6, 
1864. His wife, born Dec. 23, 1787, died Dec. 25, 
1873. They both lie buried in Mount Pleasant Cem- 
etery. 

Hon. Francis Baylies, the son of William Bay- 
lies, M.D., and grandson of the Hon. Samuel White, 
the first Taunton lawyer, was born Oct. 16, 1783, and 
commenced the practice of law in Taunton in 1810. 
He officiated as register of probate (an office which 
his father filled before him) seven years. He was a 
member of Congress six years, and during the admin- 
istration of Gen. Jackson he received the appoint- 
ment of a mission to Buenos Ayres. Mr. Baylies is 
well known as the historian of Plymouth Colony. 
Few men in his time were better versed in the an- 
tiquities of the country, and he had a passionate love 
for all good learning. His home, a pleasant stone 
cottage on Winthrop Street, near the present crossing 
of the railroad, was the centre of attraction to all who 
delighted in culture and good cheer down to the day 
of his death, Oct. 28, 1852, aged sixty-nine years and 
twelve days. > 

Mr. Baylies married Elizabeth, widow of David 
Dagget Denning, Esq., of New York City, daughter 
of Howard Moulton, Esq., of Troy, N. Y., and sister- 
in-law of Gen. John Ellis Wool. Their only child, 
Harriet, born May 4, 1823, married Nathaniel, son of 
Governor Morton, Sept. 29, 1846. 

James Ellis, Esq., son of Rev. John Ellis, a 
chaplain in the Revolution, afterwards of Rehoboth, 
now called Seekonk, was born in Franklin, Conn., 
May 23, 1769, graduated at Brown University in 1791, 
studied law in Providence with Judge Howell, and in 
Taunton with Judge Padelford. He commenced the 
practice of law in Seekonk, but being appointed dis- 
trict attorney, removed to Taunton. He was thrice 
chosen State senator previous to 1820. 

Mr. Ellis married Martha, daughter of Joseph 
Bridgham, of Seekonk, and sister of Hon. Samuel W. 
Bridgham, an eminent lawyer of Providence. Their 
children were : 

(1) John, who died early. 

(2) George, who married Sophia Morse. 

(3) Horace, who died early. 

(4) James P., who married Caroline S., daughter of 
John Presbrey, and who served as county treasurer, 
town clerk, and assistant justice of the police court. 

(5) Martha, the only daughter, a young lady of 





C^^6&Z^C<£^ 









(L^^f^^ 




BENCH AND BAR. 



27 



uncommon promise, who died in Taunton, Nov. 24, 
1828, aged twenty. 

(6) Samuel B., the youngest son, who, a member of 
Dartmouth College, at the death of his sister left 
college and abandoned all idea of a profession, giving 
himself up to inordinate grief. 

Anselm Bassett, Esq., son of Thomas and Lydia 
Bassett, of Rochester, Mass., was born in 1784, and 
graduated at Brown University in 1803. He married 
(1) Rosalinda, daughter of Abraham Holmes, of 
Rochester, Mass.; (2) widow Lucy Smith, of Troy, 
N. Y. Three children still live, — two daughters, 
Cynthia C. H. and Elizabeth M., and a son, Charles 
J. H., who has been long connected as cashier and 
president with the Taunton Bank, and who married 
(1) Emeline Dean, daughter of John W. Seabury, of 
Taunton; (2) Nancy L. Gibbs, of Bridgewater; (3) 
Martha B. French, of Pawtucket. There are eight 
living children: (1) John S., (2) Charles A., (3) 
Louisa B., wife of George H. Rhodes, (4) Henry F., 
(5) Rufus W., (6) Mary R., (7) George F., (8) Susie A. 

Mr. Bassett served many years as register of pro- 
bate, and secured a large practice in his profession. 
His home was on Main Street, the second house west 
from Chestnut Street, not far from the Church Green. 
He died, leaving the homestead to his daughters, 
Sept, 9, 1863. 

Horatio L. Danforth, Esq., son of William 
and Sally (Leonard) Danforth, was born in 1801. 
His father owned the estate which now constitutes 
the Lunatic Hospital farm. After his school days the 
son was employed in the Hopewell Rolling-Mill, of 
which his father was superintendent, until eighteen 
years of age, when he met with a serious accident to 
his athletic career, of which few were his equals, by 
the loss of an arm taken off by the machinery in the 
mill. He then commenced his education, prepared 
for college in Bristol Academy, and was graduated at 
Brown University in the class of 1825. He studied 
law in the office of Hon. Francis Baylies, and com- 
menced practice in 1829, but was not essentially a bar 
lawyer. He was elected county treasurer in that 
year, and was re-elected annually irrespective of 
party lines for twelve years, fulfilling the duties with 
strict integrity and general satisfaction. He was 
superseded in 1841 by Dr. Foster Hooper, the Demo- 
cratic candidate. He then spent two years in Illinois, 
and on his return in 1844 received the appointment 
of high sheriff from Governor Briggs, which office he 
filled until 1851, and was then superseded by Lyman 
W. Dean, of Attleboro', appointed by Governor Bout- 
well. From that time he lived in retirement with 
his sisters, enjoying the society of his friends, his 
books, and his walks until disease, a dropsical one, 
closed his life, July 21, 1859. He was frank and out- 
spoken yet genial in his intercourse with men. He 
was for many years an attendant of the Episcopal 
Church. The above facts have been communicated 
by his friend, Capt. J. W. D. Hall. 



Nathaniel Morton, Esq., son of Judge Morton, 
and son-in-law of Hon. Francis Baylies, was one of 
the most brilliant men who ever flouished in Taun- 
ton. His professional career was a brief one, but he 
filled a large place in the hearts of his many friends, 
which death, alas, too early, as they thought, made 
void. Born Dec. 3, 1821, he died Feb. 12, 1856, and 
is buried in Mount Pleasant Cemetery by the side of 
his father. 

Hon. Horatio Pratt, son-in-law of Chief Justice 
Williams, was for many years a leading lawyer of the 
Bristol County bar, district attorney, and a member 
of the Massachusetts Senate. His physical constitu- 
tion was weak. He struggled long with bodily in- 
firmities, and died at a comparatively early age, May 
24, 1872. 

Hon. Chester Tsham Reed, son of William and 
Elizabeth Dean (Dennis) Reed, was born Nov. 23, 
1823, and after fitting for college in the Taunton 
High School and Bristol Academy, entered Brown 
University, but through limited means of support left 
before graduation, subsequently receiving the honorary 
degree of A.M. for his high attainments in learning. 
He entered the law-office of Mr. Anselm Bassett, in 
Taunton, and was invited to a copartnership, which 
he accepted. He soon took a prominent position at 
the Bristol County bar, and earned so good a reputa- 
tion in other parts of the State that he was nominated 
and elected attorney-general of the commonwealth, in 
which office he served with great credit several years. 

; A vacancy occurring on the bench of the Superior 

j Court, Mr. Reed was nominated and confirmed, re- 
signing only when he found the salary could not 
meet the expenses of a growing family, when he re- 
turned to a lucrative practice in Boston, changing 
his residence from Taunton to Dedham. He died at 
White Sulphur Springs, W. Va., where he had gone 
for his health, Sept. 2, 1873, in his fiftieth year. Mr. 

] Reed married Elizabeth Y. Allyn, of New Bedford, 
Feb. 24, 1851, and their children are a daughter, 
Sybil, and a son, Chester Allyn, a graduate of Har- 
vard University in 1882, and a student-in-law at the 
present time. 

Hon. Edmund Hatch Bennett, son of Milo 
Lyman Bennett and Adeline (Hatch) Bennett, was 
born in Manchester, Vt., April 6, 1824. He was edu- 
cated in the Manchester and Burlington Academies 
in his native State, and when fifteen years of age he 

' entered the University of Vermont at Burlington, 
where he graduated in the class of 1843, and from 
which he received the degree of Doctor of Laws 
(LL.D.) in 1873. For a short time after graduation 
Mr. Bennett taught a family school in Virginia, and 
finally, having decided upon the legal profession as a 
life-work, he began his studies in Burlington, Vt., in 
the office of his father (at that time an associate jus- 
tice of the Supreme Court of Vermont). He was ad- 
mitted to the Vermont bar in 1847, and in the spring 
of 1848 settled in Taunton, where he has since re- 



28 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



sided. Upon locating in Taunton he entered into co- 
partnership with the late Nathaniel Morton, which 
continued nearly three years. He then formed a part- 
nership with Hon. Henry Williams, which relation 
continued several years. For the past fifteen years 
he has been in partnership with Henry J. Fuller, Esq., 
of Taunton. 

Upon the incorporation of Taunton as a city in 
1865 he was unanimously elected its first mayor, re- 
elected in 1866, and again in 1867. 

Although Judge Bennett early took a leading posi- 
tion at the Bristol bar, he gave much attention to the 
study of the law as a science, and during the years 
1870, 1871, and 1872 was a lecturer on various topics 
at the Dane Law School of Harvard University, 
Cambridge. He has been connected with the Law 
School of Boston University since its organization in 
1872, and in 1876 he was chosen its dean, a position 
which he still occupies. 

Judge Bennett has also been the editor of nu- 
merous law books, numbering over one hundred 
volumes, the leading works being the " English Law 
and Equity Reports," an edition of Mr. Justice Story's 
works, " Leading Criminal Cases," " Fire Insurance 
Cases," "Digest of Massachusetts Reports," Ameri- 
can editions of the recent English works of " God- 
dard on Easements," " Benjamin on Sales," " Inder- 
mann on the Common Law," etc. He has also been 
for several years one of the editors of the American 
Law Register of Philadelphia. In December, 1878, 
he delivered at Hingham, Mass., before the State 
Board of Agriculture, of which he had formerly been 
a member, a lecture on " Farm Law," which has been 
very extensively republished in agricultural journals 
and elsewhere throughout New England and the 
West. In May, 1858, he was appointed judge of 
probate and insolvency for Bristol County, and has 
held the position to the present time, a period of 
twenty-five years. 

Judge Bennett is an active member of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church, and has been for many years either 
a warden or vestryman of St. Thomas' Parish, Taunton, 
and has been many times a delegate from this parish 
to the Diocesan Convention. He has also been three 
times — in 1874, 1877, and 1880 — a delegate from this 
diocese to the General Triennial Convention of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church in this country. 

In June, 1853, he united in marriage with Sally, 
the second daughter of the Hon. Samuel L. Crocker, 
of Taunton. 

Judge Colby, who is claimed by New Bedford as 
one of its lawyers, and will be noticed under that 
head, was for years a resident of Taunton. Chief 
Justice Morton, of Andover, was born in Taunton, 
and so was Judge Wilde, so long of the Supreme 
Court of Massachusetts. Theophilus Parsons, the 
learned Professor of Law at Cambridge, once lived 
and practiced law in Taunton. Seth Padelford Sta- 
ples, of New York, Henry Goodwin, attorney-general 



of Rhode Island, Judge Pliny Merrick, of Worcester, 
Judge Erastus Maltby Reed, of Mansfield, Baalis San- 
ford, of Boston, Sydney Williams, of Providence, son- 
in-law of President Messer, were of Taunton, either as 
natives or during some part of their professional life. 

The oldest living member of the Bristol County 
bar residing in Taunton is the Hon. Henry Williams, 
who has represented his district in Congress, served 
as register of probate, and distinguished himself as a 
painstaking and most accurate annalist and historian. 
Samuel R. Townsend also has been long a member of 
this bar. Their associates in the profession are Edmund 
H. Bennett, judge of the Probate Court, which posi- 
tion he has recently resigned, and who also- acts as 
dean and chief Professor of the Law Department of 
the Boston University; William Henry Fox, judge 
of the District Court ; William E. Fuller, register of 
probate and associate. judge of the District Court; 
James Brown, who has served as State senator ; 
Henry J. Fuller, the partner of Judge Bennett; 
John E. Sanford, for some years a member of the 
State Legislature and a portion of the time Speaker 
of the House of Representatives ; James H. Dean 
and Charles A. Reed, partners-in-law, the latter pres- 
ent city solicitor ; G. Edgar Williams, associated with 
Henry Williams; James M. Cushman, city clerk; 
Arthur M. Alger, clerk of the District Court; Lau- 
rens N. Francis, Sylvanus M. Thomas, John H. Gal- 
ligan, L. Everett White, Edward J. Conaty, Benjamin 
E. Walcott, W. Waldo Robinson. 

Fall River. — James Ford was born in Milton, 
Mass., Aug. 3, 1774. In 1810 he entered Brown Uni- 
versity, and graduated with honor, taking the saluta- 
tory address. He then assumed the study of the law 
with Judge Metcalf, of Dedham. In 1817 he removed 
to Taunton and continued his studies with Judge Mor- 
ton, who was then ex-member of Congress. He was 
admitted to the bar in 1818, and became a partner of 
Judge Morton. In 1819 he came to Fall River and 
opened an office in Central Street. 

He was a member of the Legislature in 1825, and 
was present when Gen. Lafayette laid the corner- 
stone of Bunker's Hill Monument. In 1826 he deliv- 
ered the Fourth of July oration in Fall River the day 
that John Adams and Thomas Jefferson died. Mr. 
Ford was public-spirited in regard to matters in 
general. He served seven years on the school com- 
mittees ; and, with perhaps three exceptions, admin- 
istered the oath of office to the members of the city 
government up to the time of his death, and was sev- 
eral times elected an alderman. He was one of the 
charter members of the Mount Hope Lodge of F. 
and A. M., and always manifested a lively interest in 
this ancient and honored order. He was postmaster 
four years, and one of the founders of the Franklin 
Savings-Bank, was special police justice for twenty 
years, for twelve years was one of the inspectors of 
the State Almshouse, and for twenty-five years he 
edited the weeklv Monitor. He was an excellent 




rv / ; t l^ 



sin wo* «^ 



BENCH AND BAR. 



29 



lawyer and a good citizen. He died July 27, 1873, 
lacking only one week of seventy-nine years of age. 

Eliab Williams, Esq., was for nearly half a cen- 
tury a member of the Bristol County bar, and at the 
time of his death the oldest and one of the most 
highly respected members of the legal profession in 
this portion of New England. 

He was born in Raynham, Mass., in 1803, and spent 
his early youth in that town, attending school there 
and in Taunton. At the age of fourteen he entered 
Brown University, and graduated at eighteen, in the 
class of 1821, intending immediately to enter upon 
the study of the law. He had, however, exhausted 
his pecuniary resources in the acquisition of a colle- 
giate education, and not having the means necessary 
to carry him through the long and tedious appren- 
ticeship then required to enter the legal profession in 
Massachusetts, he went South, and engaged as a pri- 
vate tutor in the family of a gentleman in Virginia. 
While there he learned that by the laws of that com- 
monwealth a person could prepare for admission to 
the bar and the practice of the law without spending 
a certain prescribed time in the office of a counselor- 
at-law simply by being found qualified upon an ex- 
amination by the judges of the Court of Appeals. 
He thought favorably of this plan, as it would allow 
him to study law and at the same time pursue his 
vocation as a teacher. And his wishes being made 
known to the attorney-general of North Carolina, 
that gentleman drew up a course of legal study which 
he recommended to Mr. Williams. The latter imme- 
diately repaired to Norfolk and purchased the neces- 
sary books, and by the time he was of sufficient age 
to be admitted, according to the laws of Virginia, — 
i.e., twenty-one, — he had prepared himself for an 
examination. The mode of conducting this was pe- 
culiar. Going to Richmond when the Court of Ap- 
peals was in session in that city, each member of the 
court appointed a time to see him at his private room, 
and in this way, at intervals for about a week, the 
examination was carried on by each judge separately 
until the whole bench were satisfied with the qualifi- 
cations of their young candidate, and after taking the 
necessary oath he was duly admitted to the bar. 

This entitled him to practice in all the courts of 
Virginia; but, on account of repugnance to the insti- 
tution of slavery, he decided not to settle there, and 
returned home. Upon his arrival here he found that 
his admission to the bar of Virginia did not avail 
him, inasmuch as he did not practice in that State. 
So he entered the office of Hon. Marcus Morton as a 
student-at-law, in Taunton, Mass., and eked out the 
expenses by teaching school. The first winter after 
entering he taught in the district where he had at- 
tended school when a boy. At the close of his 
school he returned to the office of Governor Morton, 
and remained there till the latter retired from the 
profession to accept a place on the bench of the 
Supreme Judicial Court of the State. He then 



entered the office of David G. W. Cobb, Esq., then 
register of probate for the county of Bristol, and 
there remained till the term of court in September, 
1825, when he was admitted to the Bristol County 
bar. 

Mr. Williams first settled in the practice of his pro- 
fession at Dighton, Mass., where he remained till 
1827, when he removed to Swansea, the latter place 
being then a more favorable field for the profession 
than at present, although not sufficient to afford busi- 
ness for two lawyers, for we are told that he was in- 
duced to go there because he had heard that the only 
lawyer in Swansea had removed to Fall River. 

Fall River by this time had become a thriving and 
promising place, and lawyers, no less than mechanics, 
business men, and members of other professions, were 
being attracted thither by its rapidly-developing 
importance as a manufacturing, commercial, and 
social centre. 

Hezekiah Battelle had been some time in the pro- 
fession of the law at Fall River, and had acquired some 
prominence and a lucrative practice. It was through 
his influence, unsolicited and unexpected, that Mr. 
Williams was induced in 1833, after having been six 
years at Swansea, to change his location from the 
latter place to Fall River. As Mr. Battelle was 
returning in the summer of that year from a pro- 
fessional visit to Pawtucket, passing through the 
village he met Mr. Williams on the street, and pro- 
posed that the latter should come to Fall River and 
go into partnership with him, saying that he had 
more business than he could attend to alone. This 
fact shows that Mr. Williams was not altogether des- 
titute of the reputation of a good lawyer even then. 
The conditions of the proposed partnership, proffered 
as they were by one of ability and experience in the 
profession, were even more flattering, for they pro- 
posed a partnership of five years with equal profits 
in the business. This was certainly very liberal con- 
sidering that Mr. Battelle was fourteen years Mr. 
Williams' senior, and had already attained a good 
practice. 

The partnership once established needed no further 
stipulation as to duration : it lasted for more than 
twenty years. During this period it is certainly 
within bounds to say that the firm did their full share 
of the legal business of the town. 

The firm of Battelle & Williams became one of the 
best known in this section of the State, both of the 
partners being distinguished for the thoroughness 
with which they prepared their cases, and their ex- 
treme fidelity and care in presenting them to courts 
and juries. After the retirement of the senior partner 
Mr. Williams continued business in the well-known 
office in Granite Block until failing health compelled 
him to retire to the comforts of home. 

Mr. Williams was the oldest member of the Bristol 
County bar in the time of his practice. Towards the 
latter part of his life, when, on account of infirmities 



30 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



of age, he Avas seldom seen in the courts, he still did a 
large office business. His opinions upon knotty legal 
points were always highly valued, and in the depart- 
ments of conveyancing and equity he had few equals. 
His relations with his brethren of the bar were always 
cordial, his well-known form and face always com- 
manding respect when seen in assemblages of mem- 
bers of his profession. 

In conversation Mr. Williams had a peculiar power 
of presenting points. Usually retired and reserved 
in manner, he yet had a few intimate friends by whom 
his conversation was highly prized. His reminiscences 
of the ancient giants of the bar — Webster, Choate, 
Jeremiah Mason, Timothy G. Coffin, and others less 
known to public fame — were exceedingly interesting. 
He lived beyond the full allotted years of man's life, 
but he still preserved his noble characteristics. He 
was a man of marked integrity, always true to his 
trust, to his clients, to himself, and to the cause of 
truth. 

The Bar Association, which convened upon the an- 
' nouncement of his death, adopted the following reso- 
lutions : 

" Resolved, That in the death of Mr. Williams, who for nearly half a 
century has been an honored and efficient member of the bar of this 
Commonwealth, the profession has lost a conscientious and wise coun- 
selor a faithful, patient, and industrious attorney, an earnest and care- 
ful advocate, exemplary citizen, and an honest man. 

"Resolved, That as an evidence of our regard and appreciation for the 
worth and character of the deceased we will attend his funeral in a 
body, and that an attested copy of these resolutions be sent to the family, 
and the Superior Court be requested to place the same on its records." 

The trustees of the Fall River Savings-Bank, at a 
meeting held April 15, 1880, ordered the following 
memorial to be placed upon their records : 

"Our old tried friend and honored associate, Eliab Williams, having 
departed this life, it becomes us to pause a moment to contemplate the 
distinguished virtues of his character and life. 

" His strict integrity and high sense of honor, his cool and deliberate 
judgment, his studious application to the business of his profession, his 
abiding faith in the divine side of his nature, made him an invaluable 
associate, citizen, and friend. 

"During the more than forty-three years' service with this institu- 
tion as trustee, secretary, vice-president, and legal counsel he was always 
prompt in the discharge of every duty devolving upon him, having but 
one concern, that of caring for and protecting the interests of those who 
intrusted their deposits in our keeping. 

"We mourn his departure, and in sadness reflect that we shall no 
more have his wise counsel. 

" To his family and friends we tender our deepest sympathies in this 
their great bereavement, and in token of our esteem we will attend his 
funeral in a body." 

He was identified with the Fall River Savings- 
Bank as trustee, vice-president, and counsel almost 
from the organization of the institution. He was also 
a member of the school committee, and an earnest 
friend of education. 

Few men have transacted more business in the set- 
tlement of estates of deceased persons than did he 
during his life, and none with more uniform satisfac- 
tion to all concerned. 

He was for many years a member of the First Con- 
gregational Church of Fall River, a man of pure and 
spotless private life, of wonderful firmness and self- 



possession, and possessed of courage that never yielded 
to chicanery or wrong. His departure, like his life, 
was patient, gentle, serene, and ready. 

" Sure the last end of the good man 
Is peace. How calm his exit! 
Night-dews fall not so gently to the ground, 
Nor weary, worn-out winds expire so soft." 

Mr. Williams was thrice married, and left a widow 
and one son, the latter residing in Boston. He died 
April 14, 1880. 

Frederick A. Boomer was born in Tiverton, R. I., 
April 8, 1821, and died in Fall River, Mass., July 22, 
1871. His wife was Elizabeth M., daughter of John 
Earle, to whom he was married July 8, 1857. 

Left to struggle for himself at an early age. a stu- 
dious disposition led him to adopt teaching as a pro- 
fession, for which he prepared himself by a systematic 
course of study, graduating at the Massachusetts State 
Normal School at Bridgewater. After pursuing his 
chosen vocation a number of years, the advice of 
friends and his own preference led him to study the 
law, which he commenced reading in the office of the 
late David Perkins, Esq., and subsequently pursued 
with Judge Lapham, on whose motion he was admitted 
to the bar of Bristol County. After his admission to 
the bar of this State, Mr. Boomer became a resident 
of Tiverton, R. I., from which town he was twice 
elected to the General Assembly. 

Returning to Fall River, he soon became interested 
in educational matters, his experience as a teacher 
giving him a lively interest in the public schools. 
For many years he was an efficient and valued mem- 
ber of the school committee, serving with earnestness 
and zeal. He was three times elected to the office of 
city solicitor, the last time in 1870, when failing health 
induced him to resign before the expiration of his term 
of office. 

In the fall of 1870 he was elected to the General 
Court, it being the second time he had been selected 
by his fellow-citizens for that important office. He 
was chairman of the Committee on Elections, and also 
a member of the Committee on Federal Relations. 

As a legislator Mr. Boomer was liberal and pro- 
gressive in his views, with a hearty sympathy for all 
measures calculated to raise the moral standard and 
lessen the burdens of the laboring masses. Ready 
and earnest as a debater, he never failed to obtain the 
attention of the House, and retain the respect and 
confidence of his fellow-members. 

Mr. Boomer was a director in the Pocasset National 
Bank from its organization till his death. 

As a man and a friend he cannot be too warmly 
spoken of, for he possessed the noblest qualities of char- 
acter. So manly was he by instinct that no one could 
deem him capable of a mean action, so charitable in 
his opinions of others as to lead him to overlook their 
faults and forgive any injuries he may have suffered. 
The feeling of vindictiveness he would not or could 
not cherish, and as a lawyer he would never encour- 






\^ €^-&r- 



<^Z_ 



BENCH AND BAR. 



31 



age litigation, preferring the loss of business to the 
loss of self-respect. 

He has been spoken of as a true Christian gentle- 
man, religious, but not bigoted, exhibiting grace of 
heart no less than polish of manners. Habitually 
cheerful, he was an agreeable companion and friend, 
and impressed all with his geniality and kindness, no 
less than with his earnestness and decision of char- 
acter. 

Mr. Boomer was fifty years old at the time of his 
death, and had grown up with the thrift and enter- 
prise of Fall River. In labor and sympathy he was 
fully identified with the best interests of the place, 
intellectual and spiritual, as well as material. In 
whatever offices he was called to fill, he gave to the 
discharge of their duties his best abilities and his most 
earnest, conscientious preparation. When quite a lad 
he made a profession of religion, was baptized by Rev. 
Asa Bronson, and received in the membership of the 
First Baptist Church of Fall River, March 6, 1836. 

Hezekiah Battelle, for so long a time a promi- 
nent member of the Bristol bar, was graduated at 
Brown University, in the class of 1816. He read law 
in the office of Hercules Cushman, Esq., of Freetown, 
then a prominent lawyer of the Bristol bar. Upon his 
admission to practice he became a partner with Mr. 
Cushman, and remained there a few years, when 
he removed to Swansea village, and continued in 
practice there till 1827, wdien he located in Fall 
River, and here passed the larger part of his life. 

Coming to Fall River in the vigor of manhood and 
with a reputation for ability and fidelity already es- 
tablished, his practice rapidly increased, and for more 
than a quarter of a century he was regarded as one 
of the ablest lawyers in the country. Perhaps no one 
in the county exceeded him in the preparation of 
cases for trial, either by the jury upon question of 
fact, or by the court upon matters of law. Mr. Bat- 
telle took a deep interest in the moral and religious 
welfare of Fall River, and in the prosperity and good 
government of our common country. He was one of 
the representatives from this town in the Legislature 
in 1838 and 1848, interesting himself at the latter pe- 
riod with the question of boundary between the States 
of Massachusetts and Rhode Island. For more than 
fifteen years, however, immediately previous to his 
death, he took but little interest in the practice of law, 
but devoted much of his attention to religious matters 
and questions of theology. Mr. Battelle was actively 
interested in the organization of the Unitarian Society 
in Fall River, and was one of its earnest supporters. 

He died Jan. 22, 1872, at the age of eighty-two 
years. 

Cyrus Alden was born in Bridgewater, Mass., 
May 20, 1785. He was fifth in descent and direct 
line from John Alden, the first of the Plymouth col- 
ony to step upon the famous rock at the landing of 
the " Mayflower" Pilgrims in 1620. His father was 
Capt. Joseph Alden. His mother and grandmother 



were members of the Carver family and also of Pil- 
grim ancestry. He was one of a family of nine chil- 
dren, of which five were sons, two of whom, himself 
and a younger brother, were graduated from Brown 
University, the one to follow the profession of the 
law, the other that of divinity. His own graduation 
took place in 1807, his education having been delayed 
by a severe and protracted illness. He studied law at 
Litchfield, Conn., and also read with Judge Whit- 
man, of Marshfield, and Judge Baylies, of Taunton. 
He began the practice of law in Wrentham, marrying, 
soon after his entrance upon his profession, Mary 
Margaret, daughter of Mr. Alexander Jones, of Prov- 
idence, R. I. After a short residence in Wrentham 
he removed with his family to Boston, residing in 
Roxbury, but having an office in the city and in the 
same building with Daniel Webster, a most noted con- 
temporary, belonging to the same political party, the 
Whigs, to which he always held. He here published, 
in 1819, a book, of which he was the author and edi- 
tor, under the title of "Abridgment of Law, with 
Practical Forms," in two parts, which proved accept- 
able and useful, but has now been superseded by later 
works of the same purpose. In 1827 he once more 
removed his family and business, and this time to 
Fall River, which he afterward served in the Legisla- 
ture, the town then bearing the name of Troy. Here 
he spent the remainder of his life, dying in March, 
1855. 

In addition to the legal and judicial qualities of 
mind, which, with a marked and refined wit, he pos- 
sessed in a great degree, he had also poetic and inven- 
tive talents, amusing his leisure hours with the former 
and employing the latter to some practical result, 
being the inventor of hay-scales, for which he secured 
a patent, they being at one time in quite general use. 

An obituary written by a fellow-lawyer says, " For 
several years he did a considerable portion of Fall 
River's judicial business, his promptness and tenacity 
of memory being remarkable. He rarely took notes 
of testimony, and it was very seldom that a law-book 
was requisite to him for reference in any decision. So 
thoroughly imbued was his mind with the essential 
principles of our laws that his errors in stating them 
from memory merely were most infrequent, and it has 
been remarked, not without point, that more reliance 
might be placed upon the opinion of Cyrus Alden, 
Esq., than could be upon the opinions of many men 
with both books and laws. He was an author as well 
as practitioner, and has left a volume as a memento 
to his brethren in the department of his profession." 

Louis Lapham, who was a leading spirit in Fall 
River for more than forty years, was born in Burrill- 
ville. R. I., in 1810. His parents were poor people, 
and young Lapham had to earn his own bread. He 
acquired a good common-school education for his 
times, and learned the printer's trade. He early ac- 
quired a taste for political life, and was a Democrat. 
He took sides with the Dorr Rebellion in Rhode 



32 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



Island in 1840, and was so much of a friend of Gov- 
ernor Dorr that he became very obnoxious to the 
King Charles Charterists, and left his home and fled 
to Fall River, where he followed his trade for several 
years. He was a friend of the laborer, and always on 
the alert to defend the poor man's rights. He was of 
quick perceptions and had a ready tongue, and was a 
match for the lawyers and merchants of Fall River 
in debate in town-meeting. He acquired consider- 
able reputation with the laboring classes, and ambi- 
tious for a better situation in life than that that was 
open to him in mechanical avocation, studied law and 
was admitted to the bar. 

In 1852 he was appointed judge of the Police Court 
of Fall River by Governor Boutwell, which position 
he held until the court was abolished and the present 
District Court created in 1873. He was an upright 
judge. He was not a profound lawyer, yet he had a 
true conception of what was right, and his decisions 
were just and proper, if not always exact law. Hav- 
ing earned his position by the sweat of his own brow, 
he had not such regard for professional etiquette as 
perhaps he should have entertained. The people 
had great confidence in his judgment and fairness, 
and disposition to do justice by them. 

He was one of the original Free-Soilers, and for 
years was a prominent person in that party in the 
city of Fall River. He was several times a candi- 
date for mayor of Fall River, and in the latter part 
of his life was much disposed to be in sympathy with 
Democratic principles, and nothing but his hatred of 
slavery and his recollections of it kept him from 
full fellowship with them. 

He was of very generous disposition and very 
ready and willing to help those in need, and to render 
such assistance by word and deed as it was in his cir- 
cumstances to do. Indeed, he was too generous for 
his own accumulation of property. He was a true 
friend. He had strong attachments and hopes, but 
yet his love of justice and fair dealing was a control- 
ling element of character. He hated show and shams, 
and spoke perhaps too strongly at times in condemna- 
tion of political intriguers and hypocrites. He was a 
laborious man. He frequently wrote for the news- 
papers, and was busy in his profession. He died in 
Fall River in March, 1881, aged seventy-one years, 
leaving a widow and several daughters to mourn his 
death and to cherish his memory. 

Charles Holmes, father of Hon. Charles Holmes, 
was also a leading lawyer of Fall River. He had an 
excellent legal mind, and was genial and courteous in 
his intercourse with his fellow-men. 

Hon. Josiah C. Blaisdell was born in Camp- 
ton, N. H., on the 22d of October, 1820. In his boy- 
hood he attended the common district school, and 
later was a member of the Literary and Scientific 
Institution at Hancock, N. H. While yet a young 
man he removed with his parents to Methuen, Mass., 
from whence, in 1843, he came to Fall River for the 



purpose of entering the law-office of James Ford, 
Esq. Upon the completion of his studies he engaged 
in the practice of his profession, and has continued 
its active duties to the present day, rising step by 
step until he has gained a foremost position at the 
bar of his adopted town, and has become generally 
well known in this section of the State. 

His first entrance into public life was in 1858, 
when he was elected a member of the Massachusetts 
House of Representatives. In 1864 he was appointed 
by Governor John A. Andrew a member of the Board 
of State Charities, completing an unexpired term of 
two years. In 1866 he was reappointed to the same 
office by Governor Alexander H. Bullock for a fur- 
ther term of seven years, but resigned after serving 
two years. He was chosen a member of the State 
Senate in 1865, and again of the House in 1866. 

He was elected mayor of Fall River in 1858, and 
re-elected in 1859. Since Mr. Blaisdell's terms in the 
mayoralty and as representative and senator he has 
been brought by official life more or less continuously 
before the public, and in 1874, upon the organization 
of the "Second District Court of Bristol," in recog- 
nition of his qualifications as a lawyer and a man of 
sound and discreet judgment, he was appointed pre- 
siding judge. He has since that date filled the 
position ably and well, to the satisfaction of his 
brethren of the bar and the public at large. 

Nicholas Hatheway, son of Elnathan P. and 
Salome (Cushman) Hatheway, was born in Freetown, 
Sept. 3, 1824, the eldest of seven children. He was 
educated at Phillips Andover Academy and Pierce's 
Academy at Middleborough. He entered Brown 
University in 1843, and graduated in 1847 ; studied 
law with his father, and was admitted to the bar in 
1850. He commenced practice in Freetown, where 
he remained until 1857, and then accepted a position 
as head of the weighers' and gaugers' department in 
the Boston custom-house under Collector Arthur W. 
Austin. Mr. Hatheway remained in this position 
until 1861, when he became a member of the Boston 
Stock Exchange, and continued in the brokerage 
business until about fourteen years ago, when he re- 
moved to Fall River and resumed the practice of 
law. Mr. Hatheway has taken good rank at the bar, 
but perhaps is best known as a criminal lawyer. He 
held various offices while in Freetown, was twice 
justice, and held that office until it was abolished. 
He was also a school-teacher in his native town and 
a member of the school committee. He was elected 
a member of the Legislature from Fall River in 1875, 
and was alderman in 1874 and 1875. 

Politically, Mr. Hatheway is a Democrat, and an 
earnest and outspoken advocate of the principles of 
that party. He was a delegate to the four last 
National Democratic Conventions, and has been a 
delegate to most of the State Conventions for twenty 
years, and has also been a member of the Democratic 
State Central Committee. He was nominated for 







'Ll 




j 





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BENCH AND BAR. 



33 



Congress in the fall of 1882, and received a very 
flattering vote. 

Mr. Hatheway is prominent in Masonic circles, is 
a member of Union Lodge, Dorchester; St. Paul's 
R. A. C, Boston; Council R. and S. M., Boston; 
Boston Commandery, and of the Supreme Grand 
Council of the Northern Jurisdiction of the United 
States and its Dependencies, — thirty-three degrees. 

Mr. Hatheway was married Jan. 1, 1851, to Fanny 
P. Dean, of Freetown, and has two children living, 
— Nelson D. Hatheway, M.D., of Middleborough, 
Mass., and Nicholas Hatheway, Jr., who graduates 
this year (1883) at Brown University. 

Hon. He.vky K. Braley, the present mayor of 
Fall River, was born in Rochester, Mass., March 
17, 1850. He is a son of Samuel and Mary O. Braley, 
whose ancestor, Roger Braley, came to America and 
settled in Freetown in 1742. He was a Quaker. 

Mr. Braley attended the common schools of his 
native town, and subsequently graduated from the 
Rochester and Middleborough academies. He also 
taught school in Bridgewater four years. Having 
decided upon the legal profession as a vocation, he 
commenced the study of the law in the office of 
Latham & Kingman at Bridgewater, and in 1873 was 
admitted to the bar at Plymouth, Mass. He soon 
after located in Fall River, where he has since re- 
sided engaged in the active practice of his profession. 
Mr. Braley is an active and aggressive member of the 
Democratic party, and was elected mayor of the city 
of Fall River in 1882, and his popularity and worth 
as an executive officer was clearly evidenced by his 
re-election in 1883 by a large majority. Although 
yet a young man Mr. Braley has taken a leading 
position at the Bristol bar, and is regarded by his 
brethren as a rising man. 

James M. Morton, one of the older members of 
the bar, is a close student, has an excellent legal mind, | 
and is one of the acknowledged leaders of the bar in 
Southeastern Massachusetts. 

Hon. Andrew J. Jennings, Mr. Morton's partner, 
although a young man, has a good position at the bar, 
and is popular with his brethren and the citizens 
generally. He represented the district in the State 
Senate in 1882. 

Hon. John W. Ctjmmings is also a young man, but 
has already won a prominent position at the bar and t 
in the political field. He is the present State senator 
from this district, and one of Governor Butler's most 
trusted counselors. 

The present members of the Fall River bar are as 
follows : 

Nicholas Hatheway. John W. Cummings. 

Josiah C. Blaisdell. Timothy McDonough. 

James M. Morton. Samuel Ashton. 

Jonathan M. Wood. Aria N. Lincoln. 

Benjamin K. Lovatt. Patrick H. Wallace. 

William H. Pierce. Warren Aids. 

• Milton Reed. Hugo A. Dubuque. 

James F. Jackson. Edward Higginson. 

Dennis V. Sullivan. M. G. B. Swift. 
3 



Andrew J. JeDiiings. 
Simeon Borden. 
John S. Brayton. 



Frank G. Macomber. 
Henry K. Braley. 1 



Attleborough. — John Daggett. He is a native 
of Attleborough, descended from John Daggett, who 
came from Martha's Vineyard about 1707 and settled 
in Attleborough, with a family of nine children. He 
was the son of Thomas Daggett, of the Vineyard, who 
married Hannah, oldest daughter of Governor May- 
hew, and lived and died on the island. John Daggett, 
the author of the history of Attleborough in this work, 
was the son of Hon. Ebenezer Daggett and Sally 
Maxcy, one of the Maxcy family of Attleborough. 

He fitted for college at Day's Academy in Wrentham, 
and under the tuition of Rev. Alvan Cobb, of Taun- 
ton. He entered Brown University in September, 
1822, and graduated in the class of 1826. Soon after 
leaving college he commenced the study of the law in 
the office of Joseph L. Tillinghast, in Providence, a 
distinguished member of the Rhode Island bar and a 
member of Congress, and the next year studied in 
the office of Hon. J. J. Fiske, of Wrentham, and the 
third year attended the course of law lectures of Hon. 
Theron Metcalf, of Dedham, afterwards a judge of the 
Supreme Court of Massachusetts, and author of several 
learned works on jurisprudence. At that place he 
was admitted to the bar in January, 1830, and imme- 
diately opened an office and commenced practice in 
Attleborough, where he has continued most of his 
time since. Subsequently he edited a paper in Ded- 
ham for a year or two, and then returned to his native 
town. 

During the early years of his professional duties he 
took a deep interest in common-school education, and 
devoted much of his time to that cause, having served 
as chairman of the town school committee about fif- 
teen years in succession. 

He was elected representative to the Legislature for 
1836, and continued for four years in succession. In 
1850 he was elected to the Senate, and served on the 
Railroad and Judiciary Committees. During the 
latter year he was appointed member of the Valuation 
Board, the duties of which occupied four months at 
the State-House in Boston. He was also a member 
of the House in 1866. In 1852 he was appointed by 
the Governor register of probate and insolvency for 
Bristol County, and was afterwards elected to the 
same office for two terms, of four years each, holding 
the office for the period of eleven years. 

Of late years he has devoted his leisure hours to 
antiquarian and historical research, especially on the 
subject of the settlement and colonization of the Old 
Colony, and the origin and history of its people, is a 
member of the New England Genealogical and His- 
toric Society, and one of the original members of the 
Old Colony Historical Society, of which he is the 
president. He is the author of some local histories. 

Freetown. — William A. Leonard, from Rayn- 

1 For notices of J.J. Archer and Milton Reed, see history of Fall River. 



34 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



ham, located for the practice of his profession at 
Assonet village, in Freetown, in an early day. 

Being a single man, he boarded in the family of 
Col. Benjamin Weaver, in the west front chamber of 
whose house Mr. Leonard opened a law-office, and 
there remained until his building, constructed for tbat 
purpose, could be finished, the materials of which 
were obtained at Raynham, and brought down Taun- 
ton River and up Assonet River to Assonet village 
in Freetown, and set up a little south of the Congre- 
gational meeting-house. 

Mr. Leonard did not long remain in Freetown, but 
returned to Raynham. The building he put up for a 
law-office was afterwards used for a school-house. 

Washington Hathaway was a native of Free- 
town. He was a son of Joseph Hathaway and wife 
Eunice Winslow, and born Sept, 4, 1777. He was a 
graduate of Brown University, Providence, R. I. 
His law-office stood on the northerly side of Water 
Street, in Assonet village. Commenced practice in or 
about 1802. Died Feb. 10, 1818. 

George Bonum Nye Holmes was a native of 
Rochester, Mass., son of Abraham Holmes, Esq., and 
located in Freetown for the practice of the law in or 
near the year 1810. His law-office was the building 
now used by Mr. Philip C. Bryant for a grocery- 
store. 

Hercules Cushman was a native of Middlebor- 
ough. He studied law with Hon. Wilkes Wood, of 
his native town, and received the appointment of 
clerk of Plymouth County Court. Located in Free- 
town in or about 1813, from which town he was elected 
several times as representative to the General Court, 
and served one year in the Governor's Council. He 
was promoted to the office of colonel of the Fifth Regi- 
ment in the local militia of Bristol County. Honor- 
ably discharged. He returned to Middleborough in 
1828, and there died in 1832. 

Ruftjs Bacon was a native of Rochester, Mass. 
Came to Freetown in 1814. Occupied as a law-office 
that which had been used by George Bonum Nye 
Holmes. 

June 13, 1818, Mr. Bacon was commissioned cap- 
tain of the Assonet Light Infantry Company, which 
position he held until 1824; was a member of the 
Governor's Council one year ; chairman of County 
Commissioners in 1828, which year he removed to the 
State of New York. 

Elnathan P. Hatheway was one of the leading 
members of the Bristol bar, and for a long time one 
of the most prominent Democrats in the State. He 
was a personal friend of James Buchanan, and also 
of Judge Randall, father of Samuel J. Randall, the 
distinguished member of Congress from Philadelphia, 
and ex-Speaker of the House of Representatives. He 
was selectman of his town, commissioner of insol- 
vency, member of the last Constitutional Convention, 
member of the Legislature, and later of the Senate, 
was a member of the National Convention which 



nominated President Buchanan, and was subsequently 
offered the collectorship of Boston, which he declined. 
He was engaged for a long time in most of the impor- 
tant cases that came before the courts of Bristol 
County. He was popular with his brothers at the bar, 
and was an intimate friend of Timothy G. Coffin and 
William Baylies. 

Mr. Hatheway was a direct descendant on the pa- 
ternal side from Ann Hathaway, the wife of Shake- 
speare, and on the mother's side from Robert Cush- 
man, the Puritan. Elnathan P. Hatheway was a 
graduate of Brown University in the class of 1816. 

Ezra Wilkinson came to Freetown in March, 
1829, and opened a law-office in the building that had 
been used for that purpose by George Bonum Nye 
Holmes and Rufus Bacon. Mr. Wilkinson was a 
native of Wrentham, Mass., and a graduate of Brown 
University, Providence, R. I. From Freetown he 
removed to Seekonk, and from thence to Dedham. 

William H. Eddy was a native of Middleborough. 
He located for practice at Freetown in 1835. His 
health failed him, and he soon after returned to Mid- 
dleborough and died. 

Joseph Hathaway was a native of Freetown, and 
located for the practice of law in Fall River, where 
he was once elected as a member of the General 
Court, Came back to and opened a law-office at 
Assonet village in 1837. Somewhat distinguished as 
a temperance lecturer, claiming to be, as he did, a 
" reformed drunkard." Went back to the practice of 
law at Fall River in 1844. Did not remain long, but 
again returned to Freetown, where he died April 22, 
1865. He was a son of John Hathaway, of Free- 
town, and wife Betsey Winslow. 1 

The senior members of the bar of this county have 
many of them made up their records; those still left 
are soon to follow, and the juniors are to assume their 
places at the bar and on the bench ; to them will soon 
be committed these great responsible trusts. The 
perpetuity of our free institutions is committed to the 
guardianship and keeping of the bar and judiciary 
of our free country, for the history of the world 
teaches, and all free governments illustrate, this truth, 
that to the profession of the law civil government is 
indebted for all the safeguards and intrenchments 
with which the liberties of the people are protected, 
that legislation is shaped, constitutions enlarged, 
amended, and adopted by the enlightened administra- 
tion of the statesmen, both of England and the United 
States, who have been in both, and are in all free gov- 
ernments, educated for the bar, and, ascending by the 
inherent force of their disciplined professional life, 
they become the directors of the destinies of States 
and nations. 

Military chieftains may spring into power, tyrants 
may for the hour dazzle with the glamour of military 
parade, the pomp of war, an oppressed and frenzied 



1 For Mansfield lawyers see history of that town. 



MEDICAL HISTORY. 



35 



people, bat they turn as the cannonade dies away to 
the statesmanship of the country, and call to the Par- 
liaments and congressional halls for final debate the 
arbitraments of the liberties of the people. From 
the days of King John to the present hour the bar 
and the bench have furnished the statesmen who have 
erected the bulwarks of constitutional law, and ex- 
torted from tyrants the Magna Chartas which have 
secured to the oppressed the guarantee of free insti- 
tutions. Imbued with the historical traditions of 
their predecessors, and tracing the paths they have 
trod, emulating their good example, it should become 
more and more the resolute purpose of the Bristol 
County bar to so walk in the light of their professional 
teachings that when they are called to follow them to 
that upper court and file their judgment-roll of the 
great trial of life with that Supreme Judge from whose 
bar they can take no appeal, — 

" Then go not like the quarry-slave at night 
Scourged to his dungeon, but,- sustained and soothed 
By an unfaltering trust, approach thy grave 
Like one who wraps the drapery of his couch 
About him and lies down to pleasant dreams." 



CHAPTER IV. 

MEDICAL HISTORY.* 

BKISTOL NORTH AND SOUTH DISTRICTS OF THE MASSACHU- 
SETTS MEDICAL SOCIETY. 

The Massachusetts Medical Society was formed 
in 1781, with power to elect officers, examine and 
license candidates, hold real estate, and " continue a 
body politic and corporate by the same name for- 
ever." 

The society is intended to include all regular phy- 
sicians practicing medicine in the commonwealth, 
and admission takes place according to the following 
extract from Charter 82, Massachusetts Laws, 1859 : 

" No person shall hereafter become a member of 
the Massachusetts Medical Society except upon ex- 
amination by the censors of said society ; and any 
person of good moral character, found to possess the 
qualifications prescribed by the rules and regulations 
of said society, shall be admitted a fellow of said 
society." 

The Massachusetts Medical Society includes seven- 
teen district societies, all of which are under the con- 
trol of the parent society. District societies consist 
of the fellows of the Massachusetts Medical Society 
residing within such districts respectively wherein 
the communication of cases and experiments may be 
made, and the diffusion of knowledge in medicine 
and surgery may be encouraged and promoted. Dis- 



trict societies " may appoint their own officers, and 
establish regulations for their particular government 
not repugnant to the by-laws of the general society ; 
and shall be capable to purchase and receive by do- 
nation books, philosophical and chirurgical instru- 
ments, or other personal property, and may hold and 
dispose of the same, exclusive of any authority of the 
general society." 

There are in Bristol County two such district soci- 
eties, — Bristol North District Medical Society and 
Bristol South District Medical Society. 

Bristol North District Medical Society was or- 
ganized June 20, 1849, and " consists of all the fel- 
lows of the Massachusetts Medical Society residing in 
the city of Taunton, and in the towns of Seekonk, 
Attleborough, Rehoboth, Norton, Mansfield, Easton, 
Raynham, Berkley. Freetown, Somerset, Dighton, 
Swansea, and none other." By a change in the State 
line, March 1, 1862, almost the whole of Pawtucket 
and a portion of Seekonk, since known as East Prov- 
idence, were ceded to Rhode Island. Prior to that 
date fellows residing therein were members of the 
Bristol North District Medical Society, but at that 
time they lost their membership in the District So- 
ciety and became non-resident fellows of the Massa- 
chusetts Medical Society. 

The first meeting for the organization of this society 
was held at East Attleborough, Jan. 20, 1849. There 
were present at this meeting Drs. Benoni Carpenter, 
of Pawtucket ; Seba A. Carpenter, of Attleborough ; 
James B. Dean, of Taunton ; Johnson Gardner, of 
Seekonk; Thaddeus Phelps, of Attleborough ; Menzies 
R. Randall, of Rehoboth ; Phineas Savery, of Attle- 
borough ; Caleb Swan, of North Easton. Dr. M. R. 
Randall was made chairman, and Dr. Benoni Carpen- 
ter secretary. A committee was chosen, consisting of 
Drs. Carpenter, Gardner, and Phelps, who reported a 
" draft for by-laws," which were accepted and adopted 
in the usual manner. Thereupon the organization 
was completed by the choice of the following officers: 
President, Seba A. Carpenter; Vice-President, Men- 
zies R. Randall ; Secretary and Treasurer, William F. 
Perry (not before mentioned); Librarians, Phineas 
Savery, James B. Dean. 

Following is a list of the members of the Bristol 
North District Medical Society from 1849 to 1883, al- 
phabetically arranged: 



1 The articles on the Massachusetts Medical Society and the Bristol 
North District Society were contributed by Silas D. Presbrey, M.D., of 
Taunton, and the article on Bristol South District Society by Dr. John 
H. Mackie, of New Bedford. 



o 








o d* 


-<" 








C CD 


~s 


Name. 


Residence. 


Died. 


— <D 


Is 








8 « 


< 









6% 


1852. 


Alba, Edwin Mason. 


A ttleboro', afterwards 








Williamsport, Pa. 




1854. 


1862. 


Allen, William George. 


Mansfield. 






1852. 


Aspinwall, Thomas W. 


Seekonk. 


1867. 




1882. 


Baker, Harry Beeclier. 


Dighton. 







1869. 


Baasett, Elton James. 


Taunton. 






1879. 


Battersball, Josepb Ward. 






1850. 


Blauding, William. 


Rehoboth. 


1857. 




1852. 


Bronson, John Richardson. 


Attleborough. 


t 




1869. 


Brown, Henry N. 


North Attleborough. 




1874. 


1878. 


Brown, John Peaslee. 


Taunton. 







36 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



o 

-*- 








o.£" 


■a=o 








§ 2 


~S 


Name. 


Residence. 


Died. 


•r- cu 


^ ^ 








CO — 

a; 8) 


< 








^S 


1871. 


Bullanl, Herbert Cutler. 


North Attleborough. 






1871. 


Burden, Frederick Lysander. 


North Attleborough. 






1859. 


Burge, William B. 


Taunton. 




1861. 


1848. 


Carpenter, Benoni. 


Pawtucket, R. I. 


1877. 




1863. 


Carpenter, Marcus S. 


Mansfield. 




1864. 


1845. 


Carpenter, Selia A. 


Attleborough. 






ls4s. 


Chace, John Bowers. 


Taunton. 


1NXL. 




1839. 


Clapp, Svlvanus. 


Pawtucket, R. I. 


187-. 




1866. 


Cublj, John Edward. 


Taunton. 


lx— . 


1874. 


1858. 


Cogswell, George Badger. 


North Easton. 






1844. 


Dean, James Brinton. 


Taunton. 


18—. 




1866. 


Deane, Asahel Sumner. 


Taunton. 






1873. 


Ellis, George Livingstone. 


Taunton, afterwards 
Middleborough. 




1878. 


1856. 


Fobes, Joseph Bassett. 


Taunton, afterwards 
liridgewater. 




1868. 


1840. 


Foster, James Wolcott. 


North Attleborough. 






1869. 


Gage, William Hatliorne. 


Taunton. 






1882. 


Galligan, Edward Francis. 


Taunton. 







1843. 


Gardner, Johnson. 


Seekonk, afterwards 
Providence, R. I. 


1869. 




1882. 


Gerould, Joseph Bowditch. 


North Attleborough. 






1858. 


Godding, William W. 


Taunton. 




LS77. 


1823. 


Gordon, William. 


Tauntou. 


1852. 




1882. 


Golden, Michael Charles. 


Taunton. 






1835. 


Gushee, John Hathaway. 


Raynham. 




18— 


1843. 


Hatch, Josepb H. 


Attleborough. 


1855. 




1855. 


Ilolinan, Silas Atherton. 


Taunton. 




1SG2. 


1866. 


Howard, George C. 


Attleborough. 






1848. 


Howe, Charles. 


Tauntou. 






1866. 


Hubbard, Charles Thacher. 


Taunton. 




is77. 


1861. 


Hubbard, Henry Babcock. 


Taunton. 


1870. 




1876. 


Hutchinson, Marcello. 


Taunton. 








1854. 


Kimball, Daniel F. 


Rehoboth. 







1852. 


KiDg, Dan. 


Taunton and Green- 
ville, R. I. 


1864. 




1852. 


Knapp, Ephraim. 


Attleborough. 


1860. 




1853. 


Larkin, Silas S. 


Attleborough, 








1819. 


Leonard, George. 


Taunton. 


1865. 




1882. 


Mackie, George. 


Attleborough. 








1862. 


Manley, Edwin. 


Taunton. 





1874. 


1854. 


McCormick, Edward George. 


Taunton. 


1855. 




1877. 


Moore, Frederick C. 


Taunton. 




1S77. 


1852. 


Morton, Lloyd. 


Pawtucket, R. I. 








1859. 


Murphy, Joseph. 


Taunton. 






1854. 


Newman, Albert. 


Taunton, afterwards 
Kansas. 






1841. 


Nicholas, Joseph Dean. 


Taunton. 


1879. 




1852. 


Nicholas, Thomas Gilbert. 


Freetown. 


1883. 




1S64. 


Paige, Nonius. 


Taunton. 







1869. 


Paun, Amos Bosworth. 


East Taunton, Mid- 
dleborough. 






1867. 


Payne, Amesa Elliot. 


Taunton, afterwards 
Brockton. 




1872. 


1835. 


Perrv, William Frederick. 


Mansfield. 


1873. 




1853. 


Phelps, Elisha. 


North Attleborough. 







1841. 


Phelps, Thaddeus. 


North Attleborough. 


1879. 




1865. 


Presbrey, Silas Dean. 


Taunton. 








1852. 


Randall, Daniel F. 


Rehoboth, afterwards 
Chesterfield, N. H. 






1852. 


Randall, George Henry. 


North Rehoboth. 







1832. 


Randall, Mcnzies Rayner. 


North Rehoboth. 


1882. 




1863. 


Ransom, Nathaniel Morton. 


Taunton. 


m 




1879. 


Richmond. George Barstow. 


Dighton. 






1876. 


Robinson, Walter Scott. 


Taunton. 






1867. 


Ryan, James C. 


Taunton, afterwards 










East Abington. 


187-. 


1867. 


1843. 


Sampson, Ira. 


Taunton. 


1871. 




1841. 


Savery, Phineas. 


Attleborough. 


1853. 




1865. 


Sproat, Henry Hamilton. 


Freetown. 






1833. 


Swan, Caleb. 


Easton. 


1870. 




1835. 


Talbot, Charles. 


Dighton. 


1880. 




1852. 


Thompson, Charles K. 


Attleborough. 






1876. 


Tilden, Frank Elmer. 


North Easton. 








1880. 


Totten, John Edmund. 


Attleborough. 






1866. 


Turner, Obed C. 


Attleborough. 




1873. 


1846. 


Wellington, James Lloyd. 


Swansea. 








1869. 


Whitney, James Orne. 


Pawtucket, R. I. 






1881. 


Wilmarth, Alfred Warren. 


Taunton. 






1834. 


Wood, Alfred. 


Taunton. 






1875. 


Yale, Joseph Cummings. 


Taunton. 




1879. 



June 20, 1849. — President, Seba A. Carpenter; Vice-President, M. R. 

Randall; Secretary and Treasurer, William F.Perry; Librarians, 

Phineas Savery, James B. Dean. 
March 20, 1850. — President, Johnson Gardner; Vice-President, Joseph 

H. Hatch; Secretary and Treasurer, Thaddeus Phelps; Librarians, 

Phineas Savery, James B. Dean. 
March 19,1851. — President, Johnson Gardner; Vice-President, Joseph 

H. Hatch; Secretary and Treasurer, Thaddeus Phelps; Librarians, 



Phineas Savery, James B. Dean; Councilors, Benoni Carpenter, 
Johnson Gardner, Charles Howe; Censors, Caleb Swan, M. R. 
Randall, Phineas Savery. 

March 10, 1852. — President, Caleb Swan; Vice-President, Joseph H. 
Hatch; Secretary and Treasurer, Thaddeus Phelps; Librarians, 
Phineas Savery, James B. Dean ; Councilors, Benoni Carpenter, Ira 
Sampson, Charles Howe: Censors, Phineas Savery, M. R. Randall, 
Daniel King, James B. Dean, Joseph D. Nichols. 

March 9, 1853. — President, M. R. Randall ; Vice-President, Ira Sampson ; 
Secretary and Treasurer, William Dickinson ; Librarians, James B. 
Dean, Phineas Savery; Councilors, Benoni Carpenter, J. D. Nichols, 
Daniel King; Censors, Thaddeus Phelps, Charles Howe, J. B. Dean. 

March 8, 1854. — President, Ira Sampson ; Vice-President, Thaddeus 
Phelps; Secretary and Treasurer, William Dickinson; Librarians, 
Elisha Phelps, James B. Dean; Councilors, Daniel King, Benoui 
Carpenter, Joseph D. Nichols; Censors, Thaddeus Phelps, Charles 
Howe, James B. Dean. 

March 14, 1855.— President, Ira Sampson; Vice-President, Thaddeus 
Phelps; Secretary and Treasurer, Elisha Phelps: Librarians, J. B. 
Dean, Albert Newman ; Councilors, Daniel King, Benoni Carpenter, 
J. D. Nichols ; Censors, Thaddeus Phelps, Charles Howe, Thomas G. 
Nichols. 

March 12.1856. — President, Thaddeus Phelps; Vice-President, Benoni 
Carpenter; Secretary ami Treasurer, Charles Howe; Librarians, 
James B. Dean, Albert Newman; Councilors, J. I>. Nichols, Benoni 
Carpenter, William Dickinson, Caleb Swan; Censors, Thomas G. 
Nichols, Lloyd Morton, Johnson Gardner. 

March 11, I>">7. — President, Thaddeus Phelps; Vice President, Benoni 
Carpenter; Secretary and Treasurer, Charles Howe; Commissioner 
on Trials, Daniel King; Librarians, James B. Dean, John 11. Bron- 
son ; Councilors, Benoni Carpenter, Daniel King, Joseph D. Nichols; 
i Vnsors, Thomas G. Nichols, Johnson Gardner, Lloyd Morton. 

March 10,1858. — President, Benoni Carpenter; Vice-President, Daniel 
King; Secretary and Treasurer, Charles Howe; Commissioner on 
Trials, Daniel King; Librarians, John B. Chace, John B Bronson ; 
Councilors, Daniel King, J. D. Nichols, Johnson Gardner; Censors, 
J. G. Nichols, Johnson Gardner, Charles Howe. 

March 9, 1859. — President, Benoni Carpenter; Vice-President, Daniel 
King; Secretary and Treasurer, Charles Howe; Commissioner on 
Trials, Daniel King; Librarians. J. B. Chace, Thaddeus Phelps; 
Councilors, Ira Sampson, Thaddeus Phelps, Johnson Gardner; Cen- 
sors, Johnson Gardner, T. G. Nichols, Charles Howe. 

March 14, 1S60. — President, Charles Howe; Vice-President, J. R. Bron- 
son ; Secretary and Treasurer, Thomas G. Nichols; Commissioner 
on Trials, B. Carpenter; Librarians, J. B. Chace, Thaddeus Phelps ; 
Councilors, Johnson Gardner, Benoni Carpenter, Thaddeus Phelps, 
Charles Talbot; Censors, Johnson Gardner, Joseph Murphy, J. D. 
Nichols. 

March 13, 1861. — President, Charles Howe; Vice-President, J. R. Bron- 
son; Secretary and Treasurer, J. B. Chace; Commissioner on Trials, 
Thaddeus Phelps; Librarian, Thaddeus Phelps; Councilors, John- 
son Gardner, Thaddeus Phelps, Joseph Murphy, Benoni Carpenter; 
Censors, J. B. Chace, H. B. Hubbard, J. R. Bronson. 

March 12, 1862. — President, John R. Bronson ; Vice-Presideut, Joseph 
Murphy; Secretary and Treasurer, J. B. Chace; Commissioner on 
Trials, J. Phelps; Librarian, Ira Sampson ; Councilors, Benoni Car- 
penter, Charles Howe, Ira Sampson, Thaddeus Phelps ; Censors, J. 
B. Chace, H. B. Hubbard, J. R. Bronson. 

March 11, 1863. — President, John R. Bronson; Vice-President, Joseph 
Murphy; Secretary and Treasurer, J. B. Cliace; Commissioner on 
Trials, J. Phelps; Librarian, Ira Sampson; Councilors, H. B. Hub- 
bard, Charles Howe, William G. Allen; Censors, H. B. Hubbard, J. 
B. Cliace, J. R. Bronson. 

March 9, 1864. — President, Joseph Murphy; Vice-President, H. B. Hub- 
bard; Secretary and Treasurer, Nomus Paige; Librarian, Ira Samp- 
son; Councilors, Thaddeus Phelps, J. R. Bronson, William G.Allen, 
Charles Howe ; Censors, J. B. Chace, H. B. Hubbard, J. R. Bronson. 

March 8, 1865. — President, Joseph Murphy ; Vice-President, Henry B. 
Hubbard ; Secretary and Treasurer, Nomus Paige ; Commissioner 
on Trials, J. R. Bronson; Librarian, Ira Sampson; Councilors, J. 
R. Bronson, Thaddeus Phelps, William G. Allen; Censors, H. B. 
Hubbard, J. R. Bronson, J. B. Chace. 

March 14, 1866.— President, Henry B. Hubbard; Vice-President, J. B. 
Chace; Secretary and Treasurer, Nomus Paige; Commissioner on 
Trials, W. G. Allen; Librarian, Ira Sampson; Councilors, Thad- 
deus Phelps ; William G. Allen, J. B. Fobes, Obed. C. Turner ; Cen- 
sors, J. R. Bronson, Joseph Murphy, S. D. Presbrey. 



MEDICAL HISTORY. 



37 



March 13,1807. — President, Joseph B. Fobes; Vice-President, Silas D. 
Prcsbrey ; Secretary and Treasurer, Nomas Paige: Commissioner 
on Trials, J. R. Bronson ; Librarian, Ira Sampson; Councilors, 
William G. Allen, Thaddeus Phelps, Charles Howe, J. B. Fpbes; 
Censors, Joseph Murphy, S. D. Presbrey, George ('. Howard. 

March 11, 1868.— President, William G. Allen; Vice-President, S. D. 
Presbrey; Secretary and Treasurer, Nonius Paige ; Commissioner on 
Trials, Charles Howe; Librarian, Edwin Stanley; Councilors, J. It. 
Bronson, H. B. Hubbard, Joseph Murphey, S. D. Presbrey; Censors, 
Thaddeus Phelps, J. B. Chace, 0. C. Turner. 

March 10, 1869.— President, Silas D. Presbrey; Vice-President, Obed. C. 
Turner ; Secretary and Treasurer, Charles T. Hubbard ; Commis- 
sioner on Trials, X. Paige; Librarian, John E. Cobb; Councilors, 
J. R. Bronson, H. B. Hubbard, Charles Howe, Joseph Murphy ; Cen- 
sors, Thaddeus Phelps, J. B. Chace, William G. Allen. 

March 9, 1870.— President, Silas D. Presbrey; Vice-President, Nonius 
Paige ; Secretary and Treasurer, Elton J. Bassett ; Commissioner on 
Trials, J. R. Bronson ; Councilors, Nonius Paige, Joseph Murphy, 
Amos B. Paun, Henry H. Sproat; Censors, J. B. Chace, Thaddeus 
Phelps, Charles Howe. 

March 8, 1871. — President, Nomus Paige; Vice-President, Obed. C. 
Turner; Secretary and Treasurer, E. J. Bassett; Commissioner on 
Trials, A. B. Paun; Librarian, H. H. Sproat; Councilors, S. D. 
Presbrey, Charles Howe, J. R. Bronson, Joseph Murphy; Censors, 
W. W. Godding, Benoni Carpenter, S. D. Presbrey. 

March 13, 1872.— President, William W. Godding; Vice-President, F. L. 
Burden; Secretary and Treasurer, E.J. Bassett; Commissioner on 
Trials, Charles Howe; Librarian, H. H. Sproat; Councilors, J. R. 
Bronson, Joseph Murphy, Benoni Carpenter, S. D. Presbrey ; Cen- 
sors, Joseph Murphy, William G. Allen, J. B. Chace. 

March 12, 1873. — President, Benoni Carpenter; Vice-President, Charles 
Howe; Secretary and Treasurer, E. J. Bassett; Commissioner on 
Trials, W. W. Godding; Librarian, J. B. Chace; Councilors, J. R. 
Bronson, Joseph Murphy, S. D. Presbrey, Nomus Paige; Censors, 
Joseph Murphy, S. D. Presbrey, A. B. Paun. 

March 12, 1874.— President, Benoni Carpenter; Vice-President, Charles 
Howe; Secretary and Treasurer, E. J. Bassett; Commissioner on 
Trials, W. W. Godding; Librarian, A. B. Paun; Councilors, J. R. 
Bronson. Joseph Murphy, S. D. Presbrey, A. S. Dean ; Censors, Joseph 
Murphy, S. D. Presbrey, George L. Ellis. 

April 22, 1S75. — President, Charles Howe; Vice-President, E. J. Bassett; 
Secretary and Treasurer, A. S. Deane ; Commissioner on Trials, H. 
C. Bullard; Librarian, H. II. Sproat; Councilors, J. R. Bronson, 
S. D. Presbrey, Nomus Paige, Joseph Murphy; Censors, W. W. God- 
ding, G. L. Ellis, N. M. Ransom, S. D. Presbrey, Joseph Murphy. 

April 20, 1870. — President, W. W. Godding; Vice-President, Nomus 
Paige; Secretary and Treasurer, A. S. Deane; Commissioner on 
Trials, J. R. Bronson; Librarian, A. S. Deane; Councilors, J. R. 
Bronson, Charles Howe, Joseph Murphy, S. D. Presbrey : Censors, 
H. C. Bullard, G. L. Ellis, E. J. Bassett, W. G. Allen, S. D. Pres- 
brey. 

April 19, 1877.— President, W. W. Godding; Vice-President, Nonius 
Paige; Secretary, W. S. Robinson ; Treasurer, Charles Howe; Com- 
missioner on Trials, J. R. Bronson; Librarian, A. S. Deane; Coun- 
cilors, J. R. Bronson, Charles Howe, Joseph Murphey, S. D. Pres- 
brey ; Censors, II. C. Bullard, G. L. Ellis, E. J. Bassett, W. G. Allen, 
S. D. Presbrey. 

April 18, 1&78. — President, Nomus Paige ; Vice-President, H. C. Bullard ; 
Secretary, W S. Robinson ; Treasurer, Charles Howe ; Commissioner 
on Trials, J. R. Bronson ; Librarian, N. M. Ransom ; Councilors, 
J. R. Bronson, Charles Howe, Joseph Murphey, S. D. Presbrey; 
Censors, S. 1>. Presbrey, II. < !. Bullard, G. L. Ellis, N. M. Ransom, 
E. J. Bassett. 

April 17, 1879.— President, II. C. Bullard ; Vice-President, N. M. Ran- 
som; Secretary, W. S. Robinson ; Treasurer, Charles Howe; Com- 
missioner on Trials, J. Murphy; Librarian, Charles Uowe; Coun- 
cilors, J. R. Bronson, N. Paige, S. D. Presbrey; Censors, E. J. 
Bassett, Charles Howe, S. D. Presbrey, N. Paige, J. P. Brown. 

April 15, 1880.— President, II. C. Ballard; Vice-President, N. M. Ran- 
som; Secretary, W. S. Robinson; Treasurer, Charles Howe; Com- 
missioner on Trials, N. Paige; Librarian, Charles Howe; Council- 
ors, J. It. Bronson, S. D. Presbrey, Joseph Murphy ; Censors, E. J. 
Bassett, S. D. Presbrey, N. Paige, Charles Howe, J. P. Brown. 

April 21, 1881.— President, N. M. Ransom ; Vice-President, J. P. Brown; 
Secretary, George B. Richmond ; Treasurer, Charles Bowe; Com- 
missioner on Trials, N Paige; Librarian, Charles Howe; Councilors, 
J. R. Bronson, S. D. Presbrey, Joseph Murphy; Censors, Charles 



Howe, E. J. Bassett, A. W. Wilmarth, W. S. Robinson, J. E. 
Totten. 
April 20, 1882.— President, N. M. Ransom ; Vice-President, J. P. Brown ; 
Secretary, E. F. Galligan; Treasurer, Charles Howe; Commissioner 
on Trials, N. Paige ; Librarian, J. B. Gerould ; Councilors, Joseph 
Murphy, S. I). Presbrey, J. E. Totten, N. Paige; Censors, Charles 
Howe, W. S. Robinson, E. J. Bassett, J. E. Totten, A. W. Wilmarth. 

According to Article V. of the by-laws, adopted 
June 20, 1849, the meetings of the society were quar- 
terly, and holden on the third Wednesdays of June, 
September, December, and March, the last being the 
annual meeting, at which meeting all officers were 
elected. Article IV. provides that " the society shall 
hold its meetings alternately at East Attleborough and 
Taunton." But this article was amended Sept. 13, 
1854, so as to read, "This society shall hold its meet- 
ings at such places as by vote it shall determine." 
Sept. 9, 1854, both these articles were again amended, 
so that there should be but two regular meetings a 
year, the annual in March, and the semi-annual in 
September. The last meeting held in Attleborough was 
on Sept. 10, 1873. Since that time all the meetings 
have been held in Taunton. At a meeting, Sept. 16, 
1875, a new code of by-laws was reported by a special 
committee which had been appointed to suggest the 
alterations of the by-laws necessary to make them 
conform to those of the parent society. According to 
Article VII. of that code, which is now in force, 
"The annual meeting of the society shall be held 
between the 15th of April and the 15th of May, and, if 
not otherwise ordered, it shall be on the third Thurs- 
day of April. If in any year this day should be less 
than ten days before the annual meeting of the State 
society, this society shall fix another day by vote, or, 
if it neglects to do so, a day shall be specified by the 
president. A stated meeting of the society shall like- 
wise be held on the third Thursday in September. 
The secretary shall call a special meeting on the writ- 
ten application of five members. 

" Meetings for scientific improvement may be held 
at such times and places as shall be determined by 
the society. 

"All meetings shall be held in Taunton, unless other- 
wise ordered by vote at a previous stated meeting." 

A careful perusal of the records will convince one 
that in the main the members have attended faith- 
fully to their duty in " communicating any instructive 
cases which may have occurred in their practice, any 
useful discovery which may have been made in medi- 
cine or surgery or the allied sciences, and any invention 
which may have practical application in the same." 
As touching upon this point, it is quite interesting to 
read the accounts of the first tentative applications of 
the fever thermometer, which has since become the 
constant companion and trustworthy assistant of the 
practitioner. We read also with interest the records 
of the first use of the hypodermic syringe, as reported 
by a gentleman who was a pioneer in this vicinity in 
its application to relieve suffering. The record de- 
scribes the interest of the members in the instrument, 



38 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



and goes on to speak of the many questions that were 
asked and answered regarding the method and results 
of its employment. Numberless instructive cases 
have been reported, which have stimulated im- 
portant discussions. At nearly every meeting an 
essay has been read upon some subject of interest to 
the members and importance to the community. 

Following are the names of active members, Janu- 
ary, 1883 : 



Names. 



Residences. 



Offices. 



Allen, William George Mansfield. 

Baker, Harry Beecher Dighton. 

Bassett, Elton James Taunton Censor. 

Battershall, Joseph Ward Attleborough. 

Bronson, John Richardson Attleborough. 

Brown, John Peaslee Taunton Vice-President. 

Bullard, Herbert Cutler Attleborough. 

Burden, Frederick Lysander.. Attleborough. 

Cogswell, George Badger North Easton. 

Deane, Asabel Sumner Taunton. 

Foster, James Wolcott North Attleborough. 

Gage, William Hathorne Taunton. 

Galligan, Edward Francis Taunton Secretary. 

Gerould, Joseph Bowditch N. Attleborough. ..Librarian. 

Golden, Michael Charles Taunton. 

Howe, Charles Taunton Censor and treasurer. 

Hutchinson, Marcello Taunton. 

Mackie, George Attleborough. 

Murphy, Joseph Taunton Councilor. 

Paige, Nonius Taunton Commissioner of trials 

and councilor. 

Presbrey, Silas Dean Taunton Councilor. 

Randall, George Henry North Rehoboth. 

Ransom, Nathaniel Morton. ..Taunton President. 

Richmond, George Barston. ...Dighton. 

Robinson, Walter Scott Taunton Censor. 

Sproat, Henry Hamilton Freetown. 

Tilden, Frank Elmer North Easton. 

Totten, John Edmund attleborough Censor and councilor. 

Wellington, James Lloyd Swansea. 

Wilmarth, Alfred Warren Taunton Censor. 

Wood, Alfred Taunton. 

Bristol South District Medical Society.— At a 

meeting of the councilors of the Massachusetts 
Medical Society, held at Boston April 3, 1839, the 
charter of the society was granted, as appears by the 
following extract from the records : 

"To Alexander Read, Andrew Mackie, Paul Spooner, Samuel 
Sawyer, Julius A. Mayhew, William C. Whitridge, fellows of 
said society, greeting : Your application, made in due form, requesting 
that a district or subordinate medical society, residing in the following 
towns in the county of Bristol, viz.: New Bedford, Fall River, Taunton, 
Freetown, Fairhaven, Dartmouth, and Westport ; in the county of 
Plymouth, Middleborough, Rochester, and Wareham ; in Duke's 
County, Chilmark, Tisbury, and Edgartown ; and Nantucket was duly 
considered at a meeting of the councilors held at Boston on the 3d 
day of April, a.d. 1839, and it was voted that your requests should be 
granted. 

"Be it therefore known, That pursuant to an act of the Legisla- 
ture of this commonwealth entitled ' An Act in addition to an act en- 
titled "An Act to incorporate certain persons by the name of the Massa- 
chusetts Medical Society," 'authorizing the councilors of said society 
thereunto a distinct or subordinate society by the name of the Southern 
District Medical Society, is hereby established, to consist of those fel- 
lows of the Massachusetts Medical Society now residents within the 
limits aforesaid, for the purpose of electing officers and transacting such 
other business as they shall deem expedient. 

" In testimony whereof, the president, pursuant to the aforesaid vote 
of the councilors, has hereunto subscribed his name and affixed the 
seal of the corporation at Boston this 18th day of April, a.d. 1839. 

•'George C. Siiattuck, President. 

"Attest: S. D. Towxsend, Recording Secretary." 

Since the grants of the foregoing charter the 
society's name has been changed to the Bristol South 
District Society, and consists of all fellows of the 
Massachusetts Medical Society residing within the 
following cities and towns, viz. : New Bedford, Fall 



River, Westford, Dartmouth, Fairhaven, Middle- 
borough, Rochester, Mattapoisett, Wareham. Nan- 
tucket, Edgartown, Tisbury, and Chilmark. 

The records of the society having been unfortu- 
nately lost, it is impossible to give a list of the origi- 
nal members or of the officers of the society, but be- 
low is a list of all who have been members of the 
society from its organization in 1839 to the present 
time, March, 1883 : l 



Adm. 


Name. 


Residence. 


Ret'd. 


Died. 




Age. 


1853. 


Abbe, Edward P. 


New Bedford. 




1854. 


{Abbe, Burr R. 


Hartford, Conn. 


1864. 




.... 


1877. 


Abbott, John H. 


Fall River. 









1839. 


*Archer, Jason H. 


Wrentham. 


1834. 


1864. 


69. 


1837. 


Atwood, George. 


Fairhaven. 








1839. 


fBartlett, Francis D. 


South Dartmouth. 


1865. 




*•»• 


1833. 


*Bartlctt. Lyman. 


New Bedford. 




1865. 


57. 


1867. 


Bass, William M. 


Monument. 








1S5.-.. 


*Brackett, W. T. S. 


Edgartown. 




1862. 


34. 


1867. 


Bowen. Seabury W. 


Fall River. 






><>. 


1867. 


Butler, Winthrop. 


Vineyard Haven. 






.... 


1842. 


*Clark, Johnson. 


New Bedford. 




1861. 


.... 


1S80. 


Clifford, Arthur. 


New Bedford. 


1881. 


1881. 


• ■»• 


1881. 


Chagiion, W. J. B. 


Fall River. 







•••• 


1847. 


*Colbv, Elijah. 


New Bedford. 




1856. 


58. 


1846. 


*Comstock, William W. 


Middleborough. 




1878. 


77. 


1829. 


f*Cornish, Aaron. 


New Bedford. 


1862. 


1864. 


74. 


I860. 


Cornish, Aaron. 


New Bedford. 






■ •.. 


1857. 


Cornish, Theodore 0. 


Dartmouth. 






.... 


1840. 


*Crary, William 11. II. 


Fall River. 




1853. 


*«•• 


1865. 


{Cleaveland, Daniel. 


Middletown, Conn. 






.... 


1866. 


{Collins, William D. 


Fall River. 








1867. 


{Clark, J. Laing. 


Providence, R. I. 






.... 


1847. 


Davis, Robert T. 


Fall River. 






.... 


1839. 


t*Doggett, Perez F. 


Wareham. 


1869. 


1875. 


68. 


1851. 


Dwelley, Jeiome. 


Fall River. 








1847. 


Drake, Ebenezer W. 


Middleborough. 






.... 


1863. 


{Eddy, William. 


New York. 






.... 


1866. 


Eddy, George S. 


Fall River. 






.... 


1829. 


f* Fearing, Elisha P. 


Nantucket. 


1860. 


1876. 


91. 


1849. 


*Folsoin, Levi. 


New York. 


1853. 


.... 




1861. 


Fearing, Benjamin. 


Wareham. 







.... 


1839. 


f*Glazier Amory. 


Fall River. 


1849. 


1852. 


69. 


1835. 


Gordon, William A. 


Dartmouth. 






.... 


1882. 


Gou. 
*Green, Edward W. 




1853. 


i860. 




1839. 


Rhode Island. 


68. 


1841. 


{Hardy, Benjamin F. 


Sau Francisco. 








1839. 


*Haskell, Joseph. 


Rochester. 




1873. 


.... 


1854. 


Holmes, Alexander R. 


Canton. 






.... 


183S. 


*Hooper, Foster. 


Fall River. 




1870. 


65. 


1859. 


Hooper, Frederick H. 


New Bedford. 








1866. 


Howe, Woodbridge R. 


Hanover. 






.... 


1837. 


{Hubbard, Levi. 


California. 







.... 


1-:," 


Hai thy, James W. 


Fall River. 








1869. 


Hough. Georg- T. 


New Bedford. 




....... 


.... 


1869. 


{Hayes, Charles. 


New York. 








1870. 


Hayes, Stephen W. 


New Bedford. 








1871. 


Handy, Benjamin J. 


Fall River. 









1849. 


♦Jennings, John H. 


New Bedford. 




1882. 


.... 


1841. 


{Jones, Alanson S. 


New York. 


1845. 






1877. 


Jackson, John H. 


Fall River. 






.... 


1867. 


* Johnson, Henry. 


New Bedford. 




1880. 


.... 


1848. 


King, George. 


Franklin. 






.... 


1842. 


King, John B. 


Nantucket. 








1839. 


f{Ladd, Azel P. 


Iowa. 


1846. 






1839. 


Learned, Ebenezer T. 


Fall River. 




w 


.. ■ 


1851. 


f*Leland, Phineas W. 


Fall River. 


1862. 


1870. 


71. 


1879. 


Leonard, Milton U. 


New Bedford. 








1831. 


* Lucas, Ivory H. 


Edgartown. 




1870. 




1856. 


Leach, William. 


Vineyard Haven. 








1824. 


f*Mackie, Andrew. 


New Bedford. 


1861. 


1871. 


77. 


1850. 


Mackie, John H. 


New Bedford. 








1822. 


♦Mackie, Peter. 


Wareham. 





1858. 


72. 


1822. 


t*Mason, William B. 


Dartmouth. 


184:*.. 


1856. 


74. 


1830. 


*Mavhe\v, Julius S. 


New Bedford. 




IS: 9. 




1845. 


Millet, Asa. 


East Bridgeuater. 








1876. 


McGrath, Eugene J. 


Fall River. 








185H. 


*MarrisaI, Felix V. 


Fall River 




1881. 


57. 


18112. 


{Nelson, Abial W. 


New London, Ct. 


1865. 






1866. 


{Noves, George H. 


Fall River. 








is:, 1. 


*0akes, T Fletcher. 


Dartmouth. 








is:;,. 


O'Connell.John D. 


Vineyard Haven. 








1839. 


t*Perkius, John. 


Middleborough. 


1854. 


1866. ' 


88. 


1840. 


Pierce, John. 


Edgartown. 








1875. 


Pierce, A. Martin. 


New Bedford. 








1867. 


Prescotr, Charles 1). 


New Bedford. 








1869. 


Paun, Amos B. 


Middleborough. 










1 The asterisk (*) denotes deceased; the dagger (f) retired; the 
double dagger (J) removed from the State. 



MILITARY HISTORY. 



Adm, 



1844. 

1861. 

1873. 

1S79. 

1836. 

1845. 

lsvj. 

is:m. 

1846. 

1839. 

1851. 

1S4S. 

1821. 

1852. 

is:'.'.i. 

1862. 

1857. 

1846. 

1856. 

1866. 

1870. 

1874. 

1879. 

1878. 

L869 

1873. 

1875. 

1822. 

1867. 

1840. 

1849. 

is:,;. 

1881. 

1881. 

1839. 

183S. 

1822. 

1841. 

1832. 

1842. 

1S64. 

1867. 

1833. 



Name. 



Russell, Henry. 

Kicketson, Arthur. 

Redfearn, Joseph. 
^Richmond, Geo. 15., Jr. 
*Sawyer, Samuel. 
*Shiverick, Clement F. 

Sherman, Frank M. 
*Sissou, Benjamin B. 
*Sno\v, George W. 
| South worth, Newton. 

Spare, John. 

Sparrow, William E. 
t*Spooner, Paul. 
JSiickney, Charles D. 
*Sturtevant, George. 

Sturtevant, Charles. 

Swasey, Charles L. 
*Sweat, William W. 

Sawyer, Frederick A. 
*Smith, Isaac, Jr. 
*Sullivan, Alexis J. 

Smith, Lawrence S. 

Smith, H. B. S. 

Tavlor, William II. 
JTuttle, Charles M. 

Tourtellot, J. Q. A. 

Tucker, Edward T. 
♦Thompson, Arad. 

Vermyne, Jan. J. B. 

f* Washburn, Lemuel W. 

* Webster, Joseph W. 

Webster, Joseph. 

White, A. M. W. 

Whitney, E. M. 
t*Well8, Thomas T. 
tWells, William R. 
*Whitridge, William C. 
♦Wilbur, Thomas. 
•Willard, Henry. 

Wiuslnw, Charles F. 
♦Wilson, Benjamin F. 

Whitaker, John B. 
*Yale, Leroy 31. 



Residence. 



Sandwich. 
New Bedford. 
Fall River. 

Cambridge. 

Edgartown. 

Dartmouth. 

Westport. 
Middleho rough. 
Iowa. 

New Bedford. 
Mattapoisett. 
New Bedford. 
New Bedford. 
Middlebo rough. 
Hyde Park. 
New Bedford. 
Mattapoisett. 
Wareham. 
Fall River. 
Fall River. 
Watertown. 
Middlebo rough. 
New Bedford. 
Littletown, N. H. 
Fall River. 
New Bedford. 
Middlebo rough. 
New Bedford. 
Wisconsin. 
Acushnet. 
Acushnet. 
Fall River. 
Fairhaven. 
New York. 
Middleborough. 
New Bedford. 
Fall River. 
Boston. 
Boston. 
New Bedford. 
Fall River. 
Tisbury. 



Ret'd. Died. Age 



1860. 

1862. 
1842. 
18391 


1859". 

1857. 

1867! 
1863. 

1862. 
1852. 

1873. 

is's'i'. 

If.MI. 

1843. 

isis! 

1876. 
1880. 

1842! 

1857'. 
1857. 
1855. 

1849". 



54. 

39. 



58. 
60. 



76. 
57. 

40. 



66. 

33'. 

70. 



52. 

73'. 
58. 
54. 



46. 



CHAPTER V. 
MILITARY HISTORY. 

The Third Regiment— The Fourth Regiment— The Seventh Regiment 
—The Eighteenth Regiment— The Twenty-third Regiment — The 
Twenty-sixth Regiment— The Twenty-ninth Regiment— The Thirty- 
eighth Regiment— The Thirty-ninth Regiment— The Fortieth Regi- 
ment — The Forty-seventh Regiment. 

The lightning had scarcely flashed the intelligence 
to the expectant North that Maj. Anderson and his 
gallant band had surrendered as prisoners of war to 
the Southern Confederacy, ere the patriotic sons of 
Bristol County were rallying to the support of their 
imperiled country. Men and money were promptly 
raised, and the record of this county during the whole 
struggle is one in which its citizens may justly feel a 
patriotic pride. 

The Third Regiment.— The Third Regiment of 
three months' troops was composed of men from Nor- 
folk, Plymouth, and Bristol Counties. The field-officers 
were as follows : 

Colonel, David W. Wardrop; Lieutenant-Colonel, 
Charles Raymond; Major, John H. Jennings; Adju- 
tant, Austin S. Cushman; Quartermaster, Edward D. 
Allan; Surgeon, Alexander R. Holmes; Assistant 
Surgeon, Johnson Clark ; Sergeant- Maj or, A. C. 
Maggi ; Quartermaster-Sergeant, F. S. Giffbrd ; all of 
New Bedford, except the lieutenant-colonel. 

There were two companies from this county, — Com- 



pany D from Freetown, known as the "Assonet Light 
Infantry," John W. Marble, captain; H. A. Francis 
and John M. Dean, lieutenants; and the "New Bed- 
ford City Guards," Timothy Ingraham, captain ; James 
Barton and A. S. Cushman, lieutenants. 

The regiment left Bftston April 17th for Fortress 
Monroe, where it arrived on April 20th, and two days 
later became a part of the garrison of that famous old 
stronghold. It performed garrison duty until July 
5th, when it crossed Hampton Creek and occupied 
the town, establishing advance posts on the outskirts. 
The regiment remained here, performing cheerfully 
its duties, which were arduous and harassing, until 
July 16th, when, its term of service having expired, 
it embarked for Boston, arriving there July 19th, and 
four days later, July 23, 1861, was mustered out of the 
service, and resumed its place as part of the militia 
of the State. Companies D, E, I, and M re-enlisted 
for three years and remained at the front. 

When the call was made in 1862 for a draft of nine 
months' men, the regiment volunteered at once and 
rendezvoused at " Camp Joe Hooker," at Lakeville, 
and on the 22d of October, 1862, left Boston for New- 
berne, N. C, under command of Col. Silas P. Rich- 
mond, of Freetown. 

The companies were officered as follows : 

Company A. — Captain, John W. Marble; First Lieutenant, Charles P. 
Lyon; Second Lieutenant, N. Morton (2d). 

Company B.— Captain, P. B. Griffith; First Lieutenant, C. A. S. Per- 
kins; Second Lieutenant, W. S. Briggs. 

Company C. — Captain, Elihu Grant ; First Lieutenant, Benjamin A. 
Shaw; Second Lieutenant, Charles D. Copelaud. 

Company D— Captain, Andrew R. Wright ; First Lieutenant, Thomas 
McFarland ; Second Lieutenant, George Reynolds, Jr. 

Company E. — Captain, John E Hawes; First Lieutenant, Martin E. 
Mason ; Second Lieutenant, John L. Sharp (2d). 

Company F. — Captain, George 14. Hurlbiirt; First Lieutenant, W. H. 
Allen; Second Lieutenant, Jonathan W. Davis. 

Company G— Captain, William S. Cobb; First Lieutenant, Henry W. 
Briggs; Second Lieutenant, James L. Wilber. 

Company H. — Captain, Otis A. Barker; First Lieutenant, Robert Cross- 
man ; Second Lieutenant, Joseph Gibbs. 

Company I.— Captain, B. Ewer, Jr.; First Lieutenant, S. R. Eaton; 
Second Lieutenant, J. M. Lyle. 

Company K. — Captain, Samuel Bates ; First Lieutenant, Nathan Fobes; 
Second Lieutenant, Charles E. Churchill. 

The regiment remained at Newberne until Decem- 
ber 11th, when it started with the expedition to Golds- 
boro', which lasted eleven days, during which the regi- 
ment marched more than one hundred and fifty miles. 
The regiment participated in the battles of Kingston, 
Whitehall, and Goldsboro', and had these names in- 
scribed upon its banners. 

During its service the regiment gained an excellent 
reputation for drill and discipline, and, in the lan- 
guage of Col. Jourdan, " was always ready for duty." 
During its brief term of service it was transported by 
steamer and railroad more than two thousand miles 
and marched more than four hundred miles. Thirteen 
of the regiment died in the service, two were killed, 
fifteen wounded, and fourteen taken prisoners. 

The regiment left the front for home June 11th, 
arriving in Boston the 16th. and on the 26th of June, 



40 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



1863, was mustered out after an honorable and effi- 
cient service. 

The Fourth Regiment was one of the first to leave ' 
Massachusetts upon the original call for three months' 
men. It left Boston April 17th, under command of 
Col. A. B. Packard, of Quincy, for Fortress Monroe, 
where it arrived on the 20th. It served its term of 
service and returned home, and in August, 1862, re- 
enlisted for nine months, and was sent to Camp Joe 
Hooker, at Lakeville, where it remained until Decem- 
ber 17th, when it embarked for New Orleans. In 
March it joined the expedition against Port Hudson, 
and there bore an important and conspicuous part. 

The Fourth remained at Brashear City until May 
30th, when orders were received to report immediately 
to Gen. Banks, before Port Hudson. It there shared 
in the labors, fatigues, and hardships of that memor- 
able siege. 

In the assault on the 4th of June two of the com- 
panies — A, Capt. John Hall, of Canton, and K, Capt. 
W. H. Bartlett, of Taunton — were detailed with three 
companies from other regiments to carry hand gren- 
ades in the advance of the attacking columns. The 
detail was under command of Capt. Bartlett, who fell 
mortally wounded upon the very breastworks of the 
enemy, while he and his command, through a storm of 
shot and shell, were heroically endeavoring to scale 
them. Capt. Bartlett was a pure patriot and a brave 
soldier. The other companies also participated in the 
assault, but were not in so advanced a position. 
They were under fire, however, and were also in the 
battle of Bisland. In the attack of June 14th, when 
Capt. Bartlett was killed, the two companies suffered 
severely, losing in killed and wounded sixty-eight. 

Upon the surrender of Port Hudson the Fourth 
Regiment was one of the first to enter the fort, and 
remained inside performing garrison duty until 
August 4th, when it embarked for New England, and 
on the 28th of the same month was mustered out of 
the service. The entire loss of the regiment was about 
one hundred and twenty-five. 

The Seventh Regiment. 1 — The Seventh Regiment 
was composed almost entirely of Bristol County men, ; 
and was recruited by Col. (subsequently Maj.-Gcn.) 
Darius N. Couch. It was officered as follows : 

Colonel, Darius N. Coucli, Taunton ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Chester W. 
Green, Fall River ; Major, David E. Holman, Attleborough ; Surgeon, S. A. 
Ilolman, Taunton ; Assistant Surgeon, Z. Boylston Adams, Farmingham ; 
Adjutant, Otlmeil Gilmore, Raynhnm ; Quartermaster, Daniel Edson, Jr., 
Somerset; Quartermaster-Sergeant, David Packard, South Abington; 
Commissary -Sergeant, John B. Burt, Fall River; Hospital Steward, 
Horace B. Sherman, Boston; Principal Musicians, Thomas Dolan, Taun- 
ton, Robert Sheehan, Fall River; Leader of Band, Zadoc Thompson, 
Halifax. 

Company A (Fall River). — Captain, David H. Dyer; First Lieutenant, 
Jesse F. Eddy; Second Lieutenant, William H. Nye. 

Company B (Fall River). — Captain, John Gushing; First Lieutenant, 
Jesse D. Bullock ; Second Lieutenant, George W. Gifford. 

Company C (Taunton). — Captain, Charles T. Robinson; First Lieuten- 
ant, Edgar Robinson ; Second Lieutenant, George F. Holman. 

1 By H. A. Cushman, of Taunton. 



Company D (Taunton). — Captain, Joseph Barney Leonard; First Lieu- 
tenant, William B. Stall; Second Lieutenant, William M. Hale. 

Company E (Scituate, Dorchester, and Marshfield). — Captain, Horace 
Fox ; First Lieutenant, Hiram A. Oakman ; Second Lieutenant, William 
W. Carsley. 

Company F (Taunton). — Captain, Zeba F. Bliss; First Lieutenant, 
James M. Lincoln; Second Lieutenant, James R. Mathewson. 

Company G (Easton) — Captain, Ward L. Foster; First Lieutenant, A. 
W. Lothrop; Second Lieutenant, M. F. Williams. 

Company //(Mansfield). — Captain, John R. Whitcorab; First Lieuten- 
ant, John W. Rogers; Second Lieutenant, William F. White. 

Company I (Attleborough). — Captain, John F. Ashley; First Lieu- 
tenant, William W. Fisher ; Second Lieutenant, Charles B. Des Jardines. 

Company K (Abington). — Captain, Franklin P. Harlow; First Lieu- 
tenant, George W. Reed ; Second Lieutenant, A. L. Mayhew. 

The regiment rendezvoused at Camp Old Colony 
(now known as Bristol County Agricultural Grounds), 
Taunton, where it was mustered into the United 
States service by Capt. J. H. Marshall, U.S.A., June 
15, 1861, and shortly after left for Washington, D. C, 
previous to which a grand collation was served them 
by the citizens of Taunton on Taunton Green. Going 
to New York by Shore Line, they embarked to Eliza- 
bethport, N. J., on steamer " Kill von Kull," where 
they took cars, passing through Baltimore, Relay 
House, and other points of interest, reaching Wash- 
ington, D. C, at night, encamping near the capitol 
buildings till next morning, when they marched to 
Camp Kalorama, near Georgetown, D. C, where 
they remained until Aug. 6, 1861, when they marched 
to junction of Seventh and Fourteenth Streets, which 
was christened Camp Brightwood, D. C, and went 
into winter-quarters. During their stay there the 
regiment was assigned to a brigade composed of 
Thirty-sixth New York, Second Rhode Island, and 
Tenth Massachusetts Volunteers, which was com- 
manded by Gen. Couch, and was a part of Gen. 
Buell's division. During their stay at this location 
they assisted in building Fort Massachusetts, which 
formed a formidable work in repelling the advance of 
the rebels under Gen. Jubal Earl} r later on in July, 
1864; picketed Rock Creek, and learned the duties of 
soldiers under the successive commands of Col. Nelson 
H. Davis, now inspector-general United States army, 
Col. Joseph Wheelock, who resigned shortly after his 
commission, and Col. David A. Russell, the latter 
whom the members learned to fear, and afterwards to 
revere. March 25, 1862, the regiment embarked on 
transports for Fortress Monroe, Va., marched to New- 
port News, Warwick Court-House, thence to a position 
in front of Yorktown, where it remained until Ma- 
gruder evacuated the forts, when, after severe mud 
marches, it arrived upon the battle-field of Williams- 
burg, Va., much exhausted, at 2.30 p.m. 

May 5, 1862, under a severe fire, they were ordered 
to the support of the exhausted troops of Gen. Peck's 
brigade, and at nightfall relieved the One Hundred 
and Second Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, and 
without blankets or fires stood in a drenching rain 
during the night. At daybreak a detachment from 
Company K, Capt. Reed, with a detachment from Gen. 
Davidson's command, occupied Fort Magruder; loss, 



MILITARY HISTORY. 



41 



one killed, two wounded. Encamped near Williams- 
burg, Va., till May 9th, when marched to Roper's 
Church; May 13th, marched to Dr. May's farm; May 
16th, marched six miles on the Richmond road; May 
17th, formed a reconnoitering party under Cols. D. A. 
Russell and Gregg (of cavalry fame) to Bottom's 
Bridge ; May 19th, moved to a point on Richmond 
and West Point Railroad two and a half miles from 
railroad bridge on Chickahominy River ; from May 
20th to May 24th, skirmished to Charles City road ; 
May 25th to 29th, skirmished to Seven Pines ; May 
31st, engaged in battle of Seven Pines, or Fair Oaks; 
June 2d, encamped near Golding's farm, Chicka- 
hominy River; June 5th, engaged in a skirmish; 
June 6th, encamped on west side of railroad; June 
11th, encamped near Seven Pines; June 25th, en- 
gaged in a severe skirmish with the enemy, losing, 
killed, the genial and warm-hearted soldiers Lieut. 
Jesse D. Bullock, Company B, and Private John 
White, Company F. Lieut. Bullock was embalmed 
and his body sent home to Fall River. Private White 
was buried near the camp. June 27th, broke camp 
and commenced the grand retreat of Gen. McClellan 
down the Peninsula; June 28th, engaged in severe 
skirmish with rebel cavalry near Ellis Church ; June 
29th, arrived about 2 P.M., near James River at Mal- 
vern Hill ; July 2d, marched to Harrison's Landing, 
on James River, Va., where it remained in camp 
until Aug. 10, 1802, when it commenced its march to 
Fortress Monroe, or York River, to embark on trans- 
ports to Alexandria, Va. While at Harrison's Land- 
ing the band which had so many times inspired the 
members of the Seventh with their fine music was, 
by general order of War Department, mustered out 
Aug. 11, 1802. September 1st, inarched from Alexan- 
dria to Fairfax Court-House, Va. Battle of Bull 
Run, Va. September 2d, returned to Alexandria; 
from September 3d to September 17th marched 
through Tenallytown, Rusherville, Seneca Mills, 
Poolesville, Barnesville, Lickettsville, Birkettsville, 
Boonesville, Md., over South Mountain to Antietam 
battle-field. As a part of a division under command 
of Gen. Couch, at night, September 18th, was placed 
in front line, the enemy retreating in the night. Sep- 
tember 19th, moved to Sharpsburg; 20th, returned 
through that town to Williamsport, Md. ; 23d, en- 
camped at Downsville, Md., remained there until 
October 18th, moved to Clear Spring, Hancock, 
Cherry Run, and Williamsport. Returned to old 
camp at Downsville, October 29th. November 1st. 
left there, passing through Berlin, crossing the Poto- 
mac, passing through Wheatland, White Plains, New 
Baltimore, Catlett's Station to camp near Stafford 
Court-House, Va. December 4th, marched to Belle 
Plains, Va. 

Up to this time the loss had been three killed, 
twenty-six wounded, seven taken prisoners, and forty- 
eight died from sickness. 

December 11th, the regiment started at daylight and 



marched to the Rappahannock River, about one mile 
below Fredericksburg, Va., where they halted until 5 
P.M., when they crossed the river on pontoons under 
a severe fire from the enemy. The Seventh was the . 
second regiment to cross, acting as support to the 
skirmish line, and advancing about a mile farther, 
driving the enemy before them. They remained in 
this position during the night, and were subjected to a 
severe fire from the enemy's artillery until December 
15th, when they recrossed the river and encamped 
near Falmouth. Loss in this engagement one killed 
and two wounded. December 18th, went into camp 
at White Oak Church, Va. At this camp the sad in- 
telligence that their beloved colonel, David O. Russell, 
who had been promoted to a higher position, that of 
brigadier-general in Gen. Wright's (now chief of en- 
gineers, U.S.A.) division, was to leave them cast a 
gloom which to them seemed worse than all the 
reverses they had met in many battles and weary 
marches. 

Educated at West Point, skilled in the art of war, 
his frontier life peculiarly fitting him for skirmish 
and reconnoitering duty, possessed of a warm heart, 
strict in discipline, but acting as a father to all in his 
command, while officers and men rejoiced at his well- 
earned and deserved advancement, they sincerely 
mourned his loss. He rose from the command of a 
brigade to a division commander, and his worth can- 
not be better portrayed than the remark heard by the 
writer from Gen. Phil H. Sheridan's lips, when he 
was being carried by on a stretcher unconscious and 
mortally wounded at the battle of Winchester, Va., 
Sept. 19, 1804: " Revenge for Russell ! Revenge for 
Russell ! No better officer ever slung a sword in the 
army !"' Gen. Russell's remains were carried to Sa- 
lem, N. Y., where they were buried with military 
and civic honors. United States forts, Grand Army 
posts, and soldiers' children bear his name, and the 
name of David A. Russell will ever be revered by 
officers or privates whose good fortune it was to be 
in his command as long as a hand is left to deck the 
grave with choice flowers of a comrade. 

From Dec. 18, 1802, to Jan. 20, 1803, remained 
in camp, when they participated in Burnsides' mud 
march till Feb. 2, 1803, when they returned to old 
camp at White Oak Swamp. From then to May 
2, 1863, remained in winter-quarters, doing camp and 
picket duty. 

May 2, 1803, crossed Rappahannock River into 
Fredericksburg at 10 p.m. May 3d, a beautiful 
Sabbath morn, the regiment was detached from the 
brigade and took position in line of battle to assist in 
holding the city against an attack of the enemy 
which was imminent, and were held in readiness to 
lead the assaulting column on Marye's Heights. 
Directly west, out of the town of Fredericksburg, 
was a road which finally reaches Chancellorsville, 
just in the outskirts of the town, less than a mile from 
the main street. This road ascends a hill that, while 



42 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



it is sufficiently steep to render the ascent toilsome, is 
not so steep as to render any less effective the fire of 
artillery and musketry. This is Marye's Hill, and at 
the summit of this hill is Marye's house. Near the 
hill a road leaves the Chancellorsville road, runs to- 
ward the south, across the front and right of the hill 
at its base ; the latter road had a substantial stone 
wall on each side of it, and these roads, with a little 
assistance from the spade, had been converted into 
excellent breastworks by the enemy. No artillery fire 
could touch those walls, for it was a sunken road, and 
though the walls were four feet high in the road, their 
tops were level with the surface. Behind the second 
line of pits rises the hill, and around its whole crest 
runs a well-constructed earthwork, in which was one 
howitzer. At the ascent of the hill it is a mere gulch, 
broken and stony, and an awful place for men to be 
packed in under a plunging fire of grape and canister 
in addition to musketry fire. Such was the position 
the gallant Seventh was to lead the assault against. 

The regiment, after crossing over a small bridge, 
instead of being ordered to deploy and charge the 
enemy, were allowed to charge by the flank, and the 
enemy, bewildered by such a movement, reserved their 
fire until the regiment were in close quarters, when 
with artillery and musketry from rifle-pits aud houses 
they dealt death-blows until the regiment faltered, 
which was only for a moment. As fast as men were 
slain the depleted ranks would be filled, and those 
who escaped fairly waded through fire and gore, re- 
sisted by the Confederates as our men clambered over 
the walls and planted their colors on the crest of the 
hill. Col. Thomas D. Johns, who succeeded Gen. 
Russell, was wounded here, which was conceded by 
his command as a just punishment for attempting 
such a charge by the flank instead of deploying his 
men as he should. The Seventh here captured two 
pieces of the famous rebel Washington Artillery. 
The regiment, with Gen. Sedgwick's corps, pursued 
the enemy to Salem Heights, a distance of four miles, 
when from four o'clock till darkness they w r ere severely 
engaged, sleeping on the field that night. May 4th, 
was again engaged, and was obliged, owing to the 
enemy flanking the corps and again occupying their 
works, on the evening of May 4th, to retreat to Banks' 
Ford, where they recrossed the Rappahannock. Tues- 
day morning, May 5th, the well-earned victory had 
been turned to defeat, and the result of the 3d of May 
carnage carried mourning into many homes in Bristol 
County. With a force of less than five hundred men, 
the loss of this regiment in this bloody field was two 
officers and twenty -one men killed, nine officers and 
one hundred and five men wounded ; Company F, on 
the right of the command, losing of that number two 
sergeants, one corporal, and four privates killed, and 
three commissioned officers, five corporals, and seven 
privates wounded. May 8th, returned to old camp 
near Falmouth. June 6th, again crossed the Rappa- 
hannock, and were left as rear-guard while the army 



were marching to Pennsylvania. June 11th to July 
2d, marched towards Washington, into Maryland, and 
made forced marches from Frederick City, Md., to 
Gettysburg battle-field, where they arrived at 6 P.M. ; 
immediately took position in support of extreme left 
of line. July 3d, was moving from left to right and 
right to left, subjected to the terrific artillery fire of 
that memorable day ; here it was that Lieut.-Col. F. 
P. Harlow, who stood next to Gen. Russell in the es- 
teem of the men of the Seventh, displayed his usual 
good judgment aud bravery by scattering his men 
while subjected to showers of shot and shell. 

On the morning of the glorious 4th of July, 1863, 
which was the end of a hard-contested but well-earned 
victory of our nation's defenders, the regiment was 
ordered into position in the front line and remained 
until noon, when they threw up a line of rifle-pits 
and bivouacked for the night. On the morning of 
the 5th, the retreat of the enemy was followed about 
six miles as advance-guard, where they were ordered 
on picket duty. July 6th to 14th, marched to Funks- 
town, Md., formed line of battle, and were in time to 
see the abandoned wagon-trains of the enemy at 
Williamsport, Md. Continued the march to Warren- 
ton, Va., where the regiment encamped until Septem- 
ber, when they marched to Culpeper, returning to 
Warrenton. Nov. 7, 1863, the regiment with the 
Sixth Corps moved from Warrenton to Rappahannock 
Station, where it was under fire supporting the attack 
on that fort by their old commander, Gen. Russell, 
who carried it by storm, capturing one hundred and 
thirty-two officers, fifteen hundred men, four guns, 
four caissons, and eight battle-flags ; from there they 
marched to Brandy Station, Va., where winter-quar- 
ters were established. At this camp a large number 
of men re-enlisted for three years more. November 
26th, broke camp and marched to Mine Run, Va., 
where the regiment was engaged in front line. De- 
cember 1st, returned to old camp at Brandy Station. 

Feb. 27, 1864, the regiment was with the Sixth 
Corps ordered to support a cavalry movement to Char- 
lottesville, and after severe marches returned again 
to Brandy Station, where it remained, performing 
routine of camp and picket duty, until May 3, 1864, 
when camp was broken, and it marched to Germama 
Ford and Old Wilderness Tavern. May 5th, marched 
to plank-road in the Wilderness ; in the afternoon were 
placed in front line of battle, and engaged the enemy 
till nearly dusk, casualties numbering eighty-five. At 
daybreak May 6th was attacked by the enemy, Long- 
street's corps. The fighting was in a dense thicket 
and was indecisive, both lines of the armies swaying 
hither and thither with the shifting fortunes of the 
fight. After repeated charges and retreats the Sev- 
enth were relieved and ordered to the right of the line 
to resist a threatening attack of the enemy. At dark 
moved through the Wilderness to the left, marching all 
night. May 7th, moved to North Anna River. May 
8th, the regiment with the Sixth Corps marched to 



MILITARY HISTORY. 



43 



Spottsvlvania Court-House, formed a line of battle, and 
at dusk charged the enemy, who was strongly posted, 
broke their line of battle, and captured the color- 
standard, color-guard, and thirty-two men of a Georgia 
regiment, losing one killed, four wounded, and two 
prisoners. The latter were recaptured while on the 
way to Richmond. They held* the position gained, 
and bivouacked on the field. May 9th, our beloved 
commander, Gen. or " Uncle" John Sedgwick, was 
killed by a rebel sharpshooter, one of the ablest and 
oldest commanders of the Army of the Potomac. 
Both men and officers had entire confidence in his 
judgment and skill. May 10th, employed digging 
rifle-pits. May 11th, were ordered to the front on the 
skirmish line, where remained two days on constant 
duty. On the 13th rejoined brigade; rested till 2 
A.M. May 14th, when marched five miles, formed line 
of battle left of Fifth Corps. 15th and 16th, digging 
rifle-pits. 17th, marched all night towards right of 
the army, and at daybreak May 18th charged the 
enemy, which was unsuccessful ; renewed the assault, 
but owing to strength of enemy was obliged to re- 
tire. May 19th, crossed the Ny River and encamped. 
Loss the 18th, six wounded. May 25th, on picket at 
Noal's Station. May 26th, was ordered to the ex- 
treme front near Little River ; with other regiments 
covered the withdrawal of the Sixth Corps, crossed 
North Anna River, and marched to Chesterfield Sta- 
tion on Fredericksburg and Richmond Railroad. May 
28th, crossed Pamunkey River; 29th, marched to 
Hanover Court-House; four miles from there threw 
up rifle-pits, May 31st, near Tolopotomy Creek, from 
where the regiment marched at dark all night to Cold 
Harbor, where it arrived at 2 p.m., deployed into 
line, and at once engaged the enemy with success, 
driving them from behind rifle-pits, and occupied the 
field for the night. From June 3d to June 14th the 
Seventh were on constant duty, losing men daily 
under the constant fire of the enemy, and when re- 
lieved on the last day of their term of service, being 
then in the extreme front line, a member of Company 
G was instantly killed. 

Having been reduced in numbers by the serious 
casualties of the campaign, their duties being unusu- 
ally arduous, they presented a sad sight of the havoc 
war can make of a regiment which left Massachusetts 
with one thousand strong. On the afternoon of the 
14th marched to Chickahominy, thence to Charles 
City Court-House, and finally bivouacked on the 
banks of the James, May 15th. Their term of service 
having expired, it was relieved from further duty and 
ordered to Massachusetts, to be mustered out of ser- 
vice by special orders, headquarters Sixth Army 
Corps, and the following was read to the command : 

" Headquarters Fourth Bbigadk, 

Second Division, Sixth COBPS, 
''June 14, 18154. 
" Oircidar: 

" As the term of service of the Seventh MassachusettH Volunteer* is 
drawing to a close, and as it is expected to return lo Massachusetts, the 



colonel commanding the brigade deems it a duty as well as a pleasure to 
testify to the soldierly hearing, bravery, and efficiency of the regiment 
up to the last day of their stay. The colonel commanding has witnessed 
with satisfaction the coolness and steadiness under fire of both officers 
and men ; the long marches, exposure, and the many hardships they 
have undergone since the opening of the campaign have been borne 
without a murmur, and has more fully established the reputation they 
have previously won as a regiment that could always be relied upon. 
They go hack to Massachusetts with thinned ranks and tattered colors, 
but with the feeling and the assurance that they have nobly served the 
cause of their country in its most trying hour. 
" By order of 

"0. Edwakds, 

" Col. CommamUiiy Brigade. 
" T. G. Colt, 

" First Lieut, and A.A.A.G." 

On the morning of the 16th the regiment embarked 
from Wilson's Landing, James River, Va., in the dis- 
patch steamer " Keyport," for Washington, D. O, and 
on following day took special train for New York ; 
reached Taunton June 20, 1864, and was warmly wel- 
comed back by the citizens, who turned out en masse. 
June 27, 1864, the regiment was mustered out of ser- 
vice, and the gallant Seventh, with its laurels won on 
many a hard-contested field, passed into history. 
Herewith will be found a recapitulation of the regi- 
ment : 

Killed and died 145 

Deserted 143 

Transferred 69 

Rejected recruits 13 

Promoted 82 

Discharged 470 

922 
Mustered out 407 

Total 1329 

The surviving members of the Seventh have formed 
an association called the "Seventh Massachusetts 
Veteran Association," which meets June 15th yearly. 
It has some eighty members, and affords the " boys" 
of 1861, now gray-haired men, much pleasure to 
unite and rehearse war scenes of camp and battle life. 
Any information — as long as he is living — can be ob- 
tained of one of its youngest surviving members, 
H. A. Cushman, secretary of the association. 

Maj.-Gen. Darius N. Couch. — The Seventh Regi- 
ment of Massachusetts Volunteers was recruited by 
Col. Darius N. Couch, of Taunton, who was a native 
of New York. He graduated at West Point in the 
class of 1846, and was assigned a second lieutenant to 
the Fourth United States Artillery. He served under 
Gen. Taylor in the Mexican war, and was breveted 
first lieutenant for gallantry at the battle of Buena 
Vista in 1847. He subsequently was assigned to a 
command in the Seminole war of 1853, and made a 
scientific tour in Mexico, the result of which was 
published. In 1855 he resigned his position in the 
United States army, and in 1859 became a resident 
of Taunton, having married the daughter of Hon. 
Samuel L. Crocker. At the outbreak of the war in 
1861, Lieut. Crouch tendered his services to Governor 
Andrew, and was commissioned to raise a regiment 
at the call of President Lincoln for seventy-five 
thousand men to suppress the Rebellion. He re- 



41 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



cruitecl the Seventh Regiment of Massachusetts Vol- 
unteers, headquarters at Taunton, and was elected 
colonel. He left with his regiment for the seat of 
war (Virginia) in June, 1861, and joined the Army of 
the Potomac under Gen. McClellan, who was a class- 
mate. 

On their departure from Taunton in Jul}', 1861, 
the following letter was received by Col. Couch from 
Governor Andrew : 

"Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 

" Executive Department, 

" Huston, July 16, 1861. 
" To Col. D. X. Couch, 

'• Commanding Seventh Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers : 

" Colonel, — I wish to express warmly and sincerely my regret that I 
could not make an opportunity to exchange greetings with you and 
your fine regiment before you left the commonwealth for the seat of war. 

" My reluctance to permit any regiment to depart from Massachusetts 
without a chance to bid it God-speed was so great that I was even in- 
clined to delay you for a day or two in order to secure such an oppor- 
tunity, but on reflection it seemed to me unwise to postpone for a mere 
sentiment your call to active duty. 

" I beg now to assure you that you and your command are held by the 
official representatives of the commonwealth in no less affectionate regard 
than other regiments which, by reason of their proximity to the capital, 
afford easier opportunities for personal interviews and acquaintances ; 
that we shall watch your career and rejoice in your successes with no 
less eager interest than that with which we follow those regiments 
which preceded you and those which tread in your footsteps. And to 
you, personally, I wish to express my thanks fur the quiet, considerate, 
judicious conduct which characterized your whole action in the organi- 
zation of your command. 

" I hope I shall hear often from you. Any support which I can afford 
to the regiment under its national auspices I shall be glad to extend, 
and I beg you never to hesitate to call back to Massachusetts whenever 
you need for sympathy and aid. 

"I am faithfully and respectfully, 

" Your friend and servant, 

" John A. Andrew." 

In August, 1861, Col. Couch, having evinced rare 
ability in disciplining his command, was promoted 
brigadier-general. On the reorganization of the Army 
of the Potomac he was assigned to the command of 
a division in Maj.-Gen. Keyes' corps, and distin- 
guished himself in the battles of Fair Oaks, Malvern 
Hill, and Williamsburg, and for his bravery and gal- 
lantry was promoted major-general of volunteers, July, 
1862. He participated in the battles in command of 
a division. At Antietam was assigned the command of 
the late Gen. Sumner's corps. He afterwards distin- 
guished himself at the battles of Fredericksburg and 
Chancellorsville, under Maj.-Gen. Hooker. He was 
assigned to the command of the Department of the 
Susquehannah in 1863; was also in command of a 
division in the defeat of Gen. Hood at Nashville. 
He resigned at the close of the war in 1865, and was 
appointed collector of the port of Boston. He has 
resided in Norwalk, Conn., about twelve years, and 
for several years has held the office of adjutant-gen- 
eral of that State. 

The adjutant-general of Massachusetts, in his re- 
port of 1862, referred to the Seventh Begiment as 
follows : 

" This regiment is composed in great part of Bristol 
County men, recruited by Col. (now Brig.-Gen.) 
Couch, and is composed of very excellent material." 



The following letter from Gen. Couch to the mem- 
bers of his old regiment at their reunion in 1874 will 
be read with interest: 

" Norwalk, Conn., June 12, 1874. 
" To the Association of Seventh Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers : 

"Gentlemen, — Seeing in a Taunton paper that the 'Seventh' is to 
have a reunion on the anniversary of its muster into the service of the 
United States, it occurred that I might add a trifle to the interest of the 
meeting by writing a few items of history pertaining to the regimental 
organization. 

"Your regiment, though not the very first one organized for three 
years' service, had a beginning, I fancy, prior to that of any other from 
Massachusetts. 

"The 31st of December, 1860, I wrote a letter to the adjutant-general 
of the State to the effect that a conflict with the South was inevitable, 
and tendering my services to the State. Gen. Schouler answered Feb. 
1,1861. 

" On the20 f h of April, 1861, Hon. Samuel L. Crocker introduced me to 
Governor Andrew, at the State-House, vouching for my services in the 
Mexican war. The Governor, after hearing my views, referred me to 
Col. Sargeant, of his staff, when the first official steps were taken to raise 
troops in Bristol County. 

" You, the old members, all know of the enthusiasm shown in the 
various county towns, the squad-drills by night, and the encouragement 
given us by patriotic gentlemen, military committees, etc. 

" Well, we succeeded in organizing ten companies, which, in a special 
order of his Excellency the Governor, were named respectively as con- 
stituting the Fifteenth Regiment of Infantry, First Division. The order 
was i if date May 21, 1861. 

" An order of the same date from headquarters, First Division, Massa- 
chusetts Volunteer Militia, directed the company officers to assemble at 
the Parker House May 21, 1861, and to elect field-officers for the regi- 
ment. Orders from the same headquarters. May 29, 1801, stated that 
officers were elected, commissioned, and qualified, as follows : 

" Colonel, Darius N. Couch, of Taunton. 

" Lieutenant-Colonel, Chester W. Green, of Fall Eiver. 

" Major, David E. Holman, of Attleborough. 

" It was thus a regiment of militia. 

"General Order, No. 12, of the Governor, May 22d, cited the President's 
proclamation for the raising of three years' troops, and that the quota 
of Massachusetts was six regiments, the Fifteenth Regiment Massa- 
chusetts Volunteer Militia being accepted by the Governor, after some 
delay, as the Fourth Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteers, and went 
into Camp Old Colony to fill up the ranks and get ready for active 
service. 

" We were soon after changed to the Seventh, an unsullied name 
borne in aprotracted struggle of four years, consisting of long marches, 
hard bivouacks, closely-contested battles, and retreats. 

" May you long live, my gallant comrades, to enjoy your nobly-earned 

honor is the sincere wish of your friend, 

" D. N. Couch." 

The Eighteenth Regiment was recruited mainly 
from Norfolk, Bristol, and Plymouth Counties. It 
was mustered into the service Aug. 27, 1861, and left 
for Washington on the following day, under command 
of Col. James Barnes. This regiment participated in 
the battles of Gaines' Mills, Second Bull Run, Shep- 
ardston, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, 
Rappahannock Station, Wilderness, Spottsylvania, 
Cold Harbor, Petersburg, and Weldon Railroad. The 
regiment, after a service which was distinguished for 
bravery and good discipline, was mustered out Sept. 
2, 1864, and those soldiers whose term of service had 
not expired were transferred to the Thirty-second 
Regiment. 

The Twenty-third Regiment had a few men from 
Bristol County. This regiment left the State Nov. 11, 
1861, and encamped for a time at Annapolis, Md. 
It formed a part of the Ikirnside expedition, and en- 
gaged in the following battles: Roanoke, Newberne, 





lr€.€^d 




MILITARY HISTORY. 



■ij 



Ranle's Mills, Kingston, Whitehall, Goldsboro', Wil- 
cox's Bridge, Winton, Smithfield, Heckman's Farm, 
Arrowfield Church, Drury's Bluff, Cold Harbor, and 
other battles before Richmond, and Kingston, Second 
Bull Run. Mustered out Sept. 14, 1864. Remustered 
men and recruits remained in the service under the 
same designation until June 25, 1865. 

The Twenty-sixth Regiment was mustered into 
the service of the United States Oct. 18, 1861, and 
was mustered out Aug. 26, 1865. It had about one 
company from Bristol County. This regiment was a 
legitimate offspring of the old Sixth Regiment, which 
was mobbed in Baltimore. It participated in the 
battles of Winchester, Cedar Creek, and Fisher's 
Hill. 

The Twenty-ninth. Regiment.— Seven companies 
of this regiment were among the first three years' 
men that left the State. They were sent to Fortress 
Monroe to fill up the ranks of the Third and Fourth 
Militia Regiments, three months' men, and when the 
terms of the above regiments had expired, the seven 
companies became known as the First Battalion of 
Massachusetts Volunteers. Subsequently three new 
companies were organized and attached to this bat- 
talion and it was made the Twenty-ninth Regiment, 
and Brig.-Gen. E. W. Peirce, of the Massachusetts 
Volunteer Militia, was appointed colonel. 

The regiment participated in the battles before 
Richmond, Antietam, Fredericksburg, siege of Vicks- 
burg, Jackson, Blue Springs, Campbell's Station, 
siege of Knoxville, Cold Harbor. 

This was not a Bristol County regiment, but Col. 
Peirce, its commander, was and still is a Bristol 
County man. In one of Maj. O'Neill's reports, in re- 
ferring to Gen. Peirce, he says, " Col. Ebenezer W. 
Peirce, who lost an arm in the battle of White Oak 
Swamp, has my sympathy, and in so soon rejoining 
his regiment for duty proved his readiness to be where 
a soldier should be, at the head of his regiment." It 
may be remarked here that Gen. Peirce rejoined his 
regiment and took command only sixty days after his 
arm had been shot off at White Oak Swamp. 

Nov. 12, 1862, Col. E. W. Peirce was detailed upon 
recruiting service, and ordered to report to Col. Day 
at Boston, where he remained until relieved, and 
immediately resumed command of his regiment at 
Newport News, March 21, 1863, accompanying it to 
Paris, Ky., when he was, by order of Gen. Burnside, 
placed in command of all the Federal forces at that 
post, and so remained until July 20th, when he was 
detailed to organize the First Provisional Regiment of 
Massachusetts, encamped oil Long Island, Boston 
Harbor, and returning to his regiment at Nicholas- 
ville, Ky., August 28th, was immediately placed in 
command of the brigade to which this regiment was 
attached, and commanded the brigade in Kentucky, 
Tennessee, and Virginia, and while in Tennessee 
was for a time in command of the First Division of 
the Ninth Corps. 



Ebenezer W. Peirce was born at Assonet vil- 
lage, in Freetown, April 5, 1822, and is a lineal de- 
scendant in the sixth generation from Abraham 
Peirce, who emigrated to America and settled at Ply- 
mouth in 1623, and died at Duxbury in or near 1673. 
Isaac, a son of Abraham Peirce, performed military 
service for Plymouth Colony in King Philip's war 
(1675 and 1676), for which he was awarded a land 
grant. Isaac Peirce died in what was then Middle- 
borough, now Lakeville, Feb. 28, 1732, aged about 
seventy-one years. 

Isaac Peirce left sons Thomas and Isaac, Jr. The 
latter, becoming a Quaker, had a family of four sons, 
all of whom save one left the religious faith and prac- 
tice of their father ; and the oldest of these (Ebenezer 
by name) sent three sons into the army in the French 
and Indian war (1755 to 1783), and six into the pa- 
triot army of the American Revolution (1775 to 1782), 
of which six four became captains in that service, 
and one lost his life before having time to attain pro- 
motion. Of these six sons was Capt. Job Peirce, who 
served in both the French and Indian war and the 
Revolution, and who had one son in active service in 
the coast-guard as a major, and another as a captain in 
the last war with England (1812 to 1815). Capt. Job 
Peirce was the founder or donor of the Peirce Acad- 
emy, in Middleborough, and paternal grandfather to 
the subject of this sketch, who upon the maternal side 
is of the sixth generation from Lieut. Samuel Gardi- 
ner, who distinguished himself in King William's 
war (1689 to 1692), and is the earliest town clerk and 
treasurer of Freetown of whom there remains a record, 
and was a principal proprietor of what is still known 
as Gardiner's Neck, in Swansea. The mother of 
Ebenezer W. Peirce was a daughter of Col. Benjamin 
Weaver, of Freetown, an officer in patriot army of 
Revolution, and a stanch upholder of the govern- 
ment in the Shay's war, or Shay's rebellion, so called, 
in 1786, and for some thirty years justice of a court, 
and distinguished for considerable scholastic attain- 
ments. 

Ebenezer W. Peirce was educated in the common 
schools of his native town, Peirce Academy, Middle- 
borough, Mass., Bacon Academy, Colchester, Conn., 
and Durham Academy, at Durham, N. H. He has 
been elected to the town offices of selectman, overseer 
of the poor, assessor, treasurer, collector, and school 
committee, and appointed to the county offices of trial 
justice, coroner, notary public, commissioner to qualify 
civil officers, public administrator, and prover of fire- 
arms, and from the President of the United States 
received the appointment of collector of internal rev- 
enue for the First Congressional District of Massa- 
chusetts. In the local militia of Massachusetts he 
has held the commissions of lieutenant, captain, major, 
lieutenant-colonel, and brigadier-general, and in the 
army in late war of great Rebellion the commission 
of colonel. 

He commanded a regiment in Virginia, a brigade 



46 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



in Kentucky, Tennessee, and Virginia, and for a 
short time a division in Tennessee. His right arm 
was, by a cannon-ball, shot off near the shoulder on 
the 30th of June, 1862, of which wound he was off 
duty only thirty days, and participated in another 
battle in less than two months. He was before and 
during the late war largely engaged in sheep hus- 
bandry and raising of wool, and while he had on 
hand a very large quantity the prices of wool went 
up from twenty-eight cents to one dollar and eighteen 
cents per pound, and dropped almost as much imme- 
diately after he had sold out, for, said he, " while 
most people advised me to sell I would not dispose of 
a pound, but as soon as almost every body advised me 
to hold on I made haste to sell the whole and did not 
get rid of it a moment too soon." From youth he 
has given much time and attention to the reading 
of the Bible, making it for several years the rule of 
his life to read it through every twelve months, and 
is yet a thoroughly confirmed materialist, in whose 
mind reason takes the place of revelation and science 
has demolished superstition. Since the war he has 
written considerable for newspapers and became the 
author of several books upon local history, biography, 
and genealogy. 

Although having attained to more than threescore 
years and suffered the hardships incident to nearly 
four years' service in the late war, more than two 
vears of which were performed after the loss of his 
right arm, he still enjoys almost unimpaired health, 
and is practically a comparatively young man, all of 
which he ascribes to a naturally strong constitution, 
abstemious habits, ever totally ignoring tobacco and 
all forms of gambling, and that he has, during the 
most of his life, not allowed himself to be incumbered 
with the burdens, sources, and anxious care of more 
than one world at a time. 

The Thirty-eighth Regiment was mustered into 
the service Aug. 24, 1862, and was mustered out June 
30, 1865. One company of the regiment (H) was re- 
cruited in the southeastern part of the county, princi- 
pally from New Bedford, Dartmouth, and Westport. 
The regiment participated in the following engage- 
ments : Cane River, Mansura, Port Hudson, Opequan, 
Fisher's Hill, and Cedar Creek. 

The Thirty-ninth Regiment was mustered into 
the United States service Sept. 4, 1862, and was mus- 
tered out June 2, 1865. There was one company in 
this regiment from Bristol County, Company F from 
Taunton. The Thirty-ninth participated in the 
following engagements: Mine Run, Wilderness, 
Spottsylvania, North Anna, Tolopotomy, Bethesda 
Church, Petersburg, Weldon Railroad, Dabney's 
Mills, Gravelly Run, and Five Forks. 

The Fortieth Regiment had one company from 
this county, chiefly from Attleborough, Company H. 
The regiment was mustered into the service Sept. 5, 
1862, and was mustered out June 16, 1865. 

It participated in the following engagements : En- 



gagements on the Blackwater, bombardments of Forts 
Sumter and Wagner, siege of Charleston, Olustee, 
Cedar Creek, Ten-Mile Run, Jacksonville, Drury's 
Bluff, Cold Harbor, Fort Harrison, Fair Oaks, and 
the several battles before Petersburg and Richmond. 
This was one of the best regiments in the service. 

The Forty-seventh Regiment (nine months) was 
recruited chiefly by Lucius B. Marsh, of Boston. Com- 
pany C, Capt. L. T. Starkey, was from Attleborough, 
and Company D, Capt. A. S. Cushman, was from New 
Bedford. The regiment left Boston Nov. 29, 1862, 
and proceeded to New York, where it remained until 
December 21st, when it sailed for New Orleans, ar- 
riving there on the 31st, and on the following day pro- 
ceeded to Carrollton, and January 2d went into camp. 
The regiment remained in the defenses of New Or- 
leans during its term of service, its loss being twenty 
by death. It was mustered out at Readville, Sept. 1, 
1863. 

The Fifty-eighth Regiment was recruited at Read- 
ville, and left for the front April 28, 1864, under com- 
mand of Lieut.-Col. John C. Whiton. There were 
several companies from Bristol County in this regi- 
ment. The regiment joined the Army of the Poto- 
mac only a few days previous to the advance towards 
Richmond, and suffered severely in officers and men. 

Capt. Franklyn Howland is a descendant of 
Henry Howland, who was in Plymouth Colony as 
early as 1624. It is supposed that John Howland, of 
the "Mayflower," and Henry were brothers. The de- 
scent comes from Henry 1 through Zoeth 2 , Nathaniel 3 , 
James 4 , Thomas 5 , Thomas 6 , William", Stephen 8 , and 
Franklyn". Zoeth'ssons, Nathaniel, Benjamin, Henry, 
and Nicholas, were among the original proprietors 
and settlers of old Dartmouth. They were sturdy, 
well to do, highly-respected men. The Howlands of 
this part of Bristol County all trace their descent 
from three brothers. Franklyn's grandfather, Wil- 
liam, above mentioned, married Innocent Wilber, of 
Little Compton, R. I., where he settled, and was fre- 
quently honored with public office. Innocent was a 
daughter of William Wilbor, who was born in Eng- 
land in 1580, and whose son Samuel was one of the 
original proprietors of the island of Rhode Island. 
Her nephew, Philip Wilbor, was formerly Governor 
of that State. Her cousin, Jobn Wilbor, was leader 
of the " Wilborite" faction of Friends. His father 
Stephen married Lucy P., daughter of Rev. Israel 
Washburn, a descendant of John Washburn, who 
was a resident of Evansham, county of Worcester, 
England, Secretary of the Council of Plymouth in 
England, and the first secretary of the Massachusetts 
Bay Colony in America. He subsequently moved with 
the Plymouth Colony, and was one of the original 
proprietors of Bridgewater, the descent being John 1 , 
John 2 , James 3 , Moses 4 , Moses 3 , Jr., Lettice 6 , Israel 7 . 
Rev. Israel Washburn was born in Acushnet, 24th 10th 
month, 1796. At an early age he took orders in the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, and continued in the 





J'y^TT^^^^^ i/wi«r{GytA*F~~ 



MILITARY HISTORY. 



47 



itinerancy most of the time till he died. His last ap- | 
pointment by the Conference was to the Methodist 
Episcopal Church in Acushnet village, but he did not 
live to move to it. 

He was an earnest advocate of all moral reforms, 
especially of total abstinence and anti-slavery, being 
classed with the Garrison abolitionists. He was for j 
many years a resident of Acushnet. In 1862, then 
seventy-two years of age, he offered his services to \ 
the government, and. was made chaplain of the 
Twelfth Massachusetts Volunteers September 1st of 
that year. At the battle of Antietam he contracted a 
disease of which he died April 23, 1864. His son, 
Capt. A. Gardiner Washburn, a former resident of 
Acushnet, a graduate of Brown University and the 
Albany Law School, subsequently a newspaper editor, 
also died of disease contracted in the service. A re- 
markable incident of record is that Moses, Jr., was 
in the Revolutionary war ; his son Lettice in the 
Revolution and war of 1812 ; his grandson Israel, his 
great-grandson A. Gardiner, and his great-great- 
grandson Franklyn in the last war. A United States 
pension was granted on account of the last four, and 
the last three held the same rank. 

Capt. Howland was born in Little Compton, R. I., 
but became a resident of Westport, Mass., the follow- 
ing year. His opportunities for an education were 
exceedingly limited. With the exception of six 
months, his studies were pursued in a mixed country 
school, " much of the time," he says, " in a house 
where daylight could be seen through the roof, and 
high winds would come through cracks in the walls 
with sufficient force to turn the leaves of a book." 
He was in school but twelve mouths after his four- 
teenth birthday. Since then, however, he has allowed 
no opportunity to pass to acquire by close observation, 
by careful reading, and by intercourse with intelli- 
gent minds that practical information which has 
given him mental power and success. 

At sixteen years of age he entered the employment 
of an i in porting house in New York City, and con- 
tinued there till the outbreak of the Rebellion. Pass- 
ing down town on the evening of the 19th of April, 
1861, he saw bulletined on the newspaper boards the 
exciting news of the attack on the Sixth Massachu- 
setts Volunteers in the streets of Baltimore. The in- 
herited patriotism, which had been by no means 
dormant, now reached a white-heat. He enrolled 
himself at once, being only eighteen years of age, as 
a private in the Fourteenth New York State Militia, 
of Brooklyn, where he resided. The regiment was 
soon ordered to the front. It passed through Balti- 
more very soon, and was quartered at Washington 
in the Senate chamber of the capitol. He was in 
the first battle of Bull Run, when the newspapers re- 
ported him killed, but he received only a flesh-wound. 
After a year's service in the Army of the Potomac 
(where he received his first commission), he was as- 
signed to duty in the Department of the South with 



the Ninth Army Corps. A part of the time spent 
there he was on staff duty as assistant provost-mar- 
shal. During his service he was a prisoner of war 
nearly a year continuously. This time was about 
equally divided between Libby and Salisbury prison 
pens, under Winder and Wirz, and New Orleans. 
The hardships and privations endured here resulted 
in a sickness which nearly proved fatal, and left him 
with a partially paralyzed condition of the spinal 
cord. Since this event he has not stepped without 
assistance, and requires a constant attendant. He re- 
signed in April, 1864, having been in service three 
years on the 19th of that month. 

Though totally incapacitated from manual labor, 
his vigorous mind seeks employment. He edits the 
agricultural department of the New Bedford Standard, 
and has since the incorporation of that department 
in this enterprising paper, January, 1876, which de- 
partment he suggested to the publishers. He has 
been president of the South Bristol Farmers' Club, a 
flourishing agricultural organization, since it was in- 
stituted. His boyhood was passed on a large farm. 
Since the war he has been a close observer of agri- 
cultural and horticultural pursuits, and for the past 
ten years a farm on which he resides, situated on the 
Fairhaven road, in the town of Acushnet, has been 
cultivated under his immediate supervision. He is 
actively interested in the anti-liquor and Sunday- 
school causes, is president of the Acushnet and vice- 
president of the Bristol County Sunday-School Asso- 
ciations. He is now engaged in preparing for the 
press a genealogy of the Howland family, and is 
working up a complete history of Methodism within 
the boundaries of old Dartmouth. The use of a pen 
being extremely difficult, and at times impossible, 
much of his writing is done by an amanuensis. 

He studied two years for the medical profession, 
but not recovering, as he had hoped, he abandoned it. 
He has no aspirations for political office, but was on 
the board of school committee of Westport for two 
years, and was a candidate of the anti-license faction 
of the. Republican party of Westport in 1869, when 
five of his competitors' votes would have secured his 
election at the polls. He was a justice of the peace 
for a number of years. 

Capt. Howland married Emma H., daughter of 
Capt. James H. and Emily G. Hallett, of Barnstable, 
Mass. Her father was a master-mariner. They have 
had three children, — Grace (deceased), Le Roy, and 
Max. Capt. Howland is a man of pleasing address 
and winning magnetism. He is often called upon to 
address various bodies and public assemblies, and has 
an earnest, convincing oratory, not unmixed with 
humor and wit, which always serves to drive home a 
point. As a writer, he is graphic and concise, evincing 
a thorough knowledge of the subject in hand. Labor- 
ing under disadvantages which would appall many 
able men, his perseverance and will cause him to ac- 
complish more actual labor than many men of per- 



48 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



feet health. He is a representative man, and remark- 
able in many respects. 

Our military history is closed. We have faithfully 
traced the history of the various regiments, and it 
has been our honest endeavor to place before the 
people of Bristol County a truthful record of her gal- 
lant sons who risked their lives in the defense of 
their country. We have sought to deal justly with 
all, and give deserving credit to each and every 
regiment. 

While the history is a record of many of the severest 
battles of the war, it is not in any particular over- 
drawn ; it is a "plain, unvarnished tale." It has 
been impossible to sketch many individual acts of 
heroism, but these were not wanting. 

Bristol County may justly feel proud of her sol- 
diery, as no section of our country acted a more 
prominent or honorable role in the great tragedy. 

Eighteen years have now elapsed since the close of 
the Rebellion, and we find our country a united and 
prosperous people. Sectional strife is rapidly passing 
away, and the same hand strews flowers alike on the 
graves of the Blue and the Gray. 

"No more shall the war-cry sever, 

Or the winding rivers be red ; 
They banish our anger forever 

When they laurel the graves of our dead. 
Under the sod and the dew, 

Waiting the judgment-day ; 
Love and tears for the Blue, 

Tears and love for the Gray." 



CHAPTER VI. 1 

NEW BEDFORD. 

Geographical — Topographical — First Record Reference to Old Dart- 
mouth — Early Settlement — Indian Deed — Wasamequen and Wam- 
sutta to William Bradford and others — Incorporation of the Town — 
The First Representative — Other Early Representatives — The Rus- 
sells — King Philip's War. 

New 7 Bedford lies in the southern part of the 
county, and is bounded as follows: On the north by 
Freetown ; on the east by Acushnet River, which 
separates it from Acushnet and Fairhaven ; on the 
south by Buzzard's Bay ; and on the west by Dart- 
mouth. The surface of the town is generally level 
and the soil fertile. 

The first reference found in the Plymouth Colony 
records in relation to the territory of Dartmouth is 
under date of Dec. 1, 1640, twenty years after the 
arrival of the "Mayflower." By an order of the Gen- 
eral Court of March, 1639, it was agreed that the 
purchasers or " old-comers" should make choice of two 
or three plantations for themselves and their heirs by 
the December court. When the time came it was 



1 For the greater portion of this and the following chapter the editor 
is largely indebted to the unpublished manuscript of the late James B. 
Congdon. 



found that the choice had been made, and the returns 
of the three tracts selected were made and recorded. 
All the selections were upon the coast. 

The following description of the tract called "The 
Second Place," taken in connection with the language 
of the conveyance afterwards made by the Indian 
chiefs Wasamequin and Wamsutta, indicates with 
sufficient accuracy that it was intended to describe 
the territory that twenty-four years afterwards con- 
stituted the town of Dartmouth. The language and 
orthography of the records are given. 

"The second place of a place called Acconquesse 
al s Acokers, w ch lyeth in the bottom of the bay, ad- 
joining to the west side of Poqnt Perrill, and two 
miles to the western side of the said river, to another 
place, called Acqussent River, w ch entreth at the west- 
ern end of Nickatag, and two miles to the eastward 
thereof, and to extend eight miles into the country." 

By this allotment of territory no title was acquired. 
It was owned by the Indians and occupied by them. 

Early Settlement of Dartmouth.— Dartmouth 
was oue of the last towns of the Plymouth Colony 
incorporated. The first record which we have of it 
is dated two hundred and twenty-nine years ago, 
thirty-four years after the landing on Plymouth Rock. 
On the 29th of November, 1654, a conveyance was 
made by Wasamequin, an Indian chief, and Wam- 
sutta, his son, of the territory now comprising the 
towns of Westport, Dartmouth, New Bedford, Fair- 
haven, and Acushnet to William Bradford, Capt. 
Standish, Thomas Southworth, John Winslow, John 
Cook, and their associates, the purchasers, as " old- 
comers." The tract conveyed is thus described : " A 
tract of land known by the name of Accushend, alias 
Aquset, entering in at the western end of Nakata, and 
to the now Cookset, alias Ackees, and places adjacent, 
the bounds of which tract fully extend through miles 
to the eastward of the most easterly part of the river 
or bay Accushenak aforesaid, and so along the seaside 
to the river called Cookset, lying on the west side of 
Point Perril, and to the most westermost side of any 
branch of the aforesaid river, and extending eight 
miles into the woods, with all marshes, meadows, 
rivers, waters, woods, and appurtenances thereto be- 
longing." 

For this large tract Wasamequen and Wamsutta 
received thirty yards of cloth, eight moose-skins, fif- 
teen axes, fifteen hoes, fifteen pairs of breeches, eight 
blankets, two kettles, one cloak, two pounds of wam- 
pum, eight pairs of stockings, eight pairs of shoes, 
one tin pot, and ten shillings in other commodities, 
which phrase being interpreted probably meant rum 
and tobacco. The grantors, father and son, agree 
within one year to remove all the Indians from the 
tract. This condition certainly was not complied 
with, and it may be inferred from the fact that the 
Indians were not removed from this favorite portion 
of their territory that the two chiefs who for this beg- 
garly inventory of breeches, blankets, and other com- 



NEW BEDFORD. 



49 



modi ties undertook to barter away the hunting- 
grounds of the tribe had as little authority to make 
the transfer as they had power to enforce the cruel 
stipulation that provided for the banishment of the 
rightful owners of the soil. 1 Previous to this date 
there were no doubt some settlers upon this territory. 

As early as 1650, Ralph Russell came to Dartmouth, 
and in company with Anthony Slocum, his companion 
into the wilderness, established an iron-works at Rus- 
sell's Mills. They were from the neighboring settle- 
ment of Taunton. 

To the Russells is due the honor of having been 
the founders of this community, and from that early 
day, over one hundred and thirty years ago, there has 
been no time in the annals of the old mother-town of 
Dartmouth or of the vigorous branches of the parent 
tree when the name of Russell was not borne by many 
here whose enterprise and perseverance proved them 
worthy descendants of him who pitched his tent in 
the wilderness, and, surrounded by the wondering and 
it may be hostile sons of the soil, caused the stillness 
of the forest for the first time to be broken by the 
clangor of water-driven machinery. 

In 1664, Dartmouth was incorporated, and John 
Russell, the first representative sent by the inhabitants 
to the General Court at Plymouth, took his seat among 
the rulers of the people the next year. 

John Cook seems to have been the only person 
named among the grantees of the territory who be- 
came an inhabitant of the town. His house was 
situated at the opposite extremity of the settlement, 
near what is now called the Head of the River. The 
second year he took Russell's place as representative 
at the headquarters of the Old Colony, and from that 

1 The following is a copy of this deed: 

" New Plymouth, November the 29th, 1G52. 

" Know all men by these presents, that I, Wesamequen, and Warn- 
sutta, my son, have sold unto Mr. William Bradford, Captain Standish, 
Thomas Southworth, John Winslow, John Cooke, and their associates, 
the purchasers or old-comers, all the tract or tracts of land lying three 
miles eastward from a river called Cushenagg, to a certain harbour called 
Acoaksett, to a Hat rock on the westward side of the said harbour. And 
whereas the Bald harbour divideth itself into several branches, the west- 
ernmost arme to be the bound, and all the tract or tracts of laud from 
the said Westernmost arme to the said river of Cushenagg, three miles 
eastward of the same, with all the profits and benefits within the said 
tract, with all the rivers, creeks, meadows, necks, and islands that lye in 
or before the same, and from the sea upward to go so high that the 
English may not be annoyed by the hunting of the Indians in any sort 
of their cattle. And I, Wesamequen, and Wamsutta, do promise to re- 
move all the Indians within a year from the date hereof that do live in 
thesaid tract. And we, the said Wesamequen anil Wamsutta, have fully 
bargained and sold unto the aforesaid Mr. William Bradford, Captain 
Standish, Thomas Southworth, John Wiuslow, John Cooke, and the rest 
of their as«ociat<*s, the purchasers or old-comers, to have and to hold for 
them and their heirs and assigns forever. And in consideration hereof, 
we the above-mentioned are to pay to the said Wesamequen and Wam- 
sutta us folio we th: thirty yard* of doth, eight moose-skins, fifteen axes, 
fifteen hoes, fifteen pair of breeches, eight blankets, two kettles, one cloak, £2 
in wnmpan, eight pair stockings, eight pair of shoes, one iron pot, and ten 
shillings in another commoditie. And in witness hereof we have inter- 
changeably set to our bauds the day and year above written. 
" In presence of "John Winslow, 

"Jonathan Shaw, "John Cook, 

" Samuel Eddy, " Wamsutta. His jam. mark." 



time to the year 1674, when Indian hostility leveled 
every habitation and drove every white inhabitant 
from the territory, the two Johns, situated at the ter- 
mini of a line drawn diagonally across the town, con- 
tinued to discharge the duties of attending to the in- 
terests of the good people of Dartmouth in the councils 
of the colony. 

Burdensome, doubtless, to these distant settlers 
was the task of attending to the affairs of state at 
Plymouth, and it was found necessary in those good 
old times to impose upon any person chosen to the 
office of Governor who should refuse to accept the 
same a fine of twenty pounds. It may be with pro- 
priety supposed that the office of member of the Gen- 
eral Court was not sought after with much eagerness. 

These hardy pioneers in the wilderness well knew 
that although legislation was a very good thing in its 
place and not to be neglected, it was no substitute for 
the axe and the plow, the forge and the anvil, in the 
great work of preparing the land to become a com- 
fortable and pleasant habitation. 

In the periods which intervened between the incor- 
poration of the town and its destruction by the natives, 
eleven years, John Russell was five years and John 
Cook six years the town's delegate to the court. 

For about three years there is a blank in the politi- 
cal annals of Dartmouth. A year or two after the 
close of the war with Metacom the old town again 
comes upon the stage, and the reappearance of Rus- 
sell and Cook in their old places in the court-house 
at Plymouth conveys the double information of the 
re-settlement of the territory and the continued popu- 
larity of the men who had shared between them all 
the honor of representing the people. 

It was in 1679 that Dartmouth had so far recovered 
from the devastation of the war as to be called upon 
to send a delegate to Plymouth. Cook was that year 
sent, and continued to occupy the post until 1682, 
when Russell was again elected. The next two years 
Cook sustains the burden, and then for the first time 
a new name is found upon the records of the Supreme 
Council as furnishing the Dartmouth quota of the 
assembled wisdom. 

For one year, 1685, Joseph Tripp was the represen- 
tative to the General Court. Russell does not again 
appear as a public man. 

John Russell, who with his father, Ralph Russell, 
and Anthony Slocum, operated the iron forge at Rus- 
sell's Mills, and whose death occurred in 1694, did not 
reside within the limits of the present city. His son 
Joseph was born in 1650, and during the war lived at 
the Apponagansett garrison, where his twin sons 
Joseph and John were born Nov. 22, 1679. He 
moved from the Apponagansett River to the Acushnet 
prior to 1711, and resided at what is now the corner 
of County and South Streets. Joseph Russell, born 
at the garrison, afterwards resided at what is now the 
corner of County and Bush Streets, where in my boy- 
hood stood the " little school-house," in whose yard 



50 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



was the well used by this early settler. The title of 
the lands of the Russells was confirmed by Her Majes- 
ty's (Queen Anne's) justices of the Court of Quarter 
Sessions for the county of Bristol, May 25, 1711. The 
survey had been made by Benjamin Crane, who, under 
the " eight hundred acre division," established the 
original boundaries. 

The son of the last-named Joseph Russell, also 
named Joseph, was born on the 8th of October, 1719, 
and died on the 16th of October, 1804, aged eighty- 
five years. We may fairly consider this last-named 
Joseph Russell as the founder of New Bedford. He 
owned the tract of land bounded on the south by 
land of his brother Caleb, the division lines being 
midway between the present Bedford and Russell 
Streets, and on the north by land of Manasseh Kemp- 
ton, whose division line was between the present 
Elm and William Streets, and bounded easterly by 
the river. His homestead was on the County road, 
as it was called, between the present court-house and 
the residence of Mrs. Charles W. Morgan. He is 
described as " a man of great industry, prudence, and 
enterprise, and of strict integrity of character, a large 
farmer and extensive land-owner." He was also en- 
gaged in mercantile business, owning several vessels 
trading at Southern ports and the West Indies. He 
was the first to engage in the whale-fishery and to 
establish a sperm-oil factory in New Bedford. 

In 1686, Cook, for the twelfth time, was returned 
as a delegate to the General Court. He was the last 
representative sent by Dartmouth to Plymouth under 
the independent charter of the colony. 

For a short period the despotism of Sir Edmund 
Andros saved the people of the colony the necessity 
of any representation in the government. With his 
administration closed the political existence of Ply- 
mouth as an independent State. United with Mas- 
sachusetts, its history is mingled with that of this an- 
cient commonwealth. This was probably the end of 
Cook's political career, and it-is most likely that the 
close of his earthly soon followed. In a confirmatory 
deed of William Bradford, Governor, in 1694, his 
name is not mentioned upon the list of proprietors. 

Both the others who had with him shared the rep- 
resentative honors of the town are named in the in- 
denture. 

Anthony Slocum was the companion and business 
associate of the founder of the town. This individual, 
whose descendants are numerous upon the territory 
of the ancient town of Dartmouth, and whose name 
was early given to a portion of that territory which 
it still retains, does not appear to have transmitted 
that name to posterity in connection with the occu- 
pancy of public station. Two of his descendants, 
however, were active in the affairs of the town, — 
Holder Slocum, Sr. and Jr., father and son. The 
father is probably entitled to the notoriety of having 
been elected representative to the General Court a 
greater number of times than any other individual 



who ever was clothed with the honors of the office. 
It is believed that for a period of nearly thirty years 
he was a member of the General Court of the com- 
monwealth. 

It is said that one year the good people of Dart- 
mouth decided to permit Squire Slocum to remain at 
home. This strange event in the history of the town, 
although it was no. doubt well known to the person 
most interested, the rejected squire, was not in due 
form communicated to the old mare, the faithful ani- 
mal who for many years had annually borne to the 
metropolis her honored master, the able and popular 
representative of Dartmouth. The time for the meet- 
ing of the General Court drew near, and the well- 
trained and experienced companion of the Dartmouth 
legislator instinctively apprised of the fact, and not as 
usual feeling the weight of her master's portly person 
and well-lined saddle-bags upon her back, concluded 
there was some mistake in the matter, and without 
further parley or delay started for Boston. 

The town of Dartmouth was slow of growth. For 
the farmer it had few attractions. Much of the soil 
was poor, and it was long in recovering from the blow 
which was given to the settlement by the extermina- 
ting hostility of the Indians. 

Indian History. — In 1676 this locality was devas- 
tated by a cruel Indian war, full of barbarity and 
atrocity, carried on by King Philip, the younger 
brother of Wamsutta. 

Five years previous to this time the following agree- 
ment was made at the Dartmouth Indian encampment 
under date Sept. 4, 1671 : 

" Memorandum. — That we, the Indians living near about the town of 
Dartmouth, in the jurisdiction of New Plymouth, whose names are here 
underwritten, do freely own ourselves to he loyal subjects to His Majesty 
of England, and to his Colony of New Plymouth ; and do hereby sol- 
emn ly engage ourselves and ours to be subject to His Majesty's authority 
there established and to behave faithfully and friendly towards them; 
and that we will from time to time, if we hear of any malicious design 
aching against them, discover it to some of them with all speed; and 
that also that we shall be ready to afford them any assistance against 
their enemies according to our ability, even as we expect friendship and 
amity and protection from them. For the performance thereof we have 
hereunto set our hands in the presence of 

" ASHAWANOMEETH. 
"NOMAN. 

(" Between 40 & 50 " Mainokum. 

Indians living near "Jeffrey. 

or in the town of "James. 

Dartmouth.") "John, etc." 

The names of the Indians making this engagement 
are not given. Those annexed appear to have been 
the witnesses to the instrument. This engagement is 
important in its connection with two other events in 
the annals of the town, — the conveyance to Cook and 
others by Wasemequen and Wamsutta in 1654, and 
the infamous enslaving expatriation of the Dartmouth 
Indians in 1676. Here the right of the Indians, not- 
withstanding the stipulations of the gleed from the 
two chiefs to a residence upon the soil, is clearly 
recognized. 

All rights which the Indians may have had were 



NEW BEDFORD. 



51 



subsequently violated by the New Plymouth govern- 
ment, when one hundred and sixty of the sons of the 
soil were seized and sold into slavery. This act of 
treachery naturally aroused within the breast of the 
Indians feelings of most bitter hatred and deep-seated 
revenge. 

The rulers were unprepared to defend the colony 
against the storm which they had brought upon their 
heads. In their distress they again called upon Capt. 
Benj. Church, who had been treated by them with 
ingratitude, insult, and neglect, because he had dared 
to raise the voice of remonstrance and condemnation 
because of their treacherous act. He was, however, 
at length pacified. Tradition telis us that he whittled 
himself into the belief that it was his duty to protect 
the settlement against the threatened destruction. 
Using a knife for some trifling purpose he cut his 
finger, and regarding this event as an indication of 
the will of Providence that he must lay aside all pri- 
vate affairs and give himself up to the service of his 
country, he threw down his knife, and arming him- 
self, proceeded to Plymouth and took command of 
the forces of the colony. Having made a treaty with 
Awashuncks, the queen-sachem of the Yaconts, he 
succeeded in enlisting a number of her tribe into his 
company, and having obtained enlarged powers from 
the government he proceeded to a vigorous prosecu- 
tion of the war. It was near Horse Neck Beach that 
Capt. Church entered into the treaty with the Indian 
queen and her chiefs, and when, in pursuance with a 
previous arrangement, he came to visit the queen, he 
found large numbers of her people sporting upon the 
marble-like surface of the beach, some racing horses, 
some playing at foot-ball, and others fishing from the 
rocks. 

On one of his expeditions Church pursued his ene- 
mies into the Accushena territory. Having crossed 
the river, probably at the spot now called Acushnet 
village, he came in contact with a small band of the 
Saconet Indians, who had refused to become a party 
to the treaty made by their queen, and who had joined 
Philip in the contest that was then raging. The party 
were accompanied by Little Eyes and his family. He 
made the whole party prisoners, and refusing the ad- 
vice of his Indian allies to put Little Eyes to death, 
because that chief had once threatened the life of the 
English commander, he placed them all on an island 
in the Acushnet, and left Lightfoot to guard them. 
The island was probably that which was nearest to 
the shore. Fish Island, as this temporary place of 
confinement for Indian prisoners is now called, pre- 
sents at this time a very different aspect from what it 
did when Little Eyes and his companions in captivity 
were landed upon its shore, and looking upon the 
main, saw their conqueror and his party enter the 
forest which skirted the banks of the river, as he 
wended his way to the south on a visit to the fortified 
station at the head of the Aponegansett. They passed 
the night near Russell's orchard, which was in the 



vicinity of that place, and learned in the morning 
that a large party of Indians had the same night 
made the orchard their resting-place. Ascertaining 
the route they had taken, he retraced his steps to fol- 
low them. Coming to a cedar swamp, about three 
miles from their halting-place by the orchard, the 
forces were divided, and the ruins of John Cook's 
house at Accushena being agreed upon as the place 
of rendezvous, the two parties started in pursuit of 
the enemy. The company under the command of 
Church, which seems to have been composed entirely 
of English, soon fell in with and killed and captured 
sixty-six of the enemy. Church was now informed 
that his mighty foe Metacom was near, and that a 
party of Indians, consisting of more than one hun- 
dred, had passed across the river and marched down 
upon Sconticutt Neck. He then paddled over to the 
island where Lightfoot had been left with Little Eyes 
and his party, and there heard a confirmation of the 
fact that a large body of Indians had moved down the 
Neck. They were soon discovered returning from 
their excursion, and Church, concealing himself and 
his little band, escaped that destruction which would 
probably have been his fate had he been discovered 
and forced into a contest. 

Church now took his prisoners from the island and 
proceeded to Mattapoisett. There he halted and sent 
a messenger to the appointed place of rendezvous, the 
ruins of John Cook's house at Accushena, to ascertain 
the fate of his band of Indian allies. Here the sin- 
gular fact was ascertained that this party had killed 
or captured the same number (sixty-six) that had 
met with the same fate from the company under 
Church's immediate command. The Indians joined 
their commander and his party at Mattapoisett, from 
whence the whole body with their captives proceeded 
to Plymouth. Of the subsequent events of Philip's 
war we have no occasion to speak. Philip, broken- 
hearted by the captivity of his wife and son, fled be- 
fore the foe who was bent upon his destruction, and, 
surrounded in a swamp near his residence, was shot 
through the heart by an English soldier. This put 
an end to the conflict. Prisoners continued to be 
taken, and when they had all been disposed, either 
by being hung or shipped to Bermuda, the rulers and 
the fighting men rested from their labors, and the 
people of the land had peace. 

A portion of the town of Rochester, described as ex- 
tending from the westernmost side of Sippican River 
and southwestwards to Dartmouth bounds, was as- 
signed for the residence of the Indians who had not 
been engaged in hostilities against the colony. They 
were deprived of the right to bear arms, and strictly 
charged to confine themselves to the prescribed 
bounds of the territory which the clemency of the 
conquerors had assigned them for a habitation. After 
this time we have but little about the Indians. Their 
numbers rapidly decreased, and after the lapse of a 
few years only here and there a solitary individual 



52 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



remained to tell the story of the good Massasoit, and 
the brave but unfortunate Metacom. 

Sarah Obadiah, an Indian woman with a most un- 
Indian-like name, was the last of the race who, upon 
the old territory of Dartmouth, lived after the primi- 
tive manner of her fathers. The costume of course 
was abandoned, but in a wigwam situated near the 
stone ship upon the rock, a spot in the south part of 
a village Avell known to most of the inhabitants, lived 
the last of the Dartmouth Indians. This was a fa- 
vorite locality of the Indians, and doubtless has been 
one of their much-loved hunting-grounds. 



CHAPTER VII. 

NEW BEDFORD.— ( Continued. I 

Persecution of the Quakers—" Presented" for Non-attendance at Church 
—Various Rules and Regulations— Punishments— Fine for Attending 
Quaker Meeting — Arthur Howland fined for making " Motion of Mar- 
riage"— The Kemptons— Other Early Settlers— The Russells— Pioneer 
Whaling— Early Locations— Joseph Rotch — Isaac Howland — Priva- 
teers—View of the Village upon the Eve of its Destruction by the 
British. 

Among the orders of the court concerning the 
Quakers was the following : 

" If any person or persons called Quakers, or other 
such like vagabonds, shall come into any town in this 
government, the marshal or constable shall appre- 
hend him or them, and upon examining, so appear- 
ing, he shall whip them, or cause them to be whipped, 
with rods so it exceeds not fifteen stripes, and to give 
him or them a pass to depart the government, and if 
they be found without the pass and not acting there- 
unto they shall be punished again as formerly; and 
in case the constable shall be unwilling to whip them, 
and cannot find any one to do it, they shall bring 
them to Plymouth to the under-marshal, and he 
shall inflict it." 

Another regulation says, " Whereas, by order of 
court, all free men of this corporation, as Quakers, or 
such as encourage them, or such as speak contemptu- 
ously of the laws thereof, or such as are judged by 
court grossly scandalous, as liars, drunkards, swearers, 
shall lose their freedom in this corporation." 

1651. Ralph Allen, Sr., and wife, George Allen 
and wife, and William Allen are presented with 
others for not attending public worship according to 
law. Arthur Howland, for not attending public wor- 
ship. This Arthur seems to have been a troublesome 
fellow to the strict Puritans of the colony. Ralph 
Allen and Richard Kirby are fined five pounds, or to 
be whipped, for vile sketches against ordinances. 

1655. Sarah Kirby sentenced to be whipped for 
divers suspicious speeches. 

1656, Sunday. Persons for meeting at the house of 
William Allen are summoned to answer for the mis- 
demeanor. 



1656. Sarah Kirby whipped for disturbing public 
worship. 

1657. Arthur Howland, for permitting a Quaker 
meeting in his house, and for inviting such as were 
under government, children and others, to come to 
said meeting, was sentenced by the court to find se- 
curities for his good behavior ; in case he should 
refuse he is fined four pounds. He refused to give 
bonds, and was fined. "The said Arthur Howland, 
for resisting the constable of Marshfield in the exe- 
cution of his office, and abusing him in words by 
threatening speeches, is fined five pounds." And 
again, Arthur Howland, for presenting a writing in 
court, which said writing, on the reading thereof, ap- 
peared to be of dangerous consequences, he owning it 
to be his own, and for making known the said writing 
to others, was sentenced by court to find securities for 
his good behavior. We have uow another Howland 
upon the stage. 

1657. " Henry Howland, for entertaining a meet- 
ing in his house, contrary to order of Court, is fined 
ten shillings." And still another, Loeth Howland, 
" for speaking opprobriously of the ministers of God's 
word, is sentenced to set in the stocks for the space of 
an hour or during pleasure of Court, which was per- 
formed and so released paying the fees." 

1657. Ralph Allen, Jr., and William Allen being 
summoned, appeared to answer for a tumultuous car- 
riage at a meeting of the Quakers at Sandwich ; their 
being admonished in that respect were cleared, not- 
withstanding irreverently carrying themselves before 
the court, coming in before them with their hats on, 
were fined twenty shillings apiece. 

Here is the case of the whipping and fining before 
spoken of, — 

1658. H. Norton and John Rouse were sentenced 
to be whipped for coming into the jurisdiction con- 
trary to call. The sentence was executed. " The 
same day performed," is the language of the record, 
and the under-marshal requiring his fees they re- 
fused to pay them, and they were again returned to 
prison until they would pay. 

1658. William Allen is fined forty shillings for en- 
tertaining Quaker meeting. About this time there 
was a part added — demanded, as says the record — 
because, among other things, "of the letting loose as 
a scourge upon us those gangrene-like doctrines and 
persons called Quakers." 

1659. We now find upon the records the follow- 
ing: " The Court taking notice of sundry scandalous 
falsehoods in a letter of Isaac Robinson's tending 
greatly to the prejudice of this government and in- 
couragement of those commonly called Quakers, and 
thereby liable according to law to disenfranchise- 
ment, yet we at present forbear the sentence until 
further inquiry." 

1660. Daniel Butler for rescuing a strange Quaker 
was sentenced to be whipped. Joseph Allen fined ten 
shillings for attending a Quaker meeting. Here we 



NEW BEDFORD. 



53 



have some wholesale operations, — twenty-five persons 
were fined ten shillings each for attending Quaker 
meeting, and among them were Joseph, Benjamin, 
William, and Matthew Allen, Richard Kirhy and 
Richard Kirby (2d), and Daniel and Obadiah Butler. 

1661. The obstinate Howlands are again intro- 
duced. Henry Howland for entertaining a Quaker 
meeting in his house is twice fined four pounds. Loeth 
Howland breaks the Sabbath and is fined ten shil- 
lings. 

1662. Another Howland Sabbath-breaker. Sam- 
uel Howland, having no meal in the house, went to 
the mill and took home his grist. Fined ten shill- 
ings, or the whip. 

1664. Arthur Howland is again in difficulty. But 
it is not for new heresy of opinion that he is brought 
before the magnates of the land. The following is 
the record : " Arthur Howland, for inveighling 
Mistress Elizabeth Prince and making motion of 
marriage to her, and prosecuting the same contrary 
to her parents' liking and without their consent and 
directly contrary to their mind and will, was sen- 
tenced to pay a fine of five pounds, and to find secur- 
ities for his good behavior, and in special that he 
desist from the use of any means to obtain or retain 
her affections as aforesaid." He paid his fine, a pretty 
heavy one for those days, and gave the bonds required 
by the sentence of the court. " Arthur Howland 
acknowledges to owe unto our sovereign lord the 
king the sum of fifty dollars ; John Duncan, the 
sum of twenty-five dollars; Timothy Williams, the 
sum of twenty-five dollars. The condition that 
whereas the said Arthur Howland hath disorderly 
and unrighteously endeavored to obtain the affections 
of Mistress Elizabeth Prince, against the mind and 
will of her parents. If, therefore, the said Arthur 
Howland shall for the future refrain and desist from 
the use of any means to obtain or retain her affections 
as aforesaid, and appear at the court of His Majesty, 
to be holden at Plymouth the first Tuesday in July 
next, and in the mean time be of good behavior to- 
wards our sovereign lord the king and all his liege 
people, and not depart the said court without license, 
that then, etc." 

The next year we find him again before the court, 
and again coming under a solemn agreement no fur- 
ther to offend in the premises. 

Early in the history of the colony we find the name 
of Kempton. Manasseh and Julia Kempton are 
entered upon the records as sharing in the allotment 
of the cattle in 1627. These were the ancestors of 
the present Kemptons, and the name of Manasseh 
Kempton is included among the proprietors of the 
town of Dartmouth in the confirmatory deeds from 
Governor Bradford in the year 1694. In that docu- 
ment are the names of all the families mentioned, 
and many others which always have been and still 
are the most common in this vicinity, — John Russell, 
Manasseh Kempton, Benjamin Howland, John 



Spooner, Arthur Hathaway, Samuel Allen, Joseph 
Tripp, William Shearman, Joseph Taber, Seth Pope, 
and Jonathan Delano. Pele<r Slocum and Abraham 
Tucker are names which in the four towns of West- 
port, Dartmouth, New Bedford, and Fairhaven are 
familiar to all the inhabitants. 

In the first part of the eighteenth century we find 
the Russell family upon the soil of New Bedford. 
At what time he came is not known, but it was pre- 
vious to the year 1711, when the Allen and Kemp- 
ton families, which at the opening of what we may 
call the local history of New Bedford, shared with the 
Russells a large part of the town and all the territory 
of the village. 

History is almost silent respecting the affairs of 
Dartmouth from the date of Governor Bradford's ad- 
ministration to the commencement of the war of the 
Revolution. 

About the middle of the eighteenth century a large 
portion of the lands now occupied by the village of 
New Bedford was in the possession of two families, 
the Russells on the south and the Kemptons on the 
north. To Joseph Russell, son of the first settler 
John, and to Manasseh Kempton, Her Majesty's 
(Queen Anne) justices of the Quarter Sessions for the 
county of Bristol gave confirmatory deeds of their re- 
spective estates dated May 25, 1714. Russell was 
bounded by a line near Clarke's Cove on the south, 
and Kempton by a line near Smith Street; the divi- 
ding line was between William and Elm Streets. The 
occupants of the territory north and south of these 
boundaries it is impossible to ascertain. Subse- 
quently we find the Aliens holding the land from the 
cove, the southern boundary of Russell, to the ex- 
tremity of Clarke's Point, and the Willis family join- 
ing the Kempton on the north. Beyond this were 
found the Peckhams and Hathaways. The inhabit- 
ants were all farmers with the exception of the Rus- 
sells. 

Joseph Russell, son of Joseph Russell, Sr., and 
grandfather of the present generation, early embarked 
in the whaling business. His ships of forty or fifty 
tons went as far as our Southern coast on their voy- 
ages of six weeks' duration. At the same time, 1751, 
there were several vessels engaged in the same pur- 
suit from the Apongansett River. Daniel Wood, a 
name not unfamiliar to the New Bedford people in 
connection with whaling operations, was at that time 
the owner of some small vessels in the business, and 
at that period the Acushnet had to give precedence 
to the Aponegansett as far as whaling was concerned. 
At that period a little wharf extending from the shore 
near the foot of what is now known as Centre Street, 
and a shed-like erection which was used for trying 
the blubber brought in by the little craft in their six 
weeks' excursion upon the " summer sea," were all 
the indications of commercial operations which our 
territory exhibited. That little shed was the only 
building in what we now denominate the village that 



54 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



was then standing except the farm-houses of the 
Aliens, the Russells, the Kemptons, and the Willis, 
which were all situated upon the county road. From 
this house, which from its elevated situation on the 
county road overlooked the forest which covered the 
whole intervening space between the road and the 
shore, the first of the Bedford whaling merchants 
could take an extensive view of the waters of the bay 
and the river, and when, shooting in by Hap's Hill, 
he discovered his sloop pointing her bows towards the 
harbor, he could be seen wending his way towards 
the little wharf over the cart-path, which was then 
the only way of reaching the water. The blubber 
landed, the thick column of smoke which rose above 
the street which skirted the shore gave notice to the 
inhabitants on the heights that one of Joseph Rus- 
sell's whalemen had arrived from a successful voyage. 

All the purchasers of land from Joseph Russell pre- 
vious to the year 1664 were mechanics. John Louden, 
a ship-carpenter, bought the first lot disposed of by 
Mr. Russell from his homestead. This was in the 
year 1760. The next year he built a house, which 
was situated a few rods south of the four corners, and 
his ship-yard was on the east side of the way. Un- 
fortunately for him, and unfortunately for his descend- 
ants, he choose an easier mode of life and converted 
his dwelling into a tavern. He was the Boniface of 
the village when it was visited by the British ; his 
house was burnt, and he returned to his native town 
of Pembroke. 

The same year another mechanic followed Louden. 
He had formerly been a dweller upon the soil, prob- 
ably in the north part of the Dartmouth settlement, 
but had been to Nantucket, and had there been initi- 
ated, in the language of the indenture, " into the art, 
trade, and mystery of building whale-boats." His 
name was Benjamin Taber, and was beloved by all 
who knew him as a worthy and venerable member and 
elder of the Society of Friends, and a most upright and 
valuable citizen. Many of his descendants are still 
here. The young boat-builder from Nantucket took 
the old house by the river-side and moved it up the 
hill. 

It was the far-seeing policy of Mr. Russell to en- 
courage such men to settle upon his territory, and 
accordingly we find the next settler to be a mechanic. 
He was a carpenter by the name of John Allen, and pur- 
chased a lot on the south side of what was formerly 
called Prospect Street. It was the corner of Union 
and Water Streets, extending from the last-named 
street to the water, and included the site now and for 
many years past occupied by the tavern. Gideon 
Mosher, another mechanic, purchased opposite to him 
on the north, his land being that which extends from 
the " shop of the apothecary to the shore." This he 
afterwards sold to Benjamin Taber, next north of 
Louden. Elmethan Sampson, a blacksmith, made a 
purchase, and gave for a lot eight rods in length and 
four rods wide the sum of six pounds thirteen shillings 



and four pence lawful currency. Thus was the infant 
settlement begun by industrious and enterprising me- 
chanics. North and east the lot of Sampson was 
bounded by ways left for streets. 

An important event now took place in the history 
of the new settlement. This was the arrival among 
the settlers of Joseph Rotch, and he in one sense fur- 
nished no exception to the class who laid the founda- 
tion of this thriving community. He had been a 
mechanic, and animated by a spirit of adventure he 
left his residence in one of the inland towns of Mas- 
sachusetts while yet a minor, passed through the 
Dartmouth territory, and took up his abode at 
Nantucket. Engaging with characteristic zeal and 
energy in that pursuit to which the people of the 
island, and in which, before the war of the Revolu- 
tion, they outstripped every other community in the 
world, he soon saw the many disadvantages under 
which the operations of business was carried on from 
that place. An examination of the neighboring har- 
bors satisfied him of the superiority of the settlement 
at Bedford, and in the year 1665 he transferred his 
business from Nantucket to the banks of the Acush- 
net. Having obtained a " local habitation" he gave 
the new settlement a name. It had arrived at a de- 
gree of importance which entitled it to a distinctive 
appellation, and out of compliment to the original 
proprietor he called the new village Bedford. 

To understand in what way this could be construed 
into a compliment to the Russells the fact must be 
known that the family name of the Duke of Bedford 
was Russell. Had he called the rising village Rus- 
sell it would have doubtless been more grateful, as it 
would have been more just, and the associations 
which are connected with the historical recollections 
of the name of Russell are not dependent for their 
interest upon the title at that time borne by that 
branch of the nobility of England. 

Joseph Rotch made a large purchase of land of his 
Russell namesake. One lot comprised ten acres of 
what is now and always has been a portion of the 
most valuable real estate of the town. He built the 
house immediately north of the apothecary-shop, at 
the corner of Bethel Court and Union Street, and 
another on the spot now occupied by a house owned 
by William Rotch, Jr., nearly opposite the Merchants' 
Bank. The last-named house was among those burnt 
by the British. W. Rotch engaged largely in the 
whaling business, and under the influence which his 
capital and enterprise gave to the operations of the 
town it rapidly grew in population and importance. 
But these bright prospects were soon overcast. 

The war of the Revolution found the infant settle- 
ment with their vessels upon the ocean and their 
business wholly at the mercy of the naval superiority 
of the mother-country. Joseph Rotch returned to 
Nantucket, and with the commencement of the con- 
test for independence all the business operations of 
the community were brought to an end. At this time 



NEW BEDFORD. 



55 



the number of inhabitants had increased, and their 
dwelling-houses and places of business covered an 
extent of territory which gave the town the appear- 
ance of thrift and opulence. Besides the stores of the 
merchants and traders and the work-shops of the 
mechanics, a " rope-walk" had been established in 
the south part of the town, a distillery occupied a 
site near the Louden ship-yard, upon the lot now 
covered by the stone buildings of Howland & Co., 
and a spermaceti establishment, whose operations 
were as carefully guarded from the eye of the multi- 
tude, and were under the immediate care of Chaffee, 
who had been sent from Boston to carry on the mys- 
terious movement, was situated on a lane which is 
now known as Centre Street. Another important ac- 
cession of capital and business qualities had been 
made by the coming to the settlement of Isaac How- 
land, who, moving here from Newport, brought with 
him the means and the enterprise so much needed in 
every new undertaking. His house was situated on 
Union Street, and when erected was by far the most 
elegant and costly which had been built in the town. 
It occupied the land now taken for Cheapside, fronting 
on Union Street. It was built of brick and was three 
stories high. W. Howland was the proprietor of the 
distillery. John Howland, one of the Dartmouth 
settlers, moved to this place as early as 1665. 

Such was the condition of New Bedford when the 
opening of the drama of the Revolution cut them off" 
from that field of operations — the ocean — upon which 
they so exclusively depended for support. The stories 
which come to us of the destitution which fell to the 
lot of many of the fathers of this community almost 
surpass belief. Thus ruined in business, and without 
the means of a comfortable subsistence, the inhab- 
itants of the village could do nothing but quietly 
await the course of events. As they were mostly 
Quakers, they could not, consistently with the peace- 
able tradition of the sect, enter into the contest either 
in person or in feeling, and in that way to some ex- 
tent neutralize those uncomfortable reflections which 
the loss of property and the breaking up of their hon- 
est and wealth-conferring industry was calculated to 
produce. But whatever may have been the result to 
the personal operations of the merchants and me- 
chanics of the town, it was soon evident that the 
appearance of activity and bustle in the harbor was 
destined to be greatly increased. 

The facility with which this harbor could be ap- 
proached soon attracted hither a large number of the 
American privateers, and in a short time the waters 
of the Acushnet were covered with these crafts, whose 
appearance at that time, as it did during the second 
contest with Great Britain, gave such grievous offense 
to peaceably-disposed followers of George Fox, who 
made up so large a proportion of the inhabitants. 

The prizes, too, of these vessels were continually 
sent to this port, as well as many captured by the 
American and French vessels of war, and while the 



Acushnet was covered with craft of this description, 
the store-houses and dwellingdiouses, and even the 
barns and rope-walks, were filled with the valuable 
cargoes which had been discharged from them. Rum, 
gin, brandy, and wine, hemp and sail-cloth, dry- 
goods and sugars, the produce of every soil was 
crammed into every vacant room which could be 
found in the village. Purchasers and consignees, 
owners of privateers and merchants from all quarters 
were mingled with the officers and crews of both the 
captured and capturing vessels, so that the streets of 
the village and the house of entertainment kept by 
Louden presented a sight as novel as it was disagree- 
able to the peace-loving citizens. Such was the con- 
dition of things when, on the 5th day of September, 
1778, it was rumored that a British fleet had been seen 
directing its course towards the Acushnet. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

NEW BEDFORD.— (Continued.) 

WAR OF THE REVOLUTION.! 

New Bedford a Rendezvous for Privateers — Arrival of the British Fleet 
— Burning of the Village— Gen. Charles Grey's Official Report — Ac- 
count by Judge Edward Pope — Elijah Macomber's Account — Remi- 
niscences of John Gilbert — Reminiscences collected by Capt. Lemuel 
S. Aiken — Statement o*f Charles Grinnell — List of Property Destroyed 
— Some Doubtful Points — The Extent of the Calamity — Personal 
Sketches — Gen. Grey's Life and Character — Facts and Incidents. 

On the 5th of September, 1778, a hostile British 
fleet landed upon these shores, destroyed the shipping, 
and burned the town. 

The British acted in the matter, there is no doubt, 
from motives of retaliation and punishment, rather 
than for purposes of plunder. The same expedi- 
tion afterward proceeded to Martha's Vineyard and 
carried off large numbers of cattle, with a consider- 
able sum of money, but there is no account of any 
property being carried away from Bedford, as the vil- 
lage was then called. Our harbor had from the be- 
ginning; of the war been noted as a rendezvous for 
privateers, and the damage inflicted upon English 
commerce by the whalemen of Dartmouth had ex- 
cited the deepest resentment. As early as May, 1775, 
but a few weeks after the battle of Lexington, the 
British cruiser " Falcon" had captured in the bay 
three vessels belonging to Sandwich. A schooner 
was fitted out from here under the command of Capt. 
Egery, which recaptured two of these vessels with 
fifteen British officers and sailors. The privateer 
" Providence," whose name is associated with many 
brilliant naval achievements, had her rendezvous 
here. She was a sloop of about ninety tons, and at 
one time, it is said, she was under the command of 
John Paul Jones. Her most famous exploit, under 



l By 15. F. H. Reed. 



56 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



Capt. Hacker, was with His Majesty's brig " Dili- 
gence," of eighteen guns, which she captured and 
brought into our harbor after a most determined and 
bloody engagement. 

Maj.-Gen. Grey, under orders from Sir Henry Clin- 
ton, at New York, arrived in the bay and anchored 
off Clarke's Point about noon of Saturday, Sept. 5, 
1778, with two frigates, a brig-of-war, and some thirty- 
six transports, with about five thousand men. The 
main body of troops was landed on the shore of Clarke's 
Cove that afternoon, and marched in the course of the 
night past the Head of the River, and passing on a 
road east of the village of Fairhaven direct to Scon- 
ticut Neck, the troops re-embarked and were all on 
board the fleet again before Sunday noon, the 6th. 
On the march a detachment turned to the eastward 
from County down Union Street, which when first 
laid out was called King Street, and burned the stores 
and many other buildings near the foot of the street, 
and the shipping at the wharves. A good many of 
the vessels destroyed were prizes, and large amounts 
of prize goods were burned. Another party pro- 
ceeded to McPherson's wharf, at Belleville, and de- 
stroyed the shipping there. There was a fort where 
Fort Phoenix now stands, and the garrison spiked the 
guns and retreated, and the fort was blown up by the 
British. The next night a party landed at Fairhaven, 
and was driven off by the troops who had collected 
under command of Maj. Israel Fearing. 

We give a number of accounts of the raid by eye- 
witnesses, commencing with the report made to his 
commanding officer, Gen. Sir Henry Clinton, by 
Gen. Charles Grey : 

"Sir, — In the evening of the 4th inst. the fleet, 
with the detachment under my command, sailed 
from New London, and stood to the eastward with a 
very favorable wind. We were only retarded in the 
run from thence to Buzzard's Bay by the altering 
our course for some hours in the night, in conse- 
quence of the discovery of a strange fleet, which 
was not known to be Lord Howe's until morn- 
ing. By five o'clock in the afternoon of the 5th the 
ships were at anchor in Clarke's Cove, and the boats 
having been previously hoisted out, the debarkation 
of the troops took place immediately. I proceeded 
without loss of time to destroy the vessels and stores 
in the whole extent of Acushnet River (about six 
miles), particularly at Bedford and Fairhaven ; and 
having dismantled and burnt a fort on the east side 
of the river mounting eleven pieces of heavy cannon, 
with a magazine and barracks, completed the re-em- 
barkation before noon the next day. I refer your 
Excellency to the annexed return for the enemy's 
losses, as far as we were able to ascertain them, and 
for our own casualties. 

" The wind did not admit of any further movement 
of the fleet the 6th and 7th than hauling a little dis- 
tance from the shore. Advantage was taken of this 
circumstance to burn a large privateer ship on the 



stocks, and to send a small armament of boats, with 
two galleys, to destroy two or three vessels which, 
being in the stream, the troops had not been able to 
set fire to. 

"From the difficulties in passing out of Buzzard's 
Bay into the Vineyard Sound, through Quickse's 
Hole, from head winds, the fleet did not reach 
Holmes' Hole Harbor, in the island of Martha's 
Vineyard, until the 10th. The transports, with the 
light infantry, grenadiers, and Thirty-third Regiment, 
were anchored without the harbor, as I had at that 
time a service in view for those corps while the busi- 
ness of collecting cattle should be carrying on upon 
the island. I was obliged by contrary winds to relin- 
quish my design. 

" On our arrival off the harbor the inhabitants sent 
persons on board to ask my intentions with respect to 
them, to whom a requisition was made of the arms of 
the militia, the public money, three hundred oxen, 
and ten thousand sheep. They promised each of 
these articles should be delivered without delay. I 
afterwards found it necessary to send small detach- 
ments into the island and detain the deputed inhab- 
itants for a time in order to accelerate their com- 
pliance with the demand. 

" The 12th I was able to embark on board the ves- 
sels, which arrived that day from Rhode Island, six 
thousand sheep and one hundred and thirty oxen. 

" The 13th and 14th were employed in embarking 
cattle and sheep on board our own fleet, in destroy- 
ing some salt-works, in burning or taking in the inlets 
what vessels and boats could be found, and in re- 
ceiving the arms of the militia. I here again refer 
your Excellency to returns. 

" On the 15th the fleet left Martha's Vineyard, and 
after sustaining, the next day, a very severe gale of 
wind, arrived the 17th at Whitestone without any 
material damage. 

" I hold myself much obliged to the commanding 
officers of corps and to the troops in general for the 
alacrity with which every service was performed. 
" I have the honor to be, etc., 

"Charles Grey, M.G." 

" Return of killed, wounded, and missing of the detach- 
ment under the command of Maj. Gen.- Grey. 

" 1st battalion of light infantry — 1 wounded, 3 miss- 
ing. 

" 1st battalion grenadiers — 1 killed, 1 wounded, 3 
missing. 

"33d regiment — 1 missing. 

''42d regiment — 1 wounded, 8 missing. 

" 46th regiment — 1 missing. 

"64th regiment — 1 wounded. 

"Total — 1 killed, 4 wounded, 16 missing. 

" The enemy's loss, which came to our knowledge, 
was an officer and 3 men killed by the advanced par- 
ties of light infantry, who, on receiving a fire from 
the inclosures, rushed on with their bayonets. Six- 



NEW BEDFORD. 



57 



teen were brought prisoners from Bedford, to exchange 
for that number missing from the troops. 

"Charles Grey, M.G." 

"Return of vessels and stores destroyed on Acushnet 
River the 5th of September, 1778. 

" 8 sail of large vessels, from 200 to 300 tons, most 
of them prizes. 

" 6 armed vessels, carrying from 10 to 16 guns. 

" A number of sloops and schooners of inferior size, 
amounting in all to 70, besides whale-boats and 
others ; amongst the prizes were three taken by Count 
D'Estaing's fleet. 

" 26 store-houses at Bedford, several at McPherson's 
wharf, Crane's Mills, and Fairhaven ; these were filled 
with very great quantities of rum, sugar, molasses, 
coftee, tobacco, cotton, tea, medicines, gunpowder, 
sail-cloth, cordage, etc. 

" Two rope-walks. 

"At Falmouth, in the Vineyard Sound, the 10th of Sep- 
tember, 1778. 

" 2 sloops and one schooner taken by the galleys, 1 
loaded with staves. 
" 1 sloop burnt. 

"In Old Town Harbor, Martha's Vineyard. 

" 1 brig of 150 tons burthen, burnt by the 'Scor- 
pion.' 

" 1 schooner of 70 tons burthen, burnt by ditto. 
" 23 whale-boats taken or destroyed. 
" A quantity of plank taken. 

"At Holmes' Hole, Martha's Vineyard. 

" 4 vessels, with several boats, taken or destroyed. 
" A salt-work destroyed, and a considerable quan- 
tity of salt taken. 

"Arms taken at Martha's Vineyard. 

" 338 stand, with bayonets, pouches, etc., some pow- 
der, and a quantity of lead, as by artillery return. 

"At the battery near Fairhaven, and on Clarice's Point. 

" 13 pieces of ordnance destroyed, the magazine 
blown up, and the platforms, etc., and barracks for 
200 men burnt. 

" £1000 sterl. in paper, the amount of a tax col- 
lected by authority of the Congress, was received at 
Martha's Vineyard from the collector. 

" Cattle and sheep taken from Martha's Vineyard. 

"300 oxen. 10,000 sheep. 

" Charles Grey, M.G." 

"Return of ammunition, arms, and accoutrements, etc, 
which were brought in by the mi lit in mi the island of 
Martha's Vineyard agreeable to Ma/.- Gen. Grey's order, 
received at Holmes' Cove, Sept. 12, 13, and 14, 1778. 

" Tisbury — 132 firelocks, 16 bayonets, 44 cartridge- 
boxes or pouches, 11 swords or hangers, 22 powder- 
horns. 



" Chilmark— 2 halbuts, 127 firelocks, 20 bayonets, 
30 cartridge-boxes or pouches, 12 swords or hangers, 
40 powder-horns, 2 pistols, 1 drum. 

" Old Town — 129 firelocks, 14 bayonets, 3 cartridge- 
boxes, 2 swords or hangers, 9 powder-horns, 2 pistols. 

" Total— 2 halbuts, 388 firelocks, 49 bayonets, 77 
cartridge-boxes or pouches, 25 swords or hangers, 71 
powder-horns, 4 pistols, 1 drum. 

" N. B. — 1 barrel, 1 half-barrel and quarter-barrel 
of powder, a great number of lead-shot or balls of 
different sizes in bags and boxes, and a great many 
flints. David Scott, 

"Royal Reg. of Artillery." 

Account by Judge Edward Pope. — " While the town 
was in this flourishing state the British troops, to the 
amount of four thousand, landed on the west side of 
Clarke's Neck and at Clarke's Cove on Saturday even- 
ing, the 5th of September, 1778, and marched round to 
the Head of the River, over the bridge, and down the 
east side into Sconticut Neck, leaving the villages of 
Fairhaven and Oxford on the right, burning on their 
way houses, mills, barns, etc. They encamped on Scon- 
ticut Neck until Monday, and then re-embarked on 
board their shipping. The succeeding night they 
attempted to land a large number of troops at Fair- 
haven, in order to burn that village ; but being dis- 
covered by Maj. Israel Fearing (now brigadier-gen- 
eral), who had the command of about one hundred 
or one hundred and fifty men, and determined to save 
the place if possible, or lose his life in the atttempt, 
and placed himself and men behind houses and stores 
near where he supposed they would land, and suffered 
them to reach the shore with their boats before a mus- 
ket was discharged, and they were then in great num- 
bers beginning to land, and had set fire to two or three 
stores within fifty or one hundred yards of Maj. Fear- 
ing and his men, who then fired upon them, and by 
the screechings and track of blood afterwards discov- 
ered, supposed many were killed and wounded. They 
immediately retreated aboard their ships, taking their 
dead and wounded with them. Thus, by the bravery 
of one man, that village was preserved." 

Account by Elijah Macomber .—" The fort below 
Fairhaven village was garrisoned at the time by Capt. 
Timothy Ingraham, Lieut. Daniel Foster, and thirty- 
six non-commissioned officers and privates, making 
a total of thirty-eight men. There were eleven or 
twelve pieces of cannon mounted in the fort and about 
twenty-five casks of powder in the magazine, twenty 
casks having been procured a few days previous from 
the commissary store in Bedford, which was kept by 
Philip and Leonard Jarvis, brothers. 

"About one o'clock p.m. Worth Bates, who lived 
at a place on the Bedford side calied McPherson's 
Wharf, and who had that day been out fishing, 
landed at the fort in his boat and informed the cap- 
tain that a British fleet was in the bay and nearly up 
with the point. In a few moments they made their 
appearance by the point. The larger ships sailed up 



58 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



the river and anchored off abreast the fort. About 
one-half or more of the smaller vessels anchored off 
Clarke's Point, and the remainder dropped in to the 
east of the larger vessels and commenced embarking 
troops in a small cove a short distance to the east of 
the fort, behind a point of wood and under cover of 
the guns of the larger vessels. The fleet consisted of 
thirty-six sail. Immediately upon discovering them 
three guns were fired from the fort to alarm the coun- 
try, and a dispatch sent to Howland's Ferry for rein- 
forcements. The debarkation of the British troops 
commenced about two o'clock, both to the eastward 
of the fort and at Clarke's Cove. A company of artil- 
lery from Boston, consisting of about sixty men, 
under the command of Capt. (James) Cushman, was 
stationed at the head of Clarke's Cove, which upon the 
landing of the British fell back and retreated to the 
head of the Acushnet River. (James) Metcalf was 
first lieutenant of this company, and was shot during 
the night at Acushnet village. William Gordon, of 
this town, was second lieutenant and was taken pris- 
oner by the British, but made his escape before he 
arrived at the Head of Acushnet. The troops con- 
tinued to debark from the transports lying east of the 
fort until night, but neither their movements nor the 
motions of those landed at the cove could be seen 
from the fort. 

" Not long after dark the detachment from the cove 
commenced the work of destruction. The first build- 
ings discovered in flames were the rope-walks of 
(owner unknown) and the distillery belonging to 
Isaac Howland, father of the late Isaac Howland, Jr. 
Soon after all the stores, warehouses, some barns and 
dwelling-houses, together with every vessel they could 
get at, were in flames. There was a large number of 
vessels in the harbor at the time, a large English ship 
having been brought in a prize by the French a few 
days previous and then lying at Rotch's wdiarf, as well 
as several others a short time before. Every vessel 
was burnt, excepting those lying in the stream, which 
they could not get at, and a small craft somewhere up 
the river. The number of vessels destroyed was sev- 
enty. Among the dwelling-houses burnt was (Joseph) 
Rotch's and Isaac Howland's. 

"A little before nine o'clock, or between eight 
and nine, and after some of the vessels which had 
been set on fire on the Bedford side had drifted down 
towards the fort, the detachment which landed on the 
east side advanced upon the fort from the eastward. 
Two guns were fired at the fleet, and after spiking the 
guns the garrison retreated to the north, leaving their 
colors flying. The British, supposing the fort to be 
still garrisoned, opened a heavy fire upon it with their 
artillery, which soon ceased upon not being returned. 
The garrison were at this time ranged along a low 
wall a short distance to the north of the fort, waiting 
to discover the exact position of the enemy, in order 
to make their retreat successfully. They were soon 
discovered by the British, who fired upon them and 



wounded a man by the name of Robert Crossman. A 
ball passed through one wrist and across the other. 
A hasty retreat was then commenced, and the enemy 
not knowing the exact position and strength of the 
Americans, did not make a vigorous pursuit. The 
whole garrison, with the exception of the wounded 
man and two others. John Skiff and his father, who 
were taken prisoners, succeeded in making their escape 
to the woods at some little distance north of Fair- 
haven, where they lay through the night, and until 
the British had passed them from the Head of the 
River. Before the fort was evacuated, a train of pow- 
der was placed from the magazine to the platform. 
The British, upon entering, after destroying the ram- 
rods, sponges, etc., applied a slow match to the maga- 
zine, which, communicating with the train left by the 
garrison, was blown up sooner than was intended, de- 
stroying one man, — at least the fragments of whose 
gun, cap, and accoutrements were afterwards discov- 
ered near by. After burning the barracks, guard- 
house, etc., the detachment moved north, destroying 
vessels, stores, etc., and formed a junction with the 
detachment from the west side somewhere towards 
the Head of Acushnet, after which they marched 
down towards the fort. They were out all night. The 
next day they re-embarked near the fort. 

"The leading platoons of the detachment on the 
west side of the river fired upon three men, who were 
armed, near the house of Joseph Russell (father of 
Gilbert, Abraham, and Humphrey), two of whom were 
shot down. These men were Abraham Russell, about 
forty years of age ; Thomas Cook, a young man who 
lived with him ; and Diah Trafford, about twenty-three 
years of age. The British advancing rapidly upon 
them with fixed bayonets, they begged for quarter, 
which was refused. Russell was killed immediately, 
his head being entirely cut to pieces. Cook died about 
daylight; his bowels were ripped open. Trafford was 
shot through the leg and severely wounded in the ab- 
domen by a bayonet. He died the next day about 
ten o'clock, after making some statements relative to 
the death of his companions. They were all carried 
into Joseph Russell's house in the morning. 

" The prisoners taken stated, when they were re- 
leased, that the troops which landed on the east side 
were delayed some hours, in consequence of their 
light-horse and artillery becoming entangled in a 
marsh which lay at the head of the cove when they 
landed. This accounts for their delay in making an 
attack upon the fort. 

" On the night following the general attack, a num- 
ber of barges were discovered coming up the river, 
which were fired upon and driven back by the force 
which by this time had assembled at Fairhaven, a 
detachment having, I think, arrived from Howland's 
Ferry, and a body of militia from Middleborough, 
making several hundred. It was supposed that their 
object was plunder, and that the expedition was not 
ordered by any of the general officers. 



NEW BEDFORD. 



59 



" I returned to the fort in two or three days, as did 
the rest of the garrison. 

"William Tallnian's lather was taken prisoner. 
Several prisoners were taken at Acushnet village. 

" The American prisoners, on their return, reported 
that the whole force of the British was about five 
thousand five hundred. This, it is presumed, included 
the number composing the crew of the several vessels. 

" The detachment on the west side must have nearly 
reached the Head of the River before the fort was 
evacuated. Both detachments had artillery, and I 
think light horse. 

" Obed Cushman was here with the militia next 
day ; says he was in the sloop ' Providence' awhile, 
all cut to pieces during her last cruise. 

" Isaac Howland stated his loss in shipping to be 
six thousand dollars." 

John Gilbert's Account. — " On the 5th of September, 
1778, in the afternoon, the British fleet arrived off 
Clarke's Point. It consisted of two frigates, an eigh- 
teen-gun brig, and about thirty-six transports. The 
latter were small ships. The two frigates and brig 
anchored opposite the mouth of the Acushnet River, 
and a little below the point. The transports were 
anchored outside the Great Ledge, and opposite the 
mouth of the cove. The troops, including light-horse, 
artillery, etc., were landed in barges. The landing 
was completed a little before night, near where the 
present almshouse stands, and the troops arrived at 
the head of Main Street (now Union) about dusk. A 
part of the troops here wdieeled to the right and passed 
down Main Street for the purpose of burning the town, 
while the remainder continued their march to the 
north on the county road. There were not, at that 
time, more than fifteen able-bodied men in the place, 
every person that could leave having gone to rein- 
force the American army on Rhode Island, where at 
that very time they were engaged, the cannon being 
distinctly heard here. I was at that time an appren- 
tice to Joseph Russell, the father of Abraham Russell, 
and had been sent for a horse to carry my mistress to 
some place of safety. On my return she had gone, as 
also the goods from the house, but Peace Akins was 
there (a connection of the family), whom I was di- 
rected to carry with me. The house stood at the pres- 
ent corner of County and Morgan Streets, and a little 
within the fence on the southeast corner of Charles W. 
Morgan's lot. By this time the British had appeared 
in sight. I was upon the horse by the side of the 
horse-block, urging Mrs. Akins to be quick in getting 
ready. She, however, made some little delay by re- 
turning into the house for something, and before she 
had time to get up behind me four light-horsemen 
passed us, but without paying us any particular atten- 
tion. Whilst the head of the British column was 
passing us, and whilst Peace was in the very act of 
getting upon the horse, a soldier came up, and seizing 
the horse's bridle commanded me to get off. I made 
no reply, but by reining the horse suddenly round 



knocked him down, which left me perfectly at liberty, 
and headed to the north. The troops occupied nearly 
the whole of the road, leaving, however, a small space 
on the west side between them and the wall. Through 
this open space I attempted to pass by, urging my 
horse at the top of his speed, but before I had gone 
five rods a whole platoon was fired at me, without 
hitting either myself or horse. These were the first 
guns fired by the British. The troops now opened 
from the centre to close the space next the wall, which 
reduced me to the necessity of passing through the 
centre of the remaining platoons. This I effected 
without injury, in consequence of the speed of my 
horse, and being so mixed up with the troops as to 
prevent their firing. About twenty feet in advance 
of the leading platoon were placed two men with 
fixed bayonets as an advanced guard. They were 
about six feet apart, and as I advanced from the rear 
they both faced about and presented their pieces, 
which I think were snapped at me,— they did not fire. 
I passed through between them and made my escape, 
turning up the Smith Mills road. I went to Timothy 
Maxfield's, about one and a half miles, and stayed all 
night. 

" I afterwards learned that upon my leaving P. 
Akins on the horse-block, some British officers rode 
up and assured her that if she remained perfectly 
quiet nothing should injure her. She remained in 
this situation until the troops had passed and the 
officers left her, when she went over to the east side 
of the road. 

" The four horsemen who first passed us on the 
horse-block went into the house and plundered two 
men whom they found there, the goods having been 
already conveyed back. These men were Humphrey 
Tallman and Joseph Traffbrd, who worked for Joseph 
Russell. 

"As I passed up the Smith Mills road, and about 
one-fourth of a mile from the county road, I met 
William Haydon and Oliver Potter, both armed with 
muskets, who inquired where the main body of the 
British then were. I told them they were nearly 
square against us. Upon receiving this information 
they cut across the woods, and, as I was afterwards 
told, came out a little in advance of the British, and 
near the west end of the present North Street. The 
woods were very thick on the west side of County 
Street at this place, and under cover of night and 
these woods Haydon and Potter fired upon the sol- 
diers and killed two horsemen. This I was told by 
Haydon and Potter, and also by the American pris- 
oners on their return home, who saw them put into 
the baggage-wagon. 

"A few minutes after these men were shot, Abra- 
ham Russell, Thomas Cook, and Diah Traffbrd, all 
being armed, were discovered by the British attempt- 
ing to leave the village by coining up a cross-way into 

< ' ty Street. When at the corner of this way with 

County Street, or nearly so, they were fired upon by 



60 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



the British and all shot down. Trafford was twenty- 
one years old, lacking fourteen days, and was in the 
employment of Joseph Russell, with whom I then lived. 
He was shot through the heart and died instantly. 
After that his face was badly cut to pieces by the 
sabres of the British. Cook also worked for Russell 
by the month, and was nearly forty years of age. 
He was shot through the leg, and also through the 
bowels, the bullet passing through his bladder. He 
died about daylight next morning. Russell was 
about forty years of age. He died about ten o'clock 
next morning, at the house of Joseph Russell, where 
they were all carried, after remaining in the road 
where they were shot all night. Russell and Cook 
were buried in Dartmouth ; Trafford was buried on a 
hill by the shore, a little north of the old rope- walk 
in this town. This was a sort of potter's field, where 
sailors were buried. The land belonged to Joseph 
Russell. 

" A company of artillery, consisting of about eighty 
privates, had been sent from Boston for the protection 
of the place. The building occupied by them as bar- 
racks was the poor-house, which stood near the pres- 
ent site of Philip Anthony's dwelling-house. It was 
a long, low building, and has since been pulled down. 
The company was commanded by Capt. James dish- 
ing, of Boston. Joseph Bell, of Boston, was first 
lieutenant; William Gordon, of Boston, second lieu- 
tenant, and James Metcalf, of Boston, third lieu- 
tenant. The latter was mortally wounded by the 
British during the night at Acushnet. This com- 
pany, although stationed here, had, a short time pre- 
vious to the landing of the British, been called to 
Howland's Ferry to aid the Americans against the 
British on Rhode Island. But during the day of the 
landing, Lieuts. Gordon and Metcalf had returned 
with part of the company and one field-piece. As the 
British advanced they were under the necessity of re- 
treating. They had a yoke of oxen of Joseph Rus- 
sell's to draw the cannon. 

" The officers of this company had their quarters 
at and boarded with Mrs. Deborah Doubleday, a 
widow, in the house in which Judge Prescott's office 
now is, which was then owned by Seth Russell, father 
of the late Seth and Charles. After Metcalf was 
wounded he was brought down to this house, where 
I saw him the next day. I think he lived three days. 
I was at his funeral. He was buried on the hill by 
the old meeting-house at Acushnet, ' under arms.' 

" The night was clear moonlight. 

" McPherson's wharf was at Bellville, and was 
burnt by the British, together with some vessels lying 
there. A brig called the ' No Duty on Tea' was 
burnt at this wharf. She drifted down the river after 
her fastenings were burnt off, and finally sank just at 
the north of Dog Fish Bar, and abreast of the Bury ing- 
Ground Hill. Several other small vessels were burnt 
at this wharf and sank. They were afterwards got up. 

" An armed vessel sank on the west side of Crow 



Island. She was afterwards got up. Her guns were 
got up by some persons who dived down and fastened 
ropes to them, when they were hoisted up. Benjamin 
C. Myrick was drowned in diving down for the pur- 
pose of fastening a rope to the last one. 

" There were only two wharves in Bedford at that 
time,— Rotch's, the largest, and Joseph Russell's, now 
Central. 

" On the day the British landed, they commenced 
carting goods about the middle of the afternoon, and 
carried them on to a piece of cleared land containing 
about one acre which was situated in the woods west 
of the jail, and surrounded on all sides by swamps, 
heavy wood, and thick copse. Many others carried 
goods to the same place. After moving all the goods 
I was sent for a horse to the pasture west of where 
the jail now stands, as stated before. 

" On Sunday morning, the day following the burn- 
ing of Bedford, a small force in two barges was sent 
to Padanaram. Three or four houses belonging to 
the Akins were burnt, and a brig on the stocks. 

" These Akins were strong Whigs, and it is supposed 
that they were instrumental in driving away from 
there three men who adhered to the British, and who, 
with all who took that course, were called Tories. 
The names of these men were Richard Shearman, 
Joseph Castle, and Eldad Tupper. These men went 
to the British, and as two of them were pilots, it is 
supposed that they pointed out the channel of our 
harbor to the British. This accounts for the fact that 
certain houses only were burnt at Padanaram." 

Reminiscences collected by Capt. Lemuel S. Akin. — 
" While the British were marching up to Bedford, 
William Tobey, once postmaster in New Bedford, was 
driving a team loaded with goods for a safe place of 
deposit, but was so hardly pressed by the British that 
he unyoked his oxen and left his wagon and goods a 
prize to the enemy. 

" Arrived at the Head of the River, a party left the 
main body and went north as far as the old gambrel- 
roofed house of Dr. Tobey, still standing. I believe 
that it was a general baking-day in these parts, for 
here they found in the cellar an oven full of bread, 
and pork and beans. These they soon dispatched, 
and robbed the house of what they wanted, and en- 
deavored to destroy the rest. But the British pilferers 
in going down the cellar left the door wide open, and 
that effectually prevented their seeing another door 
immediately behind it, leading to a room where their 
most valuable clothing was deposited, and by that 
means was saved. Another instance of the same kind 
occurred at Bartholomew Taber's. 

" They burned several houses at the Head of the 
River, among others one belonging to Capt. Crandon, 
who, to revenge himself on the British marauders, 
would not suffer his new house to be placed over his 
old cellar, nor suffer the cellar to be filled up until his 
son, having the management in some measure of his 
father's business, accomplished it. 



NEW BEDFORD. 



61 



"It was at Acushnet village that Lieut. Metcalf 
was mortally wounded. He was from Boston, and 
belonged to the Continental army. Some verses were 
composed on his death at the time by a Mrs. Negus. 
She had not the inspiration of a Sappho, yet they 
were much esteemed at the time; in fact, much worse 
have been written, and printed too. 

"The first building they burned after leaving the 
Head of the River was a house on the premises now 
owned by David Russell, then occupied by Col. Pope. 
Eldad Tupper, a Tory, and well acquainted in these 
parts, acted as their guide, and could inform them of 
all holding office or commissions. As they proceeded 
south, and near by, they came to Stephen and Thomas 
Hathaway 's. The latter was a man of handsome 
property in those days, and without children, but he 
had a ward living with him, Jonathan Kempton, who 
eventually inherited it. At the time the fleet anchored 
he was at the lower end of Sconticut Neck, and left 
immediately for home to remove the household furni- 
ture to a place of safety. After packing up, he took 
a small trunk containing quite a valuable quantity of 
silver plate, and as he stepped to the door to leave the 
house he was met by their advance-guard, who told 
him they would relieve him from any further care of 
the trunk. After taking what things they wanted 
from the house, they collected beds and bedding in a 
chamber and set fire to them, and very luckily shut 
the doors. They took Mr. Kempton a prisoner, and 
told him they should carry him to New York. He 
entreated them to let him have his liberty. After 
carrying him to the end of a long lane leading to the 
house they consented, after taking one of the two 
pairs of breeches that he had on ; that he had two 
pairs on they knew from having robbed him of his 
watch, but they informed him they must fire at him 
as a deserter, which they did, but whether with an 
intention of hitting him or not he never knew. The 
ball, however, hit a large cherry-tree, one of a num- 
ber that lined a long passage or lane leading to the 
house. Mr. Kempton returned to the house in time 
to extinguish the fire. 

" Proceeding on in something of a hurry, burning 
now and then a house or a store and destroying prop- 
erty and frightening men, women, and children, who 
generally, Indian-like, fled to the woods with what 
little they could carry for safety, some rather laugh- 
able scenes occurred amid the terror and confusion. 
One woman, it is charitable to suppose not till after 
mighty efforts and years of longing, at last procured 
a brass warming-pan. This, though previous to Lord 
Timothy Dexter's venture of warming-pans to the 
West Indies, was too valuable to fall into the hands 
of the rapacious 'regulars;' accordingly clothes, 
bedding, household furniture, all, except the warm- 
ing-pan, was abandoned to its fate. With this she, 
with many others, started for the woods. Fear is a 
great creator of phantoms. Arrived at the woods, 
helter-skelter, there was no time to choose their way, 



onward was the word. The bended elastic bushes 
and limbs of trees were continually striking the warm- 
ing-pan with a force, in their judgment, sufficient to 
give the regulars a clue to their whereabouts. What 
was to be done? The owner must leave the pan be- 
hind or must herself be left; the former she would not 
do, the latter she could not prevent, and every one 
fled from woman and pan with as much eagerness as 
before they fled from the regulars. 

"The British fell in with a Quaker, Jethro Hath- 
away, father of the late Stephen, and took his broad- 
brim from his head, hurled it in the air, and after 
making much sport with it said, ' Let the old Quaker 
have it again.' 

"Bartholomew Taber, a calm, courageous man, re- 
mained by his house, and was harshly treated by the 
British soldiery. One fellow threatened to shoot him, 
and aimed his musket several times at his head, but 
perceiving it was not cocked he did not consider him- 
self in much danger. He heard the bullet whistle in 
the air, fired from the bushes at the British, which 
caused the burning of the school-house on his premises, 
and heard them call for a match at the same time. 

" Near the Sconticut road, about one mile east of 
Fairhaven village, was the house and farm of Capt. 
John Alden. He had a small stone building some 
little distance from his house, in which he kept gro- 
ceries for sale. He had moved his family and some 
goods to a place of safety, and had returned with his 
ox-team for more goods and furniture. A neighbor 
came to purchase some rum, and while in the act of 
getting it the British arrived and relieved him of the 
care of the team. They drove his oxen on the Neck, 
where they were slaughtered for the use of the army. 
On the Neck they stopped at the house of John West, 
who had in his pen a large fat hog. They put a 
bayonet through him and left him dead. 

" Just before they came to what is called the 'Nar- 
rows,' in a cleared field where there were several stacks 
of salt hay, they left a detachment of their army, who, 
fatigued and sleepy, after setting a guard and scatter- 
ing the hay, lay on it and took- a nap. The remainder 
continued on about one mile to where the Widow 
Dean now lives, the place of their final embarkation. 
They had with them at this time an active, resolute 
person by the name of Pease as their prisoner. He 
was not very strictly guarded, and as they were sur- 
rounded by woods made his escape to the east side of 
the Neck, and headed north by the edge of the woods 
and marsh until he came to the Narrows, where he 
entered the road. Being ignorant at the time of an 
enemy near, he was hailed by the guard in the road, 
and immediately advancing to him, with a club 
secreted under his jacket, with one blow over the 
head dispatched him and effected his escape. It was 
supposed the act was witnessed by those on board the 
fleet, who with their glasses could easily do it, for im- 
mediately after the blow was given a gun was fired 
from one of their ships. There is little doubt the 



62 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



guard was killed, as a grave was found made by the 
British near the spot. Many supposed Pease did 
wrong, and that a judgment overtook him at last, as 
he was killed by the falling of a well-sweep." 

Statement of Charles Orinnell— Charles Grinnell 
made the following statement from what he had been 
told by his mother and members of the Howland 
family : 

" Susanna Grinnell and her sister, Sarah Tucker, 
left the house of Mrs. Grinnell when the British 
landed, on horseback, and went to Mrs. Tucker's. 
The detachment of the army which left the main 
body and turned down Main Street and burnt the 
town, stacked their arms in front of the old brick 
house occupied and owned by old Isaac Howland (old 
Isaac came from Newport). Howland invited the 
officers, Gen. Grey and his staff, to come in and take 
some refreshments. While they were thus enjoying 
themselves one of Howland's men came running up 
and told him that the soldiers had broken into the 
distil-house, had got to the rum, got drunk, and set 
the distil-house on fire. This exasperated Gen. Grey, 
for he did not wish to have the property of his host 
destroyed. He ordered the men corrected and sent 
aboard the ship. While they were thus resting, some 
of the men amused themselves with firing into the 
east end of Mrs. Grinnell's house. The ball-holes 
are now to be seen under the shingles. The men 
broke into the back of Mrs. Grinnell's house, plun- 
dered it and set fire to it. A faithful black woman, 
who had remained in the house, put out the tire. She 
was in the cellar while they were firing." 

The raid on Isaac Howland's rum may account for 
some of the men missing in Gen. Grey's official re- 
turn. 

List of Property Destroyed.— The following docu- 
ment was found among the papers of Gilbert Russell, 
in his own handwriting : 

Shipping Burnt Sept. 5, 1778, by the British Troops, viz. : 

Ship " Harriet." 

Ship "Mellish" (Continental). 

Ship " Fanny" (French prize). 

Ship "Hero." 

Ship "Leopard." 

Ship "Spaniard." 

Ship " Ctesar." 

Barque " Nanny." 

Snow " Simeon." 

Brig " Sally" (Continental). 

Brig " Rosin." 

Brig " Sally" (fish). 

Schooner " Adventure." 

Schooner "Loyalty" (Continental). 

Sloop " Nelly." 

Sloop " Fly Fish." 

Sloop (Capt. Lawrence). 

Schooner " Defiance." 

Schooner (Capt. Jenny). 



Brig " No Duty on Tea." 

Schooner "Sally" ("Hornet's" prize). 

Sloop (Bowers). 

Sloop " Sally" (twelve guns). 

Brig (Ritchie). 

Brig " Dove." 

Brig "Holland." 

Sloop " Joseph Russell." 

Sloop " Boxirow." 

Sloop " Pilot Fish." 

Schooner (the other side). 

Brig " Sally." 

Sloop " Retaliation." 

Sloop (J. Brown's). 

Schooner (eastward). 

Dwelling-Houses. — Benjamin Taber, 2; Leonard 
Jarvis, 1 ; J. Lowden, 1 ; J. Gerrish, 1 ; W. Claghorn, 
1 ; V. Childs, 1 ; Joseph Rotch, 1 ; Joseph Rotch, Jr., 
1; Joseph Russell, 1. 

Shops, etc. — Isaac Howland's: distil-house, 1; 
cooper's shop, 1 ; warehouses, 3. Joseph Russell's : 
barn, 1; shop, 1. Church's shop (shoe), 1. Joseph 
Russell's: store, 1; warehouses (old), 2; 2 shops 
(small), 2; candle-house, 1. L. Kempton. 1. Rotch 
& Jarvis : shop, 1 ; warehouses, 2. Joseph Rotch : 
barn, 1 ; chaise-house, 1. Total, 20. Rope-walk and 
one house; A.Smith's blacksmith-shop; Benjamin 
Taber's shop. 

Some Doubtful Points.— There is some doubt with 
reference to Mr. Macomber's statement of troops 
landing east of the fort. It is not mentioned in Gen. 
Grey's official reports nor in other accounts. The de- 
struction of the fort, as far as can be gathered from 
Gen. Grey, was accomplished by the troops who had 
marched from Clarke's Cove around the Head of the 
River. This is not, however, a direct statement, and 
if it is thought to be settled that Mr. Macomber saw 
the troops leaving the vessels and steering for the land 
in Fairhaven Cove, his account is conclusive. On 
the other hand, the advance of the column from 
Clarke's Cove might have reached Sconticut Neck 
without the knowledge of the garrison in the fort, 
while the firing detachments delayed at New Bedford, 
Bellville, and other places; and having thus estab- 
lished a base for re-embarkation, the attack on the 
fort might have been made by them while awaiting 
the arrival of the rear-guard from Bedford. On the 
whole, however, Mr. Macomber's statement will prob- 
ably be accepted. It is at any rate full and circum- 
stantial with reference to all the movements of the 
British. The people of Bedford village would natu- 
rally have their attention engrossed by the landing at 
Clarke's Cove and the burning of the village and 
shipping, and would be ignorant of operations east of 
the fort. 

Mr. Macomber's statement that Isaac Howland's 
house was burned must be incorrect. The house was 
on the north side of Union Street, and was torn down 
in order to open Cheapside, now Pleasant Street. 



NEW BEDFORD. 



63 



There is some mystery in connection with the 
boat attack on Fairhaven as related by Judge Pope. 
The affair has had another version with marvelously 
improbable details. Gen. Grey's account of an ex- 
pedition to burn a vessel on the stocks and others in 
the stream may be a corroboration of it. Judge 
Pope's statement is probably exaggerated, as there is 
nothing to correspond with it in Gen. Grey's return 
of killed and wounded. There was a house standing 
in Fairhaven, on the southeast corner of Water and 
Centre Streets, a few years ago, in which was a bullet- 
mark said to have been made in this skirmish. The 
bullet appeared to have been fired from a northwest 
direction. 

Judge Pope's statement that the troops remained 
at Sconticut till Monday, the 7th, would appear to be 
a mistake, as Gen. Grey's official report and an ac- 
count written at the time by Robert Fanshawe, fleet 
captain, state directly the contrary. And yet the 
current tradition in Fairhaven is that the destruction 
of property in that town was accomplished on Sunday 
forenoon, the 6th ; that the troops bivouacked Sunday 
night on Sconticut Neck ; and that people frightened 
away from their homes in Fairhaven Sunday morn- 
ing remained in the woods all night. A letter written 
in 1874 by the late Jabez Delano, a noted antiquarian, 
states that the fort was destroyed about noon on Sun- 
day. 

The Extent of the Calamity.— The object of the 
attack being to destroy privateers, prizes, and prize 
goods, comparatively few dwelling - houses were 
burned. Some were unavoidably involved in the 
destruction of adjacent warehouses. A few residences 
of prominent patriots were burned, and some may 
have been set on fire by soldiers in drunken insubor- 
dination. But that the destruction was general and 
wanton with respect to dwelling-houses is not a fact. 
Probably a few were destroyed that are not men- 
tioned in Gilbert Russell's list. Among them was 
Barzillai Merrick's, on the east side of South Water 
Street. The British official account states that sev- 
enty vessels were destroyed, and Mr. Russell enumer- 
ates only thirty-four. There is nothing to show when 
Mr. Russell's list was written, and it may have been 
a good many years after the conflagration. 

Capt. Fansh awe's report says prisoners reported 
seventy sail of vessels destroyed. 

Another fact going to show that the burning was 
not general is this, that in 1846 twenty-nine houses 
were standing which were built before the Revolu- 
tionary war within the limits of what comprised the 
village in 1778. 

A careful estimate of the whole loss in buildings 
and wharves, made by Judge Pope, places it at 
£11,241, and on shipping, merchandise, etc., £85,739, 
making a total of £96,980, or $323,267. Lieut. Wil- 
liam Gordon, of the provincial artillery, estimated it 
at $422,680. 

Personal Sketches. — Elijah Macomber belonged 



to the garrison of the fort, and was twenty-one years 
old at the time. He served as private from March to 
December, 1778. He formerly belonged in Dart- 
mouth, but the last part of his life was spent in this 
town and Fairhaven. He died at the residence of his 
son, Lilley Macomber, about two miles northwest of 
Russell's Mills, Nov. 18, 1849. He was an illiterate 
man, and when drawn into conversation on Revolu- 
tionary matters he became much excited and spoke 
in a rambling manner. It was impossible to obtain 
from him a connected account of the invasion, and 
his statement, which was written by Henry H. Crapo, 
must have been the fruit of many conversations at 
different times. Mrs. Walter D. Swan and Mrs. Ben- 
jamin Baker, of this city, are his only surviving chil- 
dren. 

John Gilbert was fourteen years old at the time 
of the raid. His parents resided in Boston. During 
the latter part of his life he tended the wind-mill on 
Mill Street, between Hill and County, and lived in a 
small house east of building southeast corner of Pur- 
chase and North Streets. Charles Gilbert, son of 
John Gilbert, was shot dead by a stupid sentinel be- 
longing to a Middleborough company when the town 
of New Bedford was garrisoned in 1814. Gilbert was 
making the grand rounds, and the sentinel fired im- 
mediately after the first challenge, instead of waiting 
until a repeated challenge had elicited no answer. A 
daughter of John Gilbert is now living in the alms- 
house. 

The statements of Messrs. Gilbert and Macomber 
were written in 1839, and were never printed until 
now, except a few brief extracts. 

Edward Pope was a judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas, or perhaps of the local County Court, and was 
the first collector of customs at this port under the 
United States government. William G. E. Pope is 
his grandson. He lived at the northeast corner of 
Union and Sixth Streets, in a house now standing on 
Market Street, second east of Sixth. He was a pris- 
oner in the hands of the British during a part of the 
memorable night, but made his escape before morn- 
ing. 

Charles Grinnell was a cousin of Hon. Joseph 
Grinnell. His mother lived in 1778 in what is now 
the Whitcomb house. Mr. Grinnell built the next 
house west on Union Street. 

Capt. Lemuel S. Akin lived in Fairhaven, and his 
account of the ravages of the British in that town was 
written from what older people had told him. 

Israel Fearing belonged in Wareham. 

Isaac Howland came from Newport. His son orig- 
inated the house of I. Howland, Jr., & Co., for many 
years the leading firm in New Bedford in the whaling 
business. The other members of the firm were Ed- 
ward M. Robinson, Sylvia Ann Howland, and Thomas 
Mandell. Mr. Robinson's wife and Sylvia Ann How- 
land were daughters of Gideon Howland, who mar- 
ried a daughter of Isaac Howland, Jr. Isaac Howland 



w 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



was a Tory, had been in the slave trade from Rhode 
Island, and brought slaves with him when he removed 
to Bedford. 

Joseph Rotch came from Nantucket, and was the 
founder of the Rotch family of New Bedford. His 
house, which was burned, stood near the top of the 
hill on North Water Street, The house of Joseph 
Rotch, Jr., was south of it. 

Benjamin Taber was a boat-builder, and came with 
Mr. Rotch from Nantucket. His house was on the 
north side of Union Street, east of Water. 

John Gerrish, after the war, kept the tavern on the 
east side of Water Street, south of Commercial, after- 
wards known as the Cole Tavern. He had three 
daughters, who married John Alexander, Capt. David 
Leslie, and Preserved Fish, but none of their de- 
scendants are now here. 

W. Claghorn's house was on the west side of South 
Water Street, near Union. He belonged to the same 
family with Capt. George Claghorn, builder of frigate 
"Constitution." George Claghorn's house was on 
the east side of Second Street, near North, and was 
burned in the great fire of 1859. 

Joseph Russell was the founder of Bedford village, 
which was named in his honor by Joseph Rotch in 
a roundabout complimentary way. The family name 
of the Dukes of Bedford in England is Russell, and 
owing to this circumstance the name was proposed, 
but it is not known whether the New Bedford Russells 
are of the same family or not. When New Bedford 
was incorporated as a town in 1787 the word " new" 
was prefixed, to distinguish it from Bedford in Mid- 
dlesex County. Joseph Russell was of the fifth gen- 
eration from Ralph Russell, the original settler at 
Russell's Mills. His candle-house, which was burned, 
was on the north side of " Centre Street Square." It 
was another Joseph Russell, "of Boston," whose 
house was burned. The house was on the east side of 
Water Street, where Commercial Street is now open. 

Gilbert Russell was a son of Joseph, and father of 
the late William T. Russell. He built and succes- 
sively occupied the houses now occupied by Dr. Abbe 
and S. G. Morgan. 

John Lowden was a calker from Pembroke, and 
his house was south of Claghorn's, where the Hill 
house now stands. It was the first house built in the 
centre of the village. Mrs. George E. Netcher is a 
granddaughter of John Lowden, and Benjamin F. 
Lowden, formerly a photographer in this city, and 
who was drowned in steamer " Grace Irving" off the 
Gurnet in 1873, was his great-grandson. 

Capt. Timothy Ingraham, who commanded at the 
fort, was grandfather of Robert C. and Andrew In- 
graham, and of the late Gen. Timothy Ingraham. 

Gen. Grey's Life and Character. —Gen. Grey was 
born Oct. 23, 1729. He was aide-de-camp to Prince 
Ferdinand in Germany and to Wolfe at Quebec; 
appointed lieutenant-colonel June 27, 1761 ; com- 
manded the Ninety-eighth Regiment at the capture 



of Belle Isle in 1763 ; was appointed colonel Dec. 20, 
1772, and accompanied Howe to Boston in 1775, who 
gave him the local rank of major-general. For his 
important services in the Revolutionary war he was 
made a lieutenant-general, and appointed commander- 
in-chief in North America in January, 1783. He 
was employed in Flanders in 1793 ; captured Mar- 
tinique and St. Lucia in 1794; was made general in 
1795; was raised to the peerage in 1801, and in 1806 
became an earl. He died Nov. 14, 1807, at his seat 
near Alnwick, Northumberland. 

At one o'clock on Sept. 21, 1777, about two miles 
southwest of Paoli, Pa., Gen. Grey surprised Gen. 
Wayne with about fifteen hundred men, who had 
been detached from Washington's army after the 
battle of the Brandywine to annoy the British rear 
and attempt to cut off their wagon-train. His orders 
then were to rush on the Americans with fixed bay- 
onets without firing a shot, and give no quarter. 
Wayne's loss was one hundred and fifty killed and 
wounded, and the remainder retreated in confusion 
toward Chester. 

Oct. 4, 1777, Gen. Grey commanded a large portion 
of the left wing at the battle of Germantown. 

At midnight, Sept. 27, 1778, he surprised a regi- 
ment of light-horse under Lieut.-Col. Baylor, en- 
camped in barns about two and a half miles south- 
west of Tappan, N. Y. They were sleeping in 
unsoldierly security, and when captured asked for 
quarter, which was inhumanly refused by Grey, who 
gave special orders not to grant it. Many of the 
soldiers were bayoneted in cold blood. Out of one 
hundred and four persons, sixty-seven were killed or 
wounded, and seventy horses were foolishly butch- 
ered. 

Gen. Grey, on account of his common practice of 
ordering the men under his command to take the 
flints out of their muskets that they might be con- 
fined to the use of the bayonet, acquired the name of 
the ' no-Hint general." He was a man of undoubted 
personal courage. 

His orders issued on the eve of the attack on New 
Bedford exhibit his contempt for the Americans: 

"On Board the ' Carysfort,' 
"Sept. 4, 1778. 
" Major-Generdl Grey's Orders: 

" When the enemy are so posted that they can be got at, the major- 
general commands the troops that are ordered to attack them to march 
vigorously up and receive their fire till they come very close, and upon 
every proper opportunity they are to rush upon the enemy with their 
bayonets immediately after they have thrown in their fire, without wait- 
ing to load again, in which method of attack the superior courage and 
strength of the troops must always be crowned with glory and success. 
The major-general is impressed with every assurance that the officers 
and men are so thoroughly convinced of the great advantage they have 
over the enemy in this mode of fighting, and their great zeal for the 
service, that the present expedition cannot fail of success but do them 
honor, and answer the expectations of the commander-in-chief, whose 
opinion of these troops cannot be more strongly manifested than by 
sending them upon this essential service. In case of bad weather, or 
other accidents, that any of the transports should be separated from the 
fleet and fall in with a privateer, so as to make an escape impossible, 
which may not be unlikely, many small ones being lurking about upon 



NEW BEDFORD. 



65 



the watch, the major-general desires the commanding officer of each 
transport would oblige the captain of the ship to hear immediately down 
upon such privateer, running him directly and without delay on board, 
the troops being ready at the critical moment to enter and take pos- 
session of the vessel. This being properly done will ever succeed, the 
enemy not being aware of such an attack, and the troops so superior in 
every respect to put into execution. 

"The commanding officers are to be answerable that no houses or 
barns are set on fire by the soldiers, unless by particular orders from 
Major-General Grey." 

Earl Grey's son and successor in the earldom was a 
distinguished statesman and cabinet officer, and won 
great fame by carrying through the parliamentary re- 
form bill in 1832. The present and third earl has 
also been in the cabinet. 

Additional Facts and Incidents.— At the time of 
the invasion, New Bedford, Fairhaven, Acushnet, 
and Westport were all included in the town of Dart- 
mouth. 

No privateers were owned at Bedford in the Revo- 
lution, but the port was the rendezvous, especially 
after Newport was taken by the British, of a number 
belonging in Boston, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. 
Among them was a large sloop called the " Broom," 
commanded by Capt. Stephen Cahoon, of Rhode 
Island, and carrying twelve guns ; and the " Black 
Snake," a long, low, black schooner, owned in Con- 
necticut, and mounting eight carriage-guns. 

Capt. Hacker, of privateer " Providence," was 
afterward a Hell Gate pilot. 

Some of the old people used to say that the fleet 
moved over and anchored east of Egg Islands to re- 
ceive the troops on board, where no square-rigged 
vessel ever went before or since. 

The ill-fated John Andre was an officer in the New 
Bedford expedition. 

Russell, Cook, and Traflbrd were buried in Dart- 
mouth on the farm of Jediah Shearman. The prem- 
ises are now owned by the heirs of Philip Gidley. 

The battle of Rhode Island was just one week pre- 
vious to the raid at Bedford, and this accounts for the 
absence of so large a portion of the garrison at How- 
land's Ferry, now known as the Stone Bridge, at 
Tiverton. 

Mrs. Doubleday's house was the building now oc- 
cupied as a paint-shop and restaurant, 9 and 13 North 
Water Street. 

The almshouse, where the artillery were quartered, 
was near the corner of Sixth and Spring Streets. 

Morgan Street, mentioned by John Gilbert in his 
statement, is now called Court Street. 

Most of the buildings burned in Fairhaven were on 
Adams Street, east of Oxford village, and on Main 
Street, north of the junction of Adams Street. Among 
others was a store of Obed Nye, grandfather of Thomas 
Nye, Jr., of this city, which contained a large amount 
5 



of prize merchandise. It was on the farm now occu- 
pied by Mr. Nye's son-in-law, Mr. Dana. It is re- 
ported that a river of molasses ran from the store 
down the street after the casks were consumed. Mrs. 
Nye took her children and fled to the woods. A 
house belonging to a West family, a short distance 
south of where George H. Taber now lives, was one 
of the buildings burned. 

The house of Col. Pope was on the place recently 
occupied by the late Job Sisson. 

The old John Cooke house, one of the oldest build- 
ings then standing in Fairhaven. was burned. It 
stood on the east side of Adams Street, east of John 
M. Howland's residence. 

Stephen Hathaway's house, mentioned in Capt. 
Akin's collections, is now standing on a hill east of 
Main Street, a short distance north of the line be- 
tween Acushnet and Fairhaven. A store belonging 
to Obed Hathaway, or possibly to Micah Hathaway, 
a short distance south of this house, was burned. 
Stephen Hathaway and Bartholomew Taber were 
grandfathers of George H. Taber. Bartholomew 
Taber's house was on the spot where Josiah Macy, 
Jr., now lives. The school-house burned was where 
George H. Taber's house now stands. 

From the Head of the River to Sconticut Neck 
there was no choice of routes. Main Street, in Fair- 
haven, had no existence between Spring Street and 
the junction of Adams Street north of Oxford vil- 
lage. The pond between Bridge and Spring Streets 
was then a cove open to the harbor. The road lead- 
ing from the Mattapoisett road, nearly opposite the 
Sconticut road, to Main Street, near the Acushnet 
town line, is also a more recent lay-out. Conse- 
quently the column moved southward on Main Street 
and Adams Street to Spring Street, and thence east- 
ward to the Neck road. 

The house of John Wood's father, on the spot 
where Mr. Wood now lives, was burned. 

The farm of John Alden, mentioned by Capt. 
Akin, is now occupied by Seth Alden. 

The house of John West was standing, until re- 
cently, on the premises now owned by Boston Col- 
lege. 

The re-embarkation took place from the farm now 
owned by Daniel W. Dean. 

Besides the official statement of Gen. Grey, there 
is scarcely anything in existence of a documentary 
nature written at the time of the hostile visit of the 
British referring to their destructive progress through 
the town, and the foregoing account is therefore likely 
to contain many unimportant errors, while the loca- 
tion of some of the buildings destroyed cannot be 
fixed. 



66 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



CHAPTER IX. 

NEW BEDFORD.— {Continued.) 

THE WHALE FISHERY.! 

The First New England Whaling— Cape Cod— Nantucket— New Bedford 
i u 1740— Early Settlers— The "Teu-Acre Purchase"— Bedford Village 
—Growth Checked by War of Revolution— Privateers— Close of the 
War— Returning Prosperity— Edmund Gardner— The Ship " Rebecca" 
—Early Voyages— The Development of the Business— Success- 
Highest Point reached in 1857— Destruction of Whalers by Confeder- 
ate Cruisers— List of Vessels Destroyed— The Disaster of 1871— The 
Whaling Interest in 1883. 

"Whaling.— The history of the New England whale 
fishery is so interwoven with the history of New Bed- 
ford during the last century that they cannot be sep- 
arated, and no record of the growth and business of 
our town and city can be complete without it. Our 
wealth, our population, and our progress have been 
the fruits of this industry, and our position and fame 
among the cities of the world is due to its successful 
prosecution. 

The first whaling by New England men was doubt- 
less done by the inhabitants of Cape Cod. In the rec- 
ords of Nantucket, in 1690, it is written, " One Ichabod 
Paddock came from Cape Cod to instruct the people 
in the art of killing whales." In Edward Randolph's 
narrative, written for the Lords of Trade in October, 
1676, in describing the resources of the colony of 
New Plymouth, he says, " And here is made a good 
quantity of whale oil, which fish they take upon the 
coasts." The business was then carried on in boats 
from the shore. As early as 1715 we find the people 
of Nantucket pursuing the whales upon the ocean in 
small sloops and schooners, making voyages of a few 
weeks' duration, and bringing the blubber home and 
trying out the oil on shore. 

In 1751 there were two or three vessels from Ap- 
ponagansett River engaged in this fishery. These 
vessels were owned by John Wady and Daniel 
Wood. There were at this date one or two vessels 
in this business from the Acushnet River, owned by 
Joseph and Caleb Russell. Up to this time whales 
were principally taken between George's Bank and 
the Capes of Virginia, and the voyages continued 
from four to six weeks. Soon after the whalemen 
extended their cruising-grounds to the eastward of 
the Newfoundland coast, and the voyages were length- 
ened to three months. 

At first more vessels were fitted from Apponagansett 
River than from the Acushnet, but soon the superior 
advantages of our harbor became apparent, and the 
Apponagansett vessels were fitted here. 

Consider for a moment the aspect of our town 
when these two or three little sloops were fitting for 
their whaling voyages. The present site of the city 

1 The following chapter was contributed by Hon. William W. Crapo, 
being a portion of an address delivered by him at New Bedford July 4, 
1876, and is an invaluable contribution to the historic literature of the 
State. 



was a forest. There was a " try-house" near the 
shore (at the foot of Centre Street), and a rough cart- 
way led through the woods to the few farm-houses on 
the County road. 

The Rev. Paul Coffin, who ten years later (July 
21, 1761) visited the place, thus describes it in his 
journal: "This day rode to Dartmouth, a spacious 
town. Twenty miles will carry you through it. 
Rocks and oaks are over the whole town. Whortle 
bushes and rocks in this and the two former towns are 
the sad comfort of the weary traveler. At sunset ar- 
rived at Rev. West's." 

In 17G0 there commenced an immigration to this 
locality which indicated that its future was to be 
commercial rather than agricultural. In this year 
Joseph Russell sold an acre of land, the first sale 
made from his " 800-acre" homestead estate, to John 
Loudon. The spot selected was a few rods south of 
Union Street, on South Water Street, and on it a house 
was erected. Mr. Loudon came from Pembroke. He 
was a calker by trade, and his purpose in coming here 
was to engage in ship-building. He was followed by 
Benjamin Taber, who purchased a lot of land on the 
north of the present Union Street, and built a shop 
for the purpose of carrying on boat-building and 
block-making, which trades he had learned at Nan- 
tucket. The same year John Allen, who was a house- 
carpenter, bought a lot on the east side of South 
Water Street, extending to the river. Upon this he 
built a house, which was afterwards sold to Barzillai 
Myrick, a ship-carpenter. 

The next year (1762) Gideon Mosher, 2 a mechanic, 
bought a lot on the north side of Union and east side 
of North Water, and erected a house thereon. The 
same year Elnathan Sampson, of Wareham, a black- 
smith, purchased the lot next north of Loudon's. 
His lot was bounded on the " north and east on land 
left for ways or streets." These are now known as 
Union and Water Streets. His north line was eight 
rods in length, and his east line four rods, and the 
purchase money was £6 13s. id. The early settle- 
ment was at the Four Corners, as it was known and 
called for a hundred years. This was the centre of 
the young town. 

I have been somewhat minute in this description 
of the infant settlement, in order that the industrial 
character of the pioneers might be noticed. The men 
who came here in 1760 to build up a town were me- 
chanics. Taber, Allen, Myrick, Mosher, and Samp- 
son were industrious and enterprising mechanics, and 
their descendants, inheriting their industry and enter- 
prise, have been and are among our worthiest citizens. 
We may well believe that the earnestness of purpose 
and the devotion to their trades with which these 
young mechanics of one hundred years ago sought to 
improve their condition affected in no small degree 



- Mosher took no deed of his purchase. 
Joseph Russell directly to Benjamin Taber. 



The land was deeded by 



NEW BEDFORD. 



67 



the character of our local institutions. And we look 
back with satisfaction to the intelligent and industri- 
ous character of the skilled and honest artisans under 
whose wise influence the early settlement of our town 
was made. 

But there was one thing wanting to promote the 
business of the village. Capital was needed. Joseph 
Russell had means, which he used in whaling and 
freighting, and which furnished moderate employ- 
ment to the villagers. But his wealth was not large, 
and his operations were necessarily very limited. 

The required capital, so necessary for the activity 
and growth of the village, came in 1765, when Joseph 
Rotch, an enterprising merchant of great experience 
and knowledge in mercantile affairs, selected our har- 
bor as one eligible and advantageous for the prose- 
cution of the whale fishery. This event was of the 
utmost importance, and this acquisition of capital, 
accompanied with the ripe experience, clear-headed 
sagacity, and skilled methods of this accomplished 
merchant, gave an impetus to our infant industry 
which insured its permanence and success. 

Mr. Rotch purchased from Joseph Russell, in 1765, 
ten acres of land in one tract, besides a number of 
smaller lots in different parts of the town. The "ten- 
acre purchase" was from the north side of the Russell 
farm, and next to the estate of Manasseh Kempton. 
It commenced on the shore where is now Hazzard's 
wharf, and its north line, between William Street and 
Elm Street, extended nearly to Pleasant Street and 
Cheapside. Its south line was bounded by the pres- 
ent estate of Willard Sears. Its river-front extended 
from Central wharf to the north line of Hazzard's 
wharf. 

Up to this time the village had no distinctive 
name ; l it was simply a part of Dartmouth. But now 
its increasing importance rendered necessary a name 
by which the locality should be known. At the sug- 
gestion of Mr. Rotch, and as a compliment to Mr. 
Russell, although somewhat indirect, the village was 
called "Bedford." About this time there were other 
accessions to our business population. John How- 
land had moved into the village from Apponagansett, 
and Isaac Howland (the senior of that name) had 
come from Newport, bringing with him considerable 
capital and business enterprise. The latter gentle- 
man resided in the most elegant and expensive house 

1 That part of Dartmouth which became New Bedford was known as 
the Acushena country. The village which was afterwards known as 
Cushnet (the name is spelled in half a dozen different ways in the old 
records! formed one of the three territorial divisons of Dartmouth, and 
was thus recognized for all the purposes of municipal arrangements 
and taxation. The other two were Ponagansett (Dartmouth) and Coak- 
sett (Westport). 

"Cushenag" was taxed "for the publicke charges of the countrey, as 
they were ordered by the Court for this yeare, respecting the officers' 
wages and charge of the magistrate's table, £1 10 0U." This was the terri- 
tory in the neighborhood of the Acushnet River. "The farmes against 
Road Hand" were also taxed. These " farmes" were upon that part of 
the territory afterwards called Dartmouth which bordered upon the 
province of Rhode Island. — Old Colony Records, 1661. 



in the town. It was built of brick, the first of that 
material erected here. It was situated on Union 
Street, and was torn down when Cheapside was opened. 

The little village of Bedford prospered. Its indus- 
tries were successful, its population rapidly increased, 
and its merchants added largely to their wealth. The 
whaling voyages had been extended and new grounds 
had been discovered. During the ten years from 
1765 to 1775 the whaling fleet had increased from two 
or three vessels to fifty, which were much larger and 
of more value. The vessels sent out to the Falkland 
Islands in 1774 were fitted and owned here. It was 
this example of New England daring and enterprise 
which inspired Burke in the House of Commons to 
utter that eloquent tribute to our victorious industry 
which so often has touched the pride and awakened 
the enthusiasm of the sons of New Bedford and Nan- 
tucket. " No ocean," says Burke, " but what is vexed 
with their fisheries, no climate that is not witness to 
their toils. Neither the perseverance of Holland, 
nor the activity of France, nor the dexterous and firm 
sagacity of English enterprise ever carried this peril- 
ous mode of hardy enterprise to the extent to which 
it has been pushed by this recent people, — a people 
who are still, as it were, in the gristle, and not yet 
hardened into the bone of manhood." 

The war of the Revolution not only checked this 
growth, but destroyed almost entirely our business. 
It was useless to send vessels to sea with the danger 
of almost certain capture ; and if capture were avoided 
and a cargo obtained, with no market, since the con- 
sumers in Europe could not be reached. No town 
suffered more from the common hazards of the war, 
nor by direct depreciations of the enemy. Joseph 
Rotch returned to Nantucket and remained there 
until the war closed. Joseph Russell lost most of 
his property, except his real estate, and the same was 
true of the other merchants. The great majority of 
the business men of the village were Quakers, and 
could not conscientiously engage in the privateering 
adventures which otherwise, as a seafaring commu- 
nity, they would naturally have undertaken. But 
the advantages of our harbor were recognized during 
the war, and it was found to be a convenient port 
from which to fit out privateers and a safe refuge for 
their prizes. There were many, too, of our sailors 
and citizens who were quite willing to engage in this 
hazardous business, prompted both by its rewards and 
a desire to cripple the commerce of the enemy which 
had destroyed their peaceful employments. Before 
the open declaration of hostilities between the two 
countries, as early as May, 1774, exasperated by the 
capture in Buzzard's Bay of three vessels belonging 
to Sandwich by the British cruiser " Falcon," a 
schooner had been fitted out of this harbor, which 
recaptured two of the vessels and took as prisoners 
fifteen British officers and marines. 

Our harbor became a rendezvous for privateers, 
and many prizes were brought here and valuable 



68 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



cargoes landed, either to be stored in our warehouses 
or forwarded into the interior. 

It was to punish the people of the town for their 
offenses in fitting out and harboring privateers, and 
to destroy the shipping and valuable stores which 
were collected here, that Maj.-Gen. Grey, under 
orders from Sir Henry Clinton, made the raid of 
Sept. 5 and 6, 1778, which destroyed a large portion of 
the property of the village and inflicted a blow which 
crippled it for years. This event, which is the most 
prominent one in our local Revolutionary history, is 
faithfully portrayed in Chapter VIII. in this work. 

But at last the war was ended. When the news 
came to this little village that the ship "Bedford," 
Capt. William Mooers master, had arrived in the 
Downs on the 23d day of February, 1783, the very 
day of the signing of the preliminary treaty of peace, 
and had straightway proceeded to London with her 
cargo of five hundred and eighty-seven barrels of oil, 
displaying there for the first time the United States 
flag, with its Stars and Stripes, then the people of the 
village believed that peace with its blessings had come, 
and they were ready to begin again the work of re- 
building the town. This ship " Bedford" was built 
by Ichabod Thomas on North River, Pembroke, and 
delivered to Joseph Rotch, at Bedford, Jan. 13, 1772, 
as appears by the receipt, which is still extant. She 
was named by the owner for his adopted town, and 
sailed from this harbor before the war. 

It was a remarkable coincidence that the war, 
which had been precipitated in the destruction of 
the tea in Boston Harbor, thrown overboard from the 
"Dartmouth," a ship owned by Francis Rotch, of 
this same village, and built in 1767 at the foot of 
Middle Street, should have associated with its close 
the advent in English waters of the ship " Bedford" 
as the first vessel floating the American flag in any 
British port. The names of the mother-town and of 
the village are thus made memorable in our Revolu- 
tionary history. 

Our municipal existence as a separate town oc- 
curred in 1787, when both New Bedford and West- 
port were by acts of incoporation severed from the 
old township of Dartmouth. 

To show how carefully our fathers protected, even 
in their legislation, the feelings of the minority in 
matters of domicil and local government, let us quote 
a sentence from the act : " Provided, nevertheless, that 
any of the inhabitants now dwelling on the above-de- 
scribed lands, who are or may be still desirous of be- 
longing to the town of Dartmouth, shall at any time 
within two years from the passing of this act, by re- 
turning their names into the secretary's office and 
signifying their desire of belonging to said Dartmouth, 
have that privilege, and shall, with their polls and 
estates, belong to and be a part of the said town of 
Dartmouth." 

New Bedford was required to pay all its arrears of 
taxes to Dartmouth, and its proportionate part of the 



unpaid beef tax, so called, together with its propor- 
tion of all other debts. It was provided that the 
town's stock of powder and other town's property 
should be estimated and divided, and that New Bed- 
ford should pay to Dartmouth for the workhouse 
standing within the line of New Bedford. 

The population of New Bedford, according to the 
next census taken in 1790, was three thousand three 
hundred and thirteen ; Dartmouth had two thousand 
four hundred and ninety-nine ; and Westport, two 
thousand four hundred and sixty-six. 

The leading business men of this period were Wil- 
liam Rotch, Sr., the wealthiest man of the town, esti- 
mated to be worth over one hundred thousand dol- 
lars, his son William Rotch, Jr., and his son-in-law, 
Samuel Rodman. Then followed the various mem- 
bers of the Russell and Howland families, Thomas 
Hazzard, Jr., and the Hathaways, who were all 
" well to do." There were others without the pres- 
tige of wealth, but yet of great influence in the town, 
such as Caleb Congdon and Abraham Smith, and not 
to be omitted, the Davis family, famous for its Quaker 
preachers. The wealthy people were models of in- 
dustry and economy ; actuated by a sense of duty, 
they thought it necessary to show an example of 
prudence, diligence, and unostentation to others, and 
their influence in this regard was of the greatest 
benefit to the community. Their style of living was 
plain and rational. 

In 1795 there was a Congregational meeting-house 
at the Head of the River and another in the Bedford 
village. Dr. West officiated at each on alternate 
Sundays. 

At this time there was one doctor, Ebenezer Perry, 
the son of a physician, and called a "safe doctor," 
who charged sixpence a visit. There was only one 
lawyer in the village, Thomas Hammond, rarely 
found in his office, and concerning whom tradition 
says that shooting and fishing were his favorite pur- 
suits. There was one schoolmaster, Cornelius Wing, 
and one schoolmistress, Temperance Jennings. Mr. 
Wing was preceded by William Sawyer Wall, of 
English birth, a person much beloved, and who ex- 
erted a great influence in the community. He was 
first and foremost in the educational and scientific 
efforts of that day, and his name appears as the first 
president of the Dialectic Society, the earliest literary 
association of the town, and which did much for its 
culture, refinement, and scholarship. 

At the close of the war of the Revolution our people 
sought to regain their prosperity and commercial im- 
portance. Although crippled in resources they were 
not disheartened, but sought with their old vigor to 
re-establish their fortunes by their former pursuits 
upon the seas. They looked to the broad oceans, 
common and free to all men as the air itself, to yield 
them rich harvests as they had in the past. 

But there were other difficulties besides the replace- 
ment of the vessels which had been burned bv the 



NEW BEDFORD. 



69 



British or had rotted in disuse. The British govern- 
ment, as if to distress us even after peace, imposed a 
heavy alien duty upon oil, which rendered it impos- 
sible to realize a profit from the prosecution of the 
business. Her policy was to force this industry to 
her own harbors. For a time it seemed successful, 
and many Nantucket and New Bedford whalemen 
made their voyages from English and French ports. 
But the persuasiveness and address of William Rotch, 
Sr., secured to us, first from France and then from 
Great Britain, the privilege of sending our oil to those 
countries free of duty, thereby enabling him — as one 
of his biographers has said — to carry on the business 
with the highest profit and to benefit his neighbors. 

The success which attended the efforts of our citi- 
zens may be judged by the statement of vessel ton- 
nage owned and sailing from this harbor in January, 
1804. The total number of registered vessels was 
fifty-nine, amounting to thirteen thousand six hun- 
dred and twenty-one tons ; and of enrolled vessels 
there were five thousand five hundred and twenty-five 
tons ; making an aggregate of nineteen thousand one 
hundred and forty-six tons. The freighting business 
was quite important at that time. There were thirty 
ships and brigs, averaging two hundred tons burden, 
owned and fitted here, employed in general freighting, 
making their voyages to Europe, South America, and 
the West Indies. 

But the work of developing this industry of the 
whale fishery during the early years of the nineteenth 
century was slow and difficult. The embargo came 
and ruined many of our merchants ; and prior to that, 
in 1807, in consequence of the Berlin and Milan De- 
crees and the Orders in Council, there were thirty 
ships laid up in New Bedford on account of the 
hazards attending them at sea. 

There was no marked improvement in this business 
until after the close of the war of 1812. The politics 
of the inhabitants of New Bedford from the close of 
the Revolution to the war of 1812 was Federalist, and 
they had given bitter, decided, and partisan expres- 
sion to their opinions in opposition to this latter war. 
This may perhaps have been influenced by the severe 
reverses experienced in business. Many of our ships 
in the Pacific were captured ; and while a few were 
recaptured by Porter and Downes, most of them were 
destroyed or used as transports by the British. 

After the termination of this war. the whale fishery, 
especially as prosecuted at New Bedford, advanced 
with great rapidity and wonderful success. 

But before proceeding to the local development of 
this industry, I desire to sketch briefly, in chronolog- 
ical order, the seas and oceans which had been opened 
in the pursuit of whales. As early as 1770, Nantucket 
had sought the " right" whale off Disco, in Green- 
land, going as high as 81° north latitude. In 1774, 
New Bedford had sent vessels to the Falkland Islands. 
In 1784 we find our New England whalemen taking 
seals and whales around Patagonia and in the Southern 



Ocean. In 1789 they are about Madagascar and the 
Cape of Good Hope. In 1791 the whaleships entered 
the Pacific Ocean. We are told that the vessels were 
small, poorly fitted, and insufficiently prepared for 
the long and often boisterous passages around Cape 
Horn. But in one thing they excelled, — in the 
character of the men who engaged in these perilous 
voyages. History cannot point to an enterprise prose- 
cuted with more vigor and courage, with more hardi- 
hood and intelligence, than that displayed by the 
pioneers in the Pacific whale fishery. I cannot for- 
bear mentioning the name of one whom you all re- 
member; for his genial, courteous manners, his kind 
and obliging heart, his clear comprehension and 
prompt decision endeared him to us who knew him in 
his old age, and assured us that the commendation 
bestowed upon him seventy years ago for " his pru- 
dence, courage, and fortitude" were richly deserved. 
The whale fishery has produced many noble men, but 
none more praiseworthy than that hero and veteran 
of the sea, Edmund Gardner. 

It is asserted that the ship " Rebecca," of New Bed- 
ford, owned by Joseph Russell & Sons and Cornelius 
Howland, named for Joseph Russell's oldest daugh- 
ter, the grandmother of our esteemed fellow-citizen 
Daniel Ricketson, was the first American whaleship 
that doubled Cape Horn. She sailed from this port 
Sept. 28, 1791, under command of Joseph Kersey, and 
returned with a full cargo of sperm oil, obtained on 
the coast of Chili, on the 23d February, 1793. 

In 1800 our whalers were cruising on the coast of 
Peru and around the Gallapagos Islands. In 1818 
they were on the " Off-shore ground." In 1820 they 
had captured whales on the coast of Japan. In 1836 
our vessels were taking oil on Kodiak, the northwest 
coast of America; and in 1848 the bark "Superior," 
of Sag Harbor, Capt. Roys, passed through Behring 
Strait and opened up to us the vast wealth of the 
Arctic' grounds. 

There are many incidents connected with the earlier 
voyages which deserve a permanent record, and the 
narrative would prove an entertaining one. I will 
recall one or two of the " good voyages," as they were 
called, of forty years ago. In October, 1838, the ship 
"William Hamilton," of New Bedford, owned by I. 
Howland, Jr., & Co., commanded by William Swain, 
brought home a cargo of four thousand and sixty 
barrels of sperm oil ; her entire catch during the 
voyage, including the shipment from the Western 
Islands on her passage out, being four thousand one 
hundred and eighty-one barrels of sperm oil. 

Capt. Daniel Wood, remembered by many in this 
audience, a fine specimen of our whaling-masters, 
whose clear judgment and impartial decisions fitted 
him, after active service upon the ocean, to act as 
port warden in settlements between owners and under- 
writers, brought to New Bedford in the year 1833, in 
the old ship " Braganza," nearly four thousand bar- 
rels of sperm oil ; and George B. Worth, another of 



70 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



those generous, large-hearted old sailors, brought in 
the " Magnolia" to her owners three thousand four 
hundred and fifty-one barrels. But in those days of 
large " catch" there were low prices. 

In the prosecution of the whale fishery New Bed- 
ford has surpassed all other places that have engaged 
in the business, and her increase in wealth from this 
cause was rapid and large. From the year 1820 until 
the year 1857 her prosperity and her accumulation of 
wealth were continuous almost without exception. 

Space will not permit the detail of figures showing 
this wonderful increase of material prosperity. A 
few must serve to illustrate our progress, — 

On the 1st day of August, 1835, our tonnage was.... 73,9S2 
On the 1st day of August, 1845, our tonnage was.... 110,509 

At this last-named date New Bedford was the fourth 
tonnage district in the United States, — New York, 
Boston, and New Orleans alone exceeding it. There 
was more than double the amount of registered ton- 
nage owned in New Bedford that there was in Phila- 
delphia. 

During the year 1844 there were brought into New 
Bedford, — 

Sperm oil 54,309 barrels. 

Whale oil 102,992 " 

157,501 " 
Whalebone 978,592 pounds, 

which at the prices of that time — low as compared 
with the present — yielded a total value for the 
whaling of the year of $3,063,324.15. 

About this time our people thought that the popu- 
lation, business, and commercial importance of the 
town entitled it to receive the municipal organization 
of a city, and New Bedford received its city charter 
in 1847. The town government had existed sixty 
years. The population had increased from three 
thousand to fifteen thousand. Fairhaven, which had 
been organized as a separate town in 1812 from the 
territory of New Bedford, had at this date a popu- 
lation exceeding four thousand, which swelled the 
aggregate of population residing upon the original 
territorial limits to over nineteen thousand. 

The whaling industry of New Bedford reached its 
highest point, in capital, in vessels, and tonnage, in 
1857. Its fleet of three hundred and twenty-nine 
ships and whaling outfits was worth more than twelve 
million of dollars and required ten thousand seamen. 

The largest importations of oil and bone were in 
1851 and 1853. The quantities of each, with the prices 
realized from their sale, were as follows : 

1851. 

99,591 barrels sperm oil, at $1.2714 per gallon $3,991,980.75 

328,483 barrels whale oil, at .45*4 per gallon 4,682,114.50 

3,966,500 pounds whalebone, at .34 1 ! 1,368,442.50 

$10,042,537.81 
1853. 

103,077 barrels sperm oil, at $1.24% per gallon $4,050,539.50 

260,114 barrels whale oil, at .bS% per gallon 4,702,524.77 

5,652,300 pounds whalebone, at .34}^ 1,950,043.50 

$10,703,107.83 



I have mentioned the prominent merchants who 
were identified with the prosecution of the whale 
fishery in its earlier years. There are other names 
which should not be omitted, since the men who took 
the places of the pioneers achieved much of the suc- 
cess. John Avery Parker, George Howland, Isaac 
Howland, Jr., Humphrey Hathaway, John and James 
Howland, and William C. Nye were men of great 
business sagacity, financial skill, painstaking indus- 
try, and unquestioned integrity. The large fortunes 
left behind by many of them show how fully these 
qualities had been exercised and how abundantly 
rewarded. From 1824 to 1830 there were new count- 
ing-rooms opened, representing what was then called 
the "middling interest," and, occupied by Abraham 
Barker, David R. Greene, Joseph Bourne, Alfred 
Gibbs, and others. These men boldly claimed a share 
of the whaling business, and aided materially in 
making its progress continuous and rapid. We have 
also active whaling merchants of the present day, 
[><>s-essing the venturesome business enterprise of 
their predecessors. 

Two events, although comparatively recent, must 
be mentioned in order to render complete the history 
of our fishery, — the depredations by the rebel cruisers 
during the war of the Rebellion and the loss of our 
Arctic fleet in 1871. 

Early in our civil war the torch of the rebel cruisers 
carried dismay in our whaling fleets. In the summer 
of 1862 the Confederate steamer " Alabama," under 
command of Admiral Semmes, in the vicinity of the 
Azores, burned many of our vessels, and during the 
war the " Florida" and " Sumter" added to the de- 
struction. But the great loss occurred in June, 1865, 
when the "Shenandoah," having recruited at Mel- 
bourne for an Arctic cruise, entered into Behring 
Strait. Here the unsuspecting whalemen, pursuing 
their vocation amid the ice and fogs of that frozen 
region, were suddenly met by a danger which they 
could neither resist nor avoid. This armed steamer, 
the "Shenandoah," Capt. Waddell, was in their 
midst, and the work of destruction was rapid and 
thorough. Twenty-five ships, most of them of large 
size, were captured and burned, besides four others 
captured but bonded by the privateer for the purpose 
of furnishing transportation to some friendly port for 
the eight hundred sailor prisoners, who with sad 
hearts, fifteen thousand miles from home, had seen 
their burning ships, with the products of their toil 
and danger and their prospective hopes of success, 
sinking beneath the waves. 

Among the incidents of this rebel raid should be 
mentioned the praiseworthy action of Capt. Ebenezer 
Nye, of the " Abigail," after the loss of his ship, in 
saving, as far as possible, the fleet from destruction. 
The "Milo" had been captured and bonded, and had 
received on board a large number of prisoners. Dur- 
ing the following night Capt. Nye organized an ex- 
pedition of two boats, and at early dawn left the 



NEW BEDFORD. 



71 



" Milo." While the " Shenandoah" was pursuing her 
piratical work, these brave men, following along the 
fields of ice, pulled north in their open boats one 
hundred and eighty miles, and there found a number 
of defenseless whalers, giving them the information 
which saved them from capture. It was a gallant act, 
prompted by the humanity and executed with the cool 
determination of the hardy sailors. 

Fifty whaling vessels were captured by the rebel 
cruisers, of which forty-six, with outfits and cargoes, 
were burned. Of this number twenty-eight sailed 
from and were owned in New Bedford. The loss of 
ships and outfits belonging here exceeded one milUon 
of dollars, and of oil and bone on board four hundred 
thousand dollars. 

Following is a list of whaling vessels destroyed by 
the " Alabama" and other rebel cruisers during the 
Rebellion, with the amount of oil on board. All ex- 
cept the first three named were captured by vessels 
fitted out from the British dominions. 



1861. 



Schooner John Adams, Proviucetown") 
Schooner Mermaid, " > 

Brig Parana, " ) 



Sperm. Whale. 
Bbls. Bbls. 



215 



1862. 

Ship Benjamin Tucker, New Bedford 350 

Bark Ebeu Dodge, " clean 

Bark Elislia Dunbar, " " 

Ship Levi Starbuck, " " 

Bark Virginia, " " 

Ship Ocean Rover, Mattapoisett 710 

Schooner Altamalia, Sippican clean 

Ship Ocmulgee, Edgartown 250 

Schooner Courser, Provincetowu clean 

Schooner Weather-Gage, Provincetown " 

Bark Alert, New London " 



50 



1310 



1863. 



Bark Lafayette, New Bedford 170 

Bark N.ve, " 350 

Schooner Kingfisher, Fairhaven 170 

Brig Kate Cory, \\ estport 155 

Schooner Rienzi, Provincetowu 75 



920 



1864. 



Bark Edward, New Bedford. 
Bark Golconda, " 



1037 



1037 



1865. 



30 



320 
275 



Bark Abigail, New Bedford 

Ship Brunswick, New Bedford 

Bai k Congress, " 

Ship Euphrates, " 

Bark Gypsey, " 

Ship Hector, " 

Ship Hillman, " 

Ship Isaac llowlaml, New Bedford 160 

Bark Isabella, " 

Bark J ireh Swift, " 

Bark .Martha (2d), " 

Ship Nassau, " 

Bark Nimrod, " 

Ship Sophia Thornton, " 

Bark Waverly, " 

Ship William Thompson, New Bedford 

Bark Favorite, Fairhaven 

Bark Covington, Warren 

Bark Catherine, New London 

Ship General Williams, New London 

Bark Edward Carey, San Francisco 275 

Brig Susan Abigail, " clean 

Bark William C. Nye, " 

Bark Harvest, Honolulu 300 

Bark Peail, '* clean 

1710 



.clean 



50 



iillll 



50 



150 
10 



160 



100 
650 

750 



200 

360 

200 

50 

200 
480 
300 
400 
200 
100 
110 

400 
250 
200 
100 
200 
200 



150 



4100 



Sperm. Whale. 



Bbls. 
25 New Bedford vessels 2742 

2 Fairhaven vessels 470 

1 Mattapoisett vessel 710 

1 Sippican vessel clean 

1 Westport vessel 155 

1 Edgartown vessel 250 

6 Provincetowu vessels 290 

1 Warren vessel 

3 New London vessels 

3 San Francisco vessels 275 

2 Honolulu vessels 300 



Bbls. 
4150 
210 
50 



100 
400 
150 



46 vessels 5192 5060 

But the most memorable of all the disasters which 
have attended this perilous business was that of Sep- 
tember, 1871, when in a single day thirty-three ships 
were abandoned in the Arctic Ocean, hopelessly 
crushed or environed in the ice. This large fleet of 
the most costly ships in tlje service, caught between 
the jaws of the ice floes, drifted with the westerly 
gales until the immense fields of ice reached the 
shore, when they were crushed like egg-shells. It 
was a sad and terrible calamity, not merely in its loss 
of property, but more in the hardship and suffering 
of twelve hundred shipwrecked men. Hemmed in' 
by the ice which lines the shores of a barren country, 
where neither food nor fuel could be obtained, these 
men well knew that if driven upon the beach, ten or 
eleven dreary winter months must elapse before as- 
sistance could reach them, and that in the long inter- 
val death would come to most of them by starvation 
or cold. In their peril an expedition of three boats 
was fitted out under command of Capt. Frazier, of 
the " Florida," to go south over the ice, and if possible 
find vessels in the open sea. The written appeal for 
relief which these shipwrecked captains sent to who- 
ever it might reach was full of touching, pathetic 
eloquence. It was the appeal of brave men in dis- 
tress to brave men who could realize the fearful peril. 

A toilsome and anxious journey of seventy miles 
between packs of ice brought the little expedition to 
the open sea south of Icy Cape, and there the sight 
of ships gladdened their hearts. It needed no appeal 
for succor, no promise of reward, for the warm hearts 
of brother-sailors were ready to save their comrades, 
although at the heavy loss of an abandonment of their 
own voyages and the earnings of a year. Capt. Fra- 
zier returned to the wrecks off Point Belcher with the 
joyous tidings of relief, and these twelve hundred 
men, taking with them in boats such provisions as 
they could carry, made their way over and through 
the ice fields to the rescuing vessels without the loss 
of one of their number. 

Of the thirty-three vessels crushed or abandoned, 
twenty-two belonged in New Bedford, and were val- 
ued, with outfits, without the oil and bone on board, 
at one million and ninety thousand dollars. 

Whaling reached its culminating point in 1856 or 
1857. Since then it has declined, and now our fleet 
numbers only about one-third of the vessels it once 
did. There have been disasters in connection with 
this pursuit, The captures by the English in the war 
of 1812, the captures by rebel cruisers, and the loss 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



of the Arctic fleet were heavy blows. Natural causes, 
which need not be mentioned, have led to its depres- 
sion, almost to its downfall. But the historical fact 
which interests us is that New Bedford has been built 
up by the whale fishery. A large share of the wealth 
of to-day comes from this source. It has made our 
community what it is. 

This large accumulation of wealth has been obtained 
by the well-directed enterprise and persevering in- 
dustry of the people of New Bedford, and belongs to 
the people of New Bedford. The capital of non-resi- 
dents has not aided us. It has been drawn from the 
broad fields of the ocean with much toil and manifold 
dangers, with perils from the ice and fogs and storms 
of frozen regions, and exposure and disease under the 



hot burning sun of the equator. It has been a cre- 
ation of wealth by the skill of the merchant and the 
hardy daring of the sailor, and not a mere exchange 
of wealth. Without surveys of the seas and bays 
which it made its cruising-grounds, — for our brave sea- 
men went in advance of exploration, — without boun- 
ties, without aid from government, but contributing 
largely to it in its consumption of dutiable articles, 
and overcoming European competition, the people of 
New Bedford obtained the control of the whale fish- 
ery, and made their city the great whale-oil market 
of the world. Few parallels can be found in this or 
any country of such successful enterprise. 

The following is a list of vessels from New Bedford 
in the whaling fishery in 1882: 



Vessel's Name. 



A. R. Tucker, bark 

Abm. Barker, bark 

Abbie Bradford, schooner 

Adelia Chase, schooner 

Adeline Gibbs, bark 

Alice Knowles, bark 

Alaska, bark 

Andrew Hicks, bark 

Arnolda, bark 

Atlantic, bark 

Attleboru', bark 

Bart Gosnold, bark 

Belvedere, steamer 

Bertha, bark 

Caleb Eaton, schooner 

California 

Canton, bark 

Cape Horn Pigeon, bark 

Charles W. Morgan, bark 

Charles W. Morse, schooner. 

Cicero, bark 

Com. Morris, bark 

Desdemona, bark 

E. B. Con well, schooner 

Ellen Rodman, schooner 

E. B. Phillips, bark 

Eliza, bark 

Eliza Adams 

E. H. Adams, brig 

Europa, lark 

Falcon, bark 

Fannie Byrnes, schooner 

Fleetwing, bark 

Francis A. Barstow, brig 

Franklin, schooner 

Gay Head, bark 

Gazelle, bark 

George and Mary, hark 

George and Susan, bark 

Golden City, schooner 

Greyhound, bark 

Helen Mar, bark 

Hercules, hark 

Hope On, bark 

Horatio 

Hunter, hark 

Isabella, brig 

J. A. Howland, bark 

James Allen, bark 

James Arnold 

Jireh Perry ... 

John Carver, bark 

John Dawson, bark 

John Howland, bark 

John P. West, bark 

John and Wiuthrop, bark.... 

Josephine, bark 

Kathleen, bark 

Lagoda, bark 

Lancer, bark 

Lottie E. Cook, schooner 

Louisa, bark 

Lucretia, steamer 

Lydia. bark 

Mabel, bark 

Mars, bark 

Mary and Helen, steamer.... 

Mary and Susan, bark 

Mattapoisett, bark 

M. E. Simmons, schooner 



Tonnage. 



145 
380 
115 
85 
327 
302 
347 
303 
340 
291 
179 
365 
440 
177 
110 
367 
239 
212 
314 
112 
226 
338 
236 
91 
73 
155 
296 
408 
107 
323 
285 
66 
328 
128 
77 
265 
273 
105 
343 
85 
178 
324 
311 
173 
349 
355 
132 
355 
348 
346 
316 
319 
173 
384 
353 
;;:ls 
385 
206 
371 
295 
82 
303 
312 
329 
188 
256 
508 
327 
110 
105 



Master. 



Agent's Name. 



Gifford Joseph & William R. Wing.. 

Smith Joseph & William R. Wing.. 

Dyer Jonathan Bourne 

Loum Snow & Son 

Reed Jonathan Bourne 

Foster John P. Enowles (2d) 

Fisher Jonathan Bourne 

Hicks Andrew Hicks 

Jones Loum Snow & Son 

Mitchell Joseph & William R. Wing.. 

Lavers William Lewis 

Poole John F. Tucker & Co 

A .lams William Lewis 

Gilford John F. Tucker & Co 

Gifford Charles C. Pierce 

Brightman John F. Tucker & Co 

Sherman John F. Tucker .V Co 

Kelley William Potter (2d) 

Keith Joseph & William R. Wing.. 

Rose John McCul lough 

John P. Knowles (2d) 

Wmslow Aiken & Swift 

Davis Aiken & Swift 

Costa Henry Clay & Co 

Gifford Doane &Co 

Francis John McCul lough 

Murray Jonathan lion i ne 

Howland Taber, Gordon & Co 

Allen William Lewis 

Baker Aiken .V Swift 

Thomas Knowles & Co 

Silva Joseph Olivera 

Heppingstone Joseph & William R. Wing.. 

Reed Philip H. Reed 

Avery Henry Clay A Co 

Crapo lohn P. Knowles (2d) 

Ludlow Swilt & Allen 

Sherman Jonathan Bourne 

Knowles Aiken A Swilt 

Frates ' Henry Clay & Co 

Allen ! Abbott P. Smith 

Bauldry Swift & Allen 

Mclnnis Aiken & Switt 

Borden Gilbert B. Borden 

Morse Taber, Gordon A Co 

Barnes Jonathan Bourne 

Blossom William Lewis 

Penniman Aiker. & Swift 

Lake Gilbert Allen 

Chase Taber, Gordon & Co 

Chase Aiken & Swift 

Smith Thomas Knowles & Co 

Warren Joseph & William R. Wing.. 

Green Ivory H. Bartlett & Sous 

Smith Simeon N. West 

Shiverick John P. Knowles (2d) 

Long Aiken & Swift 

Howland Joseph & William R. Wing- 
Lewis Jonathan Bourne 

Lewis ] William Lewis 

Vera Joseph Vera 

Koon Ivory II. Bartlett* Sous 



Mellen 

Frazier 

Kelley 



Smith 

Barker ... 
Slickney. 
Mandly.. 



William Lewis 

William Baylies 

William Lewis 

Charles C. Pierce 

William Lewis 

Ivory H. Bartlett & Sons.. 

Abbott P. Smith 

Loum Snow & Son 



Date of Sailing. 



April 13, 1880. 
Oct. 26, 1875. 
June 15, 1882. 
In port. 
Dec. 15, 1880. 
June 10, 1879. 
Sept. 14, 1880. 
Oct. 25, 1881. 
May 3, 1881. 
Nov. 2, 1880. 
Oct. 26, 1880. 
April 23, 1881. 
Aug. 17, 1880. 
Aug. 22, 1882. 
Nov. 1, 1879. 
May 20, 1881. 
Sept. 12, 1878. 
Aug. 24, 1880. 
July 13, 1881. 
Oct. 22, 1881. 
In port. 
April 5, 1881. 
May 30, 1882. 
Nov. 12, 1880. 
June 8, 1881. 
May 24, 1881. 
May 28, 1874. 
Sept. 17, 1879. 
Sept. 28, 1880. 
April 7, 1880. 
In port. 
April 24, 1882. 
Nov. B, 1877. 
April 20, 1881. 
June 19, 1882. 
Dec. 6. 1881. 
May 11, 1880. 
May 20, 1881. 
Oct. 25, 1881. 
Oct. 13, 1881. 
May 14,1879. 
Julv 6,1876. 
Oct. 14, 1879. 
Oct. 19, 1881. 
Oct. 25, 1881. 
Sept 20, 1875. 
.lone 13,1882. 
Sept. 14, 1881. 
Sept. 7. 1881. 
Oct. 8, 1878. 
Sept 1,1879. 
May 18, 1880. 
June 12, 1879. 
Dec. 20, 1877. 
May 24, 1882. 
April 19, 1881. 
Oct. 7, 1880. 
Mav 5, 1880. 
April 11, 1882. 
June 20,1882. 
Mav 25, 1882. 
Sept. 29, 1881. 
Dec. 17.1881. 
Nov. 23, 1880. 
Sept. 13, 1881. 
In port. 
Aug. 15, 1882. 
Oct. <:, 1881. 
Oct. 26, 1881. 
Oct. 17, 1881. 



NEW BEDFORD. 



73 



Vessel's Name. 



Tonnage. 



Merlin, bark 240 

Mermaid, bark 273 

Milton :57i 

Minerva, bark :W7 

Morning Star, bark 238 

Napoleon, bark 322 

Niger 412 

Northern Light, bark 385 

North Star, steamer 489 

Ocean, bark 2SK 

Ohio, bark 205 

Ohio (2d), bark ::(.:; 

Osprey, bark 173 

Palmetto, bark 215 

Pedro Varcla, schooner 90 

Petrel, bark I 257 

Pioneer, bark I 228 

Platina, bark i 214 

President (2d), bark 123 

Progress, bark 358 

Rainbow, bark SM 

Reindeer, bark 357 

Rousseau, bark 305 

Sea Fox, bark 166 

Sea Ranger, bark 273 

Seine, bark 234 

Stafford, bark 15G 

Stamboul, bark 260 

Sunbeam, bark 255 

Surprise, schooner 53 

Swallow, bark 320 

Tamerlane, bark 372 

Triton, bark 204 

Tropic Bird, bark 145 

Union, schooner 60 

Yarnnm H. Hill, brig 120 

Wanderer, bark 303 

Wave, bark 150 

William Wilson, schooner 92 

Young Phoenix 355 



Master. 



Agent's Name. 



Date of Sailing. 



Allen John F. Tucker & Co Nov. 17, 1881. 

Allen Andrew Hicks June 1, 1880. 

Potter Taber, Gordon & Co Oct. 6, 1880. 

Thompson lohn McCuIlough Feb. 14, 1881. 

Joshua C. Hitch In port. 

lonathan Bourne.. In port. 

Taber, Gordon & Co I In port. 

Campbell lonathan Bourne ' Sept. 22, 1880. 

Owen William Lewis Aug. 2, 1881. 

May 22, 1879. 

Nov. 1,1881. 

Dec. 13, 1881. 

May 4, 1880. 



Lewis Ivory H. Barllett & Sons 

Benten Loum Snow & Son 

Ellis Aiken & Swift 

Herrick Swift & Allen 

Tripp. John F. Tucker & Co ; Juue 3, 1880. 

lficketson ' Gilbert Allen, \ April 6, 1881. 

Claghorn Thomas KnowleB & Co Oct. 19, 1880. 

I hase Gilbert Allen Aug. 17, 1880. 

Gilbert John F. Tucker & Co Aug. 31, 1882. 

Tripp Loum Snow & Son j July 18, 1881. 

Ivory II Bartlett & Sons I In port. 

Cogan Ivory H. Bartlett & Sons w Jan. 21, 1875. 

Baker Aiken & Swift April 12,1881. 

Wicka j Aiken & Swift ....j June 6, 1882. 

Gifford John P. Knowles (2d) June 27, 1S82. 

Holmes Ivory H. Bartlett & Sous June 4, 1879. 

Maconiber John P. Knowles (2d) i July 22, 1880. 

King Joseph & William R. Wing I Sept. 3, 1879. 

Keenan j Joshua C. Hitch Nov. 12, 1881. 

Moulton ' Joseph & William R. Wing July 25, 1882. 

< irapo 

Sherman 



Chibls... 
Stanton. 
Foster... 
Silva.... 
McLaue 



Robert G. Churchill June 7, 1881. 

Aiken & Swift Oct. 15. 1S7S. 

Ivory H. Bartlett & Sons ' In port. 

Joseph & William R. Wing Mav 3, 1882. 

Stanton & Hamhlin Sept. 29, 1881. 

Heurv Clay & Co Jan. 30, 1882. 

John McCuIlough ' Sept. 29, 1880. 

John P. Knowles (2d) Aug. 29, 1882. 

Thomas Knowles & Co In port. 

William N. Church In port. 

Lapham [ Ivory H. Barlett & Sons Dec. 6, 1881. 



There are now but about fifteen hundred barrels of 
crude Southern whale-oil in the country, the only 
holders being J. & W. R. Wing, I. H. Bartlett & 
Sons, and Taber, Gordon & Co., all of New Bedford, 
besides one small lot in Provincetown. This is used 
to a considerable extent for oiling stock in cordage- 
works. Northern whale-oil is almost as scarce, the 
holders being J. & W. R. Wing, Jonathan Bourne, 
aud Swift & Allen, of New Bedford, and Hernan 
Smith, of Boston, with a total of about two thousand 
eight hundred barrels. Mr. Smith's oil, some two 
hundred and fifty barrels, has been on hand about ten 
vears. 



CHAPTER X. 

NEW BEDFORD.— (Continued.) 

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 

First Congregational Society, Unitarian Church — The North Congrega- 
tional Church — The Trinitarian Church — First Baptist Church — The 
North Baptist Church — The Second Baptist Church — Salem Baptist — 
County Street Methodist Episcopal Church— The Front Street Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church — Allen Street Methodist Episcopal Church — 
Pleasant Street Methodist Episcopal Church — African Methodist Epis- 
copal Zion — African Methodist Episcopal Bethel — Grace Church — St. 
James' Church — North Christian Church — Middle Street Christian 
Church — South Christian Church — Christian Union Church — Spruce 
Street Christian — The Universalist Church — Society of Friends — Sea- 
men's Bethel — Roman Catholic Churches — Portuguese Church — How- 
land Chapel — Second Advent Church — Union Church, Plainville — 
Olivet Chapel — Rockdale Union Free Chapel Association— Missionary 
Chapel — Extinct Churches: Pacific Church, Third Christian, Can- 
nonville Union Church, Mount Pleasant Church. 

First Congregational Society (Unitarian).— The 
village at the Head of the River, now called Acushnet, 



antedates New Bedford by half a century. As it was 
in early times the centre of population and business, 
religious services were first held there, and as New 
Bedford became settled its residents were in the habit 
of going up to the Head of the River to attend wor- 
ship. But in the course of time, owing to the greater 
increase of population in New Bedford, it became 
necessary to organize a precinct in connection with 
the church at Acushnet. We find by the records of 
the First Congregational Society that the first meet- 
ing held in relation to the formation of the precinct 
was Jan. 31, 1795, at the North Purchase Street school- 
house. The officers chosen at that meeting were Jireh 
Willis, moderator; John Spooner, clerk; Edward 
Pope, treasurer. It was voted to build a house for 
public worship, in forty shares, each shareholder sub- 
scribing six pounds, to be paid in cash, labor, or ma- 
terials. Capt. Gamaliel Bryant was chosen superin- 
tendent of its construction. The records state that 
the first lot selected for the location of the church was 
"a quarter of an acre of land lying north of Joseph 
Russell's orchard, and west of County road," pre- 
sented by Ephraim Kempton, Sr., which is now occu- 
pied by the County Street Methodist Episcopal 
Church. It was their determination to build on this 
spot, and several persons were buried here, the de- 
sign being to set apart a portion of the grounds as a 
burial-place. But at a meeting of the proprietors 
held the following May it was contended that it was 
distant too far from the village, and this vote was 
annulled, and it was decided to accept alotoffered by 
William Rotch, where Liberty Hall now stands. The 



74 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



church was commenced and built during the years 
1795-97, by Manasseh Kempton, Jr., and Eastland 
Babcnck. Meetings were, however, held in the church 
previous to its completion. 

A bell was purchased Feb. 18, 1796 (the one for- 
merly in use in the tower of the old Liberty Hall), of 
Capt. Silas Jones, of Nantucket, by subscription, at a 
cost of two hundred and fifty-five dollars. The list 
was headed by Thomas Pope, who gave ten dollars. 
The next largest sum was six dollars, and was given 
by a colored man named Aaron Chikls. The bell 
was distinguished for clearness of tone and the long 
distance for which it could be heard. In November, 
1854, Liberty Hall was destroyed by fire. The remains 
of the bell were collected, and several citizens had 
tea-bells and various ornaments made, and these are 
the only relics of this old bell. 

The first pastor was Rev. Dr. West, who commenced 
his ministrations with the society at the building of 
the church. He afterwards received his dismission on 
account of ill health. After Dr. West's withdrawal, 
Rev. Messrs. Christy, Holt, and Robinson received 
calls to officiate as pastors, but whether they accepted 
or not the records do not state. 

In 1807 a church, called the Third Church, was 
organized in connection with the precinct, which con- 
tinued until 1810, when the society, or parish com- 
mittee, as it is termed, presented Rev. Ephraim Ran- 
dall to the church as a candidate for the pastorship. 
The church refused to elect him, and the society per- 
sisting in their determination to employ him, the 
great majority of the church voted to assemble in an- 
other place of worship, which they accordingly did, 
and their subsequent history will be found under the 
head of the North Congregational Church. 

The society, with four members of the church who 
remained with them and organized a new church, 
having strengthened their position by a decision from 
ecclesiastical authorities that they were justified in 
insisting upon the election of whoever they chose to 
present to the church as candidates for the pastor- 
ship, proceeded to install Rev. Ephraim Randall, who 
preached to them several years. After him, Rev. 
Messrs. Channing, Kibbey, and John Brewer were 
settled over the society. The latter was for some time 
preceptor of the Friends' Academy. 

Sept. 17, 1816, the society gave Rev. Jonathan 
Whitaker a call, which was accepted, and he preached 
to the society until Nov. 24, 1823, with great accept- 
ance. At that date an invitation was extended to 
Rev. Orville Dewey, which he accepted. 

This distinguished clergyman was born at Sheffield, 
Mass., March 28, 1794. He graduated at Williams 
College in 1814, and was afterwards a student of An- 
dover Theological Seminary, from 1816 to 1819. On 
leaving Andover he preached for several years as the 
agent of the American Educational Society, but de- 
clined any permanent settlement on account of his 
indefinite opinions in theology ; subsequently he ac- 



cepted a temporary call to Gloucester, at the same 
time candidly stating his unsettled views. Here he 
became a Unitarian, and was shortly after engaged 
as the assistant of Dr. Channing, in whose pulpit he 
preached two years. His next charge was this so- 
ciety, over which he was ordained Dec. 17, 1823. 

Dec. 5, 1833, being in ill health, he was granted 
leave of absence for a tour through Europe, his sal- 
ary being continued. Ralph Waldo Emerson sup- 
plied the pulpit the principal portion of the time 
during his absence. 

In June, 1834, Mr. Dewey received a call from the 
Church of the Messiah in New York, and asked his 
dismission, which was granted, and his salary paid by 
the society up to December ensuing. Mr. Dewey 
was extremely popular with the society, and his with- 
drawal was a matter of deep regret. 

The next pastor was Rev. Mr. Angier, who was or- 
dained May 20, 1835. The sermon on the occasion 
was by Dr. Dewey, and the introductory prayer by 
Rev. Mr. Morgridge. Mr. Angier asked for his dis- 
mission April 8, 1837, but the society voted unani- 
mously not to grant it. A second request being 
made, it was granted. 

The structure now occupied by the society, on 
Union Street, was erected during the year 1836-38, 
and dedicated May 24, 1838, on which occasion Rev. 
Messrs. Ephraim Peabody and J. H. Morison were 
installed as pastors. Mr. Morison continued with 
the society until Oct. 6, 1844. 

Rev. Ephraim Peabody was born at Milton, N. H., 
March 28, 1807. In November, 1845, he received a 
call to act as colleague pastor at King's Chapel, Bos- 
ton, which he accepted. 

Few clergymen have ever been as successful in 
winning the personal regard and attachment of their 
people as Mr. Peabody was. He died Nov. 28, 1856. 

In December, 1847, Rev. John Weiss received a 
call, and soon after commenced his labors with the 
society. In 1852, Mr. Weiss' ill health rendering him 
unable to discharge his entire pastoral duties, he ten- 
dered his resignation. It was not accepted, and Rev. 
Charles Lowe was ordained as a colleague, Aug. 10, 
1852. Mr. Lowe's health failing, after an association 
of about one year, a leave of absence was granted to 
him, and in September, 1853, he left this city for Eu- 
rope. Before his departure he sent a letter of resig- 
nation, but at the request of the society retained a 
nominal relation as pastor. In April, 1855, he wrote 
from Paris, asking that this connection should be dis- 
solved, and the society complied with his desire. 

Mr. Weiss' health continued very infirm, and in 
April, 1858, he received leave of absence for six 
months and went to Europe. On his return, finding 
that his strength was not sufficiently restored to war- 
rant him in undertaking the whole duty of the parish, 
, he tendered his resignation, which was finally ac- 
cepted, and his connection with the society ceased in 
the spring of 1859. 



NEW BEDFORD. 



75 



An invitation was extended to the present pastor, 
Eev. William J. Potter, in July, 1859, which he ac- 
cepted, and was ordained Dec. 28, 1859. The ser- 
vices on the occasion were as follows: Introductory- 
prayer, Rev. C. Y. De Normandie, of Fairhaven; 
selections from Scriptures, Rev. T. C. Moulton ; ser- 
mon, Rev. Dr. Furness, of Philadelphia ; ordaining 
prayer, Rev. J. F. W. Ware, of Cambridgeport ; 
charge, Rev. C. H. Brigham, of Taunton ; right hand 
of fellowship, Rev. A. Woodbury, of Providence; 
address to the people, Rev. Dr. Dewey, of Boston ; 
concluding prayer, Rev. Moses G. Thomas. 

In 1863, Mr. Potter was drafted. On the following 
Sunday he preached a very powerful discourse, enti- 
tled "The Voice of the Draft,'' which was published 
and attracted great attention throughout the country. 
He resigned the pastorship and entered the army, in- 
tending to take his position as a private soldier ; but 
on reaching W&shington the Secretary of War assigned 
him a position more in accordance with his habits 
and abilities. The society declined to accept his 
resignation, but granted him leave of absence for a 
year, at the expiration of which time he returned to 
his duties here and has officiated as pastor to the pres- 
ent time. 

The North Congregational Church. 1 — The North 
Congregational Church was organized (in the meeting- 
house of the precinct, formed in 1795) by an Ecclesi- 
astical Council, Oct. 15, 1807. 

The churches represented in the council were the 
Second Church of Christ in New Bedford (Fair- 
haven), by Rev. Isaiah Weston, pastor, Joseph Bates, 
delegate ; and the First Church of Christ in Rochester, 
by Rev. Oliver Cobb, pastor, Jesse Haskell, delegate. 
Having organized, the council "proceeded to exam- 
ine the standing of those who were before members of 
churches, and also candidates for admission into the 
church," and laid before them a confession of faith 
and a covenant. These were " consented to," and the 
following persons " were then regularly formed into a 
church by the name of the Third Church in New 
Bedford, and the ordinance of baptism was admin- 
istered to those who had not been baptized : 

Elkanah Michell. Sarah Kempton. 

Caleb Jenne. Joannah West. 

William West. Elizabeth Jenne. 

Joshua Barker. Joannah Ayres. 

Edward Pope. Clarrissa Crocker. 

John Sheirman. Pamela Willice. 

Gamaliel Bryant. Abigail Kempton. 

Abisha Delanoe. Elizabeth Pope. 

Jireh Willis. Dorcas Price. 

Ebenezar Willis. Catharine Long. 

Cornelius Burges. Huldah Potter. 

Cephas Cushman. Drusilla Potter. 

Mariah Jenne. Fear Crocker. 

Abigal Samson. Anna West. 

1 By Edwin Emery. 



Aurilla Barker. 
Deborah Bryant. 
Mary Peckham. 
Abigail Michell. 
Susannah Spooner. 
Lois Hart. 



Abigail Willis. 
Abiah Garish. 
Mahittable Willis. 
Hannah Peckham. 
Anna Burgess. 
Nancv Howland. 



The first officers of the church were chosen May 
11, 1809,— Joshua Barker, first deacon; Cornelius S. 
Burgess, second deacon ; and, it is presumed, Cephas 
Cushman, clerk. 

Rev. Curtis Coe seems to have preached for the 
church in 1809, and other clergymen from the neigh- 
boring towns to have administered the ordinances 
occasionally during the following year. In 1809-10 
there was a revival, and in March and April an addi- 
tion of twenty-two members. The church was ap- 
parently in a prosperous condition ; but about that 
time an " unhappy division began to appear," which 
resulted in the formation of two churches, the one 
Trinitarian, the other Unitarian. The majority of 
the church was dissatisfied with the proceedings of 
the parish committee, and also with the candidate for 
pastor, who, as it is alleged, was not sound in doc- 
trine ; or, in the language of the memorial presented 
to the council protesting against the ordination of 
Mr. Ephraim Randall, in 1814, because he "did not, 
in the opinion of the church, speak the things that 
become sound doctrine, or those that harmonized with 
the professed sentiments of the church." 

A committee, consisting of Deacons Barker and Bur- 
gess and Jireh Willis, was appointed July 20, 1810, 
to confer with the parish committee with a view of 
reconciliation. On the 7th of August they reported 
" that the conference with the parish committee af- 
forded no satisfaction, or nothing appeared to be at- 
tending to the union ;" whereupon the following vote 
was passed : " Voted, that we meet for public worship 
at some public or private house on the Lord's day." 

At that time there were nineteen active (male) 
members, of whom five were in opposition to the ma- 
jority, one took no part, and thirteen were united 
against the society. The fourteen male members con- 
stituting the church that separated from the society 
were Edward Ayers, Joshua Barker, Freeman Bar- 
rows, Cornelius S. Burgess, Joshua Crocker, Cephas 
Cushman, Jesse Haskell, Roger Haskell, Isaac Man- 
chester, Nathaniel Perry, Pardon Potter, Southward 
Potter, William West, and Jireh Willis. Caleb Jenne 
had joined the Friends and Ebenezer Willis was dead. 
Those fourteen men, with not a great abundance of 
this world's goods, entered into an agreement to pay 
the salary of a minister and the rent of a place of 
worship, with the other expenses of the same. 

Soon after the separation, if not before, Mr. Sylves- 
ter Holmes, a licentiate, began his labors with the 
church. It is inferred from the record of June 29, 
1811, that the church even then hoped to effect a 
reconciliation, — 



76 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



" The church being together according to appoint- 
ment, Edward Pope, Esq., chosen moderator. 

" Voted, 1st, that the church meet at Judge Pope's 
on Saturday, 27th July next. 

" Voted, 2d, that the meeting be dissolved." 

What was the result of that adjourned meeting we 
can conjecture from the fact that four days later Mr. 
Holmes was ordained. 

Pursuant to letters missive, an Ecclesiastical Coun- 
cil convened on the 30th of July, and on the 31st or- 
dained Mr. Holmes to " administer ordinances." The 
exercises on that occasion were : Introductory prayer 
by Rev. Mr. Stutson, of Plymouth ; sermon by Rev. 
Mase Shepherd, of Little Compton, R. I., from 
Matthew xiii. 39 : " The harvest is the end of the 
world ;" consecrating prayer by Rev. Mr. Craft, of 
Middleborough ; charge to the pastor by Rev. Lemuel 
Le Baron, of Rochester; right hand of fellowship by 
Rev. Oliver Cobb, of Rochester ; concluding prayer 
by Rev. Mr. Andrews, of Berkley. The several parts 
were very appropriate and impressive, and the assem- 
bly solemn and attentive. 

Services were held at first in the North Purchase 
Street school-house, then in the South school-house 
on Walnut Street, and, as occasion required, at the 
residences of church-members. At length a hall over 
William W. Kempton's store, southwest corner of 
Mill and Second Streets, was obtained, and the church 
continued to worship there until a meeting-house was 
built in 1814. That house was one story high, ten- 
foot post, with end towards the street, door in middle, 
and one window on each side of the door. Its site 
was next south of Silas Kempton's house, situated on 
the southwest corner of Second and Elm Streets. 

In 1812 the five church-members who had remained 
with the society adopted a covenant differing from 
that of 1807, and with the society installed Rev. 
David Batchelder as pastor of the "Church and So- 
ciety in Bedford Precinct." Two years later Mr. 
Ephraim Randall was ordained. To the Ecclesiastical 
Council convened on each occasion the church ad- 
dressed a memorial, setting forth the facts in regard 
to the division, and protesting against such action as 
not being in accordance with the usage of Congrega- 
tional Churches. To the second memorial the coun- 
cil, of which Rev. James Flint, of Bridgewater, was 
scribe, replied, " We consider those of the members 
of the church who retain their relation to the Third 
Society, of which also they are a component part, and 
hold regularly their assembling of themselves to- 
gether as a church and people and worshipers in the 
meeting-house of said society, as being distinctly and 
properly the church belonging to the society, but 
those who went off from said meeting-house and for- 
sook the communion-table as having abandoned the 
society and relinquished the communion and fellow- 
ship and ordinances which were the bond of their 
union, and therefore as having no control or right to 
exercise discipline over those that have remained 



steadfast ; and also as the remonstrants have them- 
selves ordained a pastor independently of and without 
paying any respect to the society, they cannot now 
with any propriety interfere with the ordination for 
the purpose of which we have convened." 

Not so thought the remonstrants, for on the 19th 
of December they formally excommunicated Edward 
Pope, Abisha Delano, Elkanah Mitchel, and John 
Sherman (Gamaliel Bryant had died a few months 
before), because they " have for more than two years 
absented themselves from our religious worship and 
communion at the Lord's table in general, and have 
met for worship and attended to the Lord's Supper 
in a different place, and have refused to return to 
their duty as members of the church, notwithstanding 
they have been labored with in different ways at sun- 
dry times, in obedience to the holy command of our 
Lord concerning any brother or brothers who walk 
disorderly." * 

Thus ended the controversy between the church 
and the society, but the bitterness of feeling engen- 
dered and the unchristian spirit aroused ceased not 
to be manifested until the chief actors had passed 
away. 

The church so increased that a larger house of wor- 
ship was soon demanded for the accommodation of 
the people. In 1817 measures were taken for the 
erection of a new house on the corner of Purchase 
Street and a new street not then named, now Elm. 
The frame was raised May 7, 1817. The house was 
built by Deacon Barker, "and the proprietors met the 
expenses of the enterprise by a payment of money, 
labor, and materials." It was forty-eight feet by sixty, 
exclusive of a portico seven feet deep, supported by 
four large pillars, and surmounted by a handsome 
steeple. It was finished June, 1818. On Tuesday, 
the 23d day of that month, it was consecrated to Al- 
mighty God with "services extremely appropriate 
and interesting, and affording much gratification to a 
very numerous audience." Rev. John Codman, of 
Dorchester, preached a sermon from Exodus xx. 24: 
"In all places where I record my name I will come 
unto thee, and I will bless thee." 

The Sunday-school, organized in 1819, was the out- 
growth of Rev. Mr. Holmes' class in the catechism. 
Probably as early as 1811 he began his work as cate- 
chist, instructing the children of his church in biblical 
history and the doctrines of the " Assembly's Shorter 
Catechism." 

In 1826 the meeting-house was enlarged. It was 
cut in two, the west end moved back, and fifteen feet 
inserted. At the same time the old meeting-house, 
then used for school purposes, was moved from Second 
Street to a site on Elm Street, just west of the meet- 
ing-house. A few years later it was raised one story ; 
the lower part was fitted up for a vestry, and the 
upper part for a school-room. After John F. Emer- 
son had taught there several years he purchased the 
house, removed it to William Street, and remodeled it 



NEW BEDFORD. 



i i 



into a dwelling-house, which, with its additions, is 
now occupied by Charles R. Sherman. 

By an act of the General Court, approved by the 
Governor Jan. 27, 1827, Roger Haskell, William W. 
Kempton,, Henry P. Willis, David Briggs, Ebenezer 
Hathaway, Frederick Read, Ivory H. Bartlett, Joshua 
Barker, Cornelius S. Burgess, Joseph Bourne, and 
their associates and successors, were incorporated 
into a society by the name of the North Congrega- 
tional Church. At the first meeting, June 8th, Wil- 
liam W. Kempton was elected clerk ; Joshua Barker, 
Cornelius S. Burgess, and Haydon Coggeshall, trus- 
tees ; and David Briggs, treasurer and collector. 

The distinctive title " Third," given in 1807, was 
not needed after the incorporation of Fairhaven in 
1812, and it is probable that after 1817 the epithet 
" North" was applied by way of distinction, as the 
meeting-house was north of the old meeting-house, on 
the site of Liberty Hall. 

In 1830 it was evident that a wider field, of useful- 
ness was opening for the church. The population of 
the town was increasing, the pews were all occupied, 
and a meeting-house seemed to be needed in the south 
part of the village. " The indications of Divine Provi- 
dence say to us emphatically, ' Strengthen your stakes 
and lengthen your cords,' " are the words of those in- 
terested in a new place of worship. In 1831 the south 
meeting-house was built, and on the 15th of Novem- 
ber sixty members were dismissed to be organized 
into a church. Thus the Trinitarian Church had its 
origin. 

On the 11th of March, 1836, the corporation voted 
to erect a new house of worship. Work was begun in 
April, the old house moved so as to front the north, 
and the foundation of a granite structure of larger 
dimensions laid. An address was delivered by Rev. 
Thomas Robbins, of Mattapoisett, at the laying of the 
corner-stone, Friday afternoon, May 13th. The house 
was built according to a plan furnished by Mr. Bond, 
architect, of Boston, under the superintendence of 
Messrs. Taber, West, Sawyer, and Underwood, mas- 
ter-masons, and Obadiah B. Burgess, carpenter. It is 
of the Gothic order of architecture, with square tower 
and battlements, and is sixty-eight feet front by ninety 
in depth. The interior was finished with great sim- 
plicity, without gallery, except for organ and choir. 
The total cost, including lot, was about twenty-eight 
thousand dollars. It was dedicated Thursday, Dec. 
22, 183(3. An audience of nearly fifteen hundred 
people listened to a highly interesting sermon by 
Rev. Dr. Hawes, of Hartford, Conn. The house was 
first occupied Jan. 1, 1837. The wooden building in 
the rear, subsequently occupied as a stable by James 
Thomas, was destroyed by fire about twenty-five 
years ago. 

Rev. Mr. Holmes, having been invited to become 
the general agent of the American Bible Society, re- 
quested the church to grant him a leave of absence 
for five years, provided an associate pastor be settled. 



The church granted his request Feb. 21, 1839. At the 
expiration of four years he returned, but found the 
church desirous of severing the relation existing be- 
tween them. Accordingly, he was dismissed by a 
council March 15, 1843. 

During his ministry more than five hundred were 
received into the church. There were several seasons 
when the Spirit of the Lord descended with power, 
two of which were followed by large ingatherings 
into the church. (In 1831 sixty-six united with the 
church, and in 1834 ninety-two, of whom thirty-four 
were received May 4th.) He was instrumental in re- 
viving the old church at the " Head of the River" 
and in building a meeting-house there. 

After his dismission he was pastor of the Pacific 
Church nearly six years. His last pastoral work was 
done at his native place, South Plymouth, where he 
preached six years. Five weeks after he laid the 
harness off, his summons to depart came from his 
Master. He died in this city, at the residence of 
Ivory H. Bartlett, Nov. 27, 1866, in the seventy-ninth 
year of his age, and was buried from the church 
where he had preached so many years. 

As a man, Rev. Mr. Holmes was active, untiring, 
enterprising, commanding in appearance, capable of 
administration, impatient at interference, of indomit- 
able energy, " which the bitterest opposition only in- 
tensified ;" as a preacher, "of acute perception, tena- 
cious of his theological faith, perspicuous in style, 
earnest and forcible in delivery, effective without the 
grace of eloquence;" as a pastor, always on the alert 
for strangers, that he might bring them into his con- 
gregation, " thorough, kind, affectionate, sympathiz- 
ing." His influence was felt not only in New Bedford, 
but also in the Congregational Churches throughout 
Southeastern Massachusetts. 

While Rev. Mr. Holmes was absent, Rev. Thomas 
M. Smith, of Catskill, N. Y., was associate pastor. 
He was installed July 24, 1839, Rev. Leonard Woods, 
D.D., of the Theological Seminary, Andover, preach- 
ing the sermon. After three years' service he was 
dismissed, Aug. 31, 1842, on account of troubles 
which arose a few months previous. An extensive 
revival prevailed, but he objected to some extraordi- 
nary means adopted for its promotion. The council 
called to dismiss him " laid the trouble at the door of 
excitement growing out of evangelists' introducing 
desire for extraordinary measures, female speakers, 
etc., which he opposed, but did consent to a protracted 
meeting, and one was held under an evangelist, but 
trouble grew in the church." Hasty, inconsiderate, 
not understanding the principles and modes of action 
in case of grievance, the church was manifestly in 
error in the course pursued. With bitterness of 
sorrow at a later period its members viewed their 
action, and of it heartily repented. One hundred 
and four were added to the church during his min- 
istry, thirty-six of whom were received May 1, 1842. 

Rev. Mr. Smith was subsequently Professor of The- 



78 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



ology at Kenyon College. He died Sept. 6, 1864. 
He was a pastor " of amiable disposition, of wise and 
discreet deportment, of sterling talents, and of well- 
proportioned ministerial character." 

The agitation of the slavery question in 1843 was a 
source of disturbance, which finally resulted in the 
excommunication of one of the deacons and another 
prominent member. The need of moral reform was 
not seen and felt. Conservatism characterized the 
majority, who were not ready to follow the advance- 
guard, because the enormity of the sin of slavery was 
not comprehended. A resolution and a vote of that 
period show the attitude of the church upon that 
question, which has since shaken the foundation of 
our government and drenched the land " in fraternal 
blood,"— 

" Resolved, That all action upon or discussion of these subjects (State 
rights, national policy, and slavery), as a church, or in meetings ap- 
pointed by the church, be indefinitely postponed." 

" Voted, That the church do not think it expedient to pass any reso- 
lutions on the subject of slavery." 

Mr. Robert S. Hitchcock having accepted an invi- 
tation to assume the pastoral charge of the church, 
was ordained July 19, 1843. His father, Rev. C. 
Hitchcock, D.D., of Randolph, preached the sermon. 

The question whether the pastor-elect should unite 
with the church arose during the session of the coun- 
cil, but was indefinitely postponed. Against this the 
Rev. Dr. Codman, of Dorchester, and ten others en- 
tered their protest: "That in their opinion it is 
proper that, according to Congregational principles, 
the candidate for ordination should become a member 
of the church over which he is to be ordained." 

It was during his pastorate that twenty members, 
feeling aggrieved at the action of the church in rela- 
tion to the dismission of Rev. Messrs. Smith and 
Holmes, requested to be dismissed to form a church. 
The request was not granted, but a " Union Church," 
so called, was formed in Fairhaven. In the midst of 
the serious troubles that threatened the church a 
mutual council was called, and the difficulties peace- 
fully adjusted. Nineteen were dismissed Oct. 8, 1844, 
who with others were organized into the Pacific Con- 
gregational Church. 

On account of the precarious state of his health, 
Rev. Mr. Hitchcock tendered his resignation, and 
was dismissed Dec. 9, 1845. The council bore testi- 
mony to his ability, zeal, and faithfulness, and ex- 
pressed their high appreciation of his talents, acquire- 
ments, and piety. He has been for several years at 
the head of the Hollidaysburg Female Seminary, 
Pennsylvania. 

Nearly two years elapsed before another pastor was 
settled. On the 15th of September, 1847, Mr. Aza- 
riah Eldridge, from the Divinity School, Yale College, 
was ordained. His brother, Rev. Joseph Eldridge, 
of Norfolk, Conn., preached the sermon. In the 
winter of 1850-51 the interior of the meeting-house 
was remodeled under the supervision of Mr. G. J. F. 



Bryant, architect, of Boston. Side galleries and new 
pews were put in, and the internal appearance greatly 
improved, though at a reduction of pews from one 
hundred and fifty-four to one hundred and eight on 
the floor of the audience-room. The expense of 
alteration was about six thousand dollars. The re- 
dedication took place March 13", 1851, when Rev. 
Dr. Edward N. Kirk, of Boston, delivered a sermon 
of great power. 

In 1852 the pastor was invited to take charge of the 
Clinton Street Church, Philadelphia. Notwithstand- 
ing the urgency of the call and the earnest words of 
Rev. Dr. Albert Barnes, who appeared in behalf of 
the Philadelphia Church, the council convened Jan. 
6, 1853, did not feel " prepared to assume the respon- 
sibility of dissolving the peaceful and prosperous re- 
lation existing between church and pastor." 

Three years later, however, the impaired condition 
of his bodily health and the plans of study abroad 
which he .had fondly cherished induced him to re- 
sign. He was dismissed April 22, 1856. During his 
ministry ninety-one were added to the church. He 
was a faithful and efficient minister, winning the con- 
fidence of his people, by whom his removal was 
deeply regretted. 

After he left he visited Europe, traveling and study- 
ing. On his return he was settled over a church in 
Detroit, Mich. During a second visit to Europe he 
was for a time chaplain of the American Protestant 
Chapel at Paris. He now resides at Yarmouth. 

His successor, Rev. Henry W. Parker, of Brooklyn, 
N. Y., was installed Aug. 8, 1856. The sermon was 
by Rev. Roswell D. Hitchcock, D.D., Professor of 
Ecclesiastical History, Union Theological Seminary, 
New York. 

The stone chapel adjoining the meeting-house on 
the south was built in 1857, at a cost of about three 
thousand five hundred dollars. During the winter of 
1857-58 an extensive and powerful revival occurred. 
It began to develop in a union prayer-meeting es- 
tablished through the instrumentality of Rev. Mr. 
Parker, and as a result there were added to his church 
in one day, May 2d, — memorable in the history of the 
church, — seventy-seven persons on professon of their 
faith. There were one hundred and fifty-nine ac- 
cessions during his seven years' pastorate. This in- 
crease of membership rendered his duties more 
arduous, but he discharged them with fidelity, though 
with health impaired. He was dismissed July 27, 
1863. He is now Professor of Natural History at 
Grinnell College, Iowa. 

The call of the next pastor, Rev. Alonzo H. Quint, 
D.D., is sadly suggestive, not of strife and division and 
spiritual decline in the church, but of that fearful 
national conflict which well-nigh dismembered the 
Union. Chaplain Quint accepted his call by letter 
dated "Camp of the Second Massachusetts Infantry, 
Tullahoma, Tenn., April 20, 1864." 

In that letter he says, " It is a greater sacrifice for me 



NEW BEDFORD. 



•!) 



to leave these men and such scenes which they must 
pass through than it was to leave a beloved home and 
a dear church at our country's call. I cannot, indeed, 
leave until my term of service ends ; and if then the 
regiment should be engaged in active service, I must 
reserve the right to remain with it a reasonable 
period." 

A suggestion of the letter was at once acted upon 
and the treasurer raised by subscription nine thou- 
sand dollars, thus promptly canceling the debt of 
the church and corporation. 

Eev. Dr. Quint was installed July 21, 1864. The 
installation sermon was preached by Rev. A. L. 
Stone, D.D., of Boston. His ministry continued 
eleven years, terminating June 10, 1875, though 
his membership still continues. His ministry was 
popular, and the church received one hundred and 
forty-five members. 

From 1855 to 1861 he was a member of the Mas- 
sachusetts Board of Education ; has devoted much 
time to local history and genealogy, has been a 
member of the Massachusetts Historical Society, is 
a member of the New England Historic-Genealog- 
ical Society, and a corresponding member of the 
New Hampshire and New York Historical Societies ; 
has published two volumes pertaining to the Rebel- 
lion, has been chaplain-in-chief of the Grand Army 
of the Republic, has held high official appointments 
in his denomination, and has made Congregational 
polity and ecclesiastical law subjects of special study. 
In 1866 he received the degree of Doctor of Divinity 
from his Alma Mater, Dartmouth College. He resides 
at Dover, N. H., and has recently represented that 
city in the Legislature. 

The present pastor, Rev. Albert H. Heath, was 
installed Oct. 19, 1876. The sermon was by Rev. 
A. J. F. Behrend^, D.D., of Providence, R. I. In 
1878 the galleries were fitted with square pews and 
furnished with chairs, and a new organ was placed 
in the church at a cost of about seven thousand dol- 
lars. In 1881 a new pulpit was built. The church 
has flourished under his ministrations, and up to 
1883 had received two hundred and fifty-five mem- 
bers, ninety-five of whom were admitted from the 
Pacific Church after it disbanded in 1878. The pres- 
ent membership is four hundred and ninety-five. 

In 1857 the semi-centennial of the church, and in 
1882 the seventy-fifth anniversary, were celebrated 
with interesting and appropriate exercises. A series 
of historical sermons, growing out of the latter, is 
nearly completed. 

Rev. Mr. Heath is a graduate of Bates College, 
1867. He was formerly a Free-Will Baptist, but 
while preaching at the Roger Williams Church, 
Providence, embraced the doctrinal views of the 
Trinitarian Congregationalists. 

The following ministers, other than pastors, have 
been connected with the church or Sunday-school : 
Freeman P. Howland, 1818, ordained in Hanson Oct. 



25, 1826; Augustus B. Reed, 1825; Thomas Bailey, 
1827 ; Clark Cornish, 1829 ; William H. Sanford, 1831 ; 
Henry W. Lee, 1835, Episcopalian, and at one time 
Bishop of Iowa; Pardon G. Seabury, 1836, pastor at 
the " Head of the River," 1830-33; William H. Stur- 
tevant, 1840, Tiverton Four Corners, R. I. ; Andrew 
Mackie, Episcopalian, dean of Northern Indiana at 
the time of his death in Laporte in 1878 ; John Cot- 
ton Smith, son of Rev. Thomas M., Bowdoin College, 
1847, Episcopalian, Doctor of Divinity, a strong and 
effective preacher, a fluent and eloquent orator, an 
author of reputation, died Jan. 9, 1882: James F. 
Sisson, 1851, Methodist ; James R. Bourne, 1854, pas- 
tor in Sharon, Conn. ; William H. Dowden, pastor at 
North Easton ; John C. Staples, 1857, pastor at South 
Deerfield ; Ellis Mendell, 1870, pastor in Norwood ; 
Rufus B. Tobey, 1870, recently pastor in Harwich ; 
Daniel C. Burt, 1872, pastor at the " Head of the 
River," 1833-57, now clerk of the church ; Henry M. 
Dexter, D.D., 1873, editor of the Congregationalist ; 
William C. Stiles, 1880, pastor of the East Congrega- 
tional Church, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Deacons. — Joshua Barker, May 11, 1809, to Nov. 
15, 1831 ; dismissed. 

Cornelius S. Burgess, May 11, 1809; removed, and 
died in Middleborough Nov. 23, 1859. 

William W. Kempton, Nov. 26, 1831, to May 4, 
1834; died. 

William Little, Nov. 26, 1831, to June 25, 1868 
died. 

John F. Emerson, Nov. 26, 1831, to Feb. 2, 1846 
excommunicated. 

Andrew Mackie, June 3, 1834, to May 2, 1871 
died. 

Sidney Underwood, June 3, 1834, to March 31, 
1842; dismissed. 

Thomas Nickerson, June 3, 1834; declined. 

Henry P. Willis, June 3, 1834; declined. 

David Briggs, June 29, 1834, to Sept. 5, 1841 ; died. 

John Bryant, June 29, 1834, to June 2, 1879 ; died. 

Tristram R. Dennison, Dec. 24, 1851, to July 14, 
1858; resigned (city missionary since 1853). 

Edward S. Cannon, July 21, 1858. 

Zachariah Sturtevant, May 3, 1867. 

John Hastings, May 3, 1867. 

Edward Haskell, May 3, 1867, to Dec. 11, 1882; 
died. 

Thatcher C. Hatch, Jan. 5, 1872. 

William F. Butler, Jan. 16, 1880. 

The Trinitarian Church. 1 — Fifty-one years have 
passed since a band of earnest Christian workers 
withdrew from the mother-church, the North Congre- 
gational, and formed the nucleus of this organization. 

The reasons for the withdrawal of this church from 
the North Congregational cannot be better stated 
than by the following letter, dated Nov. 17, 1830 : 

" It must be perfectly apparent to every observer of the North Con- 
gregational Church and Society, and the rapidly increasing population 

1 By Miss Emma J. Ashley. 



80 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



of this town, that the time has fully come when another house of wor- 
ship should he erected aud another congregation collected. Our present 
place of worship is all occupied, and more pews would be taken if they 
were to be had. Under these circumstances we cannot be more favora- 
bly situated for such an effort than we now are. It is also morally cer- 
tain if we do not open another place of worship some other persons 
will, and we have much reason to fear it would be such as differ widely 
from what we believe to be the faith of the gospel. The indications of 
Divine Providence say to us emphatically, ' Strengthen your stakes and 
lengthen your cords.' 

" If we are deaf to the voice of that God who has done so much for 
us there is reason to apprehend that we shall not only neglect an oppor- 
tunity to do good, but we shall give others an opportunity to do that 
which will do us much evil, and especially the cause of evangelical 
truth. We are sensible that the work before us will call for sacrifices, 
but we have been taught in years that have gone ' that there is that scat- 
tered and yet increaseth.' " 

Nov. 15, 1831, an Ecclesiastical Council met at the 
North Congregational Church for the purpose of or- 
ganizing a new society. 

The council consisted of eight clergymen, among 
whom were Revs. Oliver Cohb, Pardon G. Seabury, 
and Thomas Robbins. 

Fifty-nine persons entered their names as members 
of the new church. They are as follows : 



John C. Almy. 
Sylvia Almy. 
Phineas Burgess. 
Betsey Burgess. 
Simeon Bailey. 
Ellen J. Bailey. 
Eliza Billings. 
William Bain. 
Joshua Barker. 
Aurelia Barker. 
Clarissa Barker. 
Pensa Barker. 
Eugenia Barker. 
David Briggs. 
Anna Briggs. 
Hannah Chaddock. 
James Carver. 
Eliza Carver. 
Susan Carver. 
Charles Coggeshall. 
Avis Coggeshall. 
Henrietta Cole. 
Benjamin Clark. 
Ann J. Clark. 
Adeline Crowell. 
Hope Doane. 
Sarah P. Dunbar. 
Elizabeth Freeman. 
Robert Gibbs. 



Hannah Gibbs. 
Louisa F. Gibbs. 
Joshua E. Gage. 
Julian A. Gage. 
Nancy B. Hawes. 
Nathaniel Hathaway. 
Lucy Hathaway. 
Nancy Howland. 
Alfred Kendrick. 
Abigail Kendrick. 
Abbie H. Kendrick. 
Henry C. Hendrick. 
Almira Keith. 
Phoebe McKenzie. 
Nancy McKenzie. 
Richard A. Palmer. 
Avis Palmer. 
Frederick Read. 
Sarah Read. 
Thomas Remington. 
Charles P. Sherman. 
Benj. Thompson, Jr. 
Eliza Tobey. 
Caroline Tobey. 
Mary Taylor. 
Harriet Taber. 
Marsena Washburn. 
Samuel Whitby. 
Avis Whitby. 



Ann B. Gibbs. 

To these Rev. Mr. Robbins presented the confession 
of faith and covenant. They were then addressed by 
Rev. Mr. Cobb. Deacon Daniel Perry presented the 
right hand of fellowship, after which the Lord's Sup- 
per was administered. 

Of these fifty-nine original members but five are 
now (1881) known to be living, — Mrs. Avis R. Palmer, 



now residing in New York City ; Mr. Phineas Bur- 
gess, the architect and builder of this edifice, now a 
resident of Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Mrs. Eliza (Tobey) 
Evans, now living in Assonet ; Mrs. Caroline (Tobey) 
Sanford, of Philadelphia; and Mrs. Ellen J. Bailey, 
who resides in this city, and is still an esteemed mem- 
ber of this church. We remember with gratitude 
her years of faithful service. Long may she be 
spared as a golden link binding the old and new to- 
gether. 

Soon after the organization four deacons were 
elected. Their names were Joshua Barker, Frederick 
Read, Charles Coggeshall, and Simeon Bailey. 

For several months, while a new church edifice 
was being erected, the meetings of the society were 
held at the houses of its members, principally those 
of Charles Coggeshall and Joshua Barker. The first 
meeting was held Nov. 17, 1831, at the house of Dea- 
con Charles Coggeshall. 

The church building was completed and dedicated 
May 16, 1832. The first pastor was Rev. James Aus- 
tin Roberts. He supplied the pulpit from May 26 
until Nov. 14, 1832, when he was installed. His sal- 
ary was fixed at twelve hundred dollars per annum. 
Mr. Roberts was born at Trowbridge, Wiltshire, Eng- 
land, May 2, 1795. April 5, 1843, he asked, and was 
granted, a leave of absence for one year to visit Eng- 
land. During his absence, Rev. Mr. Dyer, of Fulton- 
ville, N. Y., supplied the pulpit. In July, 1844, Mr. 
Roberts wrote from London asking his dismission. 
It was granted, but with many expressions of regret 
from the society to which he had endeared himself by 
his consistent life and faithful pastorate. He after- 
wards returned to America, and lived and died in 
Berkley, Mass. 

Feb. 10, 1844, while the pastor was in England, 
the edifice was seriously injured by fire. The first 
church to throw open its doors was the Unitarian. 
Their kind offer was accepted, and it was decided to 
discontinue the Sunday-school and hold the Sabbath 
afternoon service in the Unitarian Church. William 
Street Baptist Church also generously offered their 
house of worship. Subsequently the North Congre- 
gational Society, having granted a leave of absence to 
their pastor, Rev. Mr. Hitchcock, invited the Trini- 
tarian Society to unite with them, and requested that 
Rev. Mr. Dyer supply the pulpit during the absence 
of their pastor. This arrangement was finally con- 
summated. 

During the fall of 1844 the pulpit was supplied by 
Rev. J. H. Towne, of Boston, who declined to become 
a settled pastor. 

Jan. 6,1845. "By request the church and congregation remained 
after services in the afternoon to ascertain their wishes in regard to the 
church giving Rev. George L. Prentiss, of Portland, Me., an invitation 
to become pastor of their church. The question having been put and a 
request made that all who were in favor of the church giving said in- 
vitation should rise, it appeared that all had risen, and that there was 
but one mind both in the church and congregation in favor of said in- 
vitation." 



NEW BEDFORD. 



81 



A call was immediately (Jan. 6, 1845) extended to 
Rev. George L. Prentiss, of Portland, Me. His salary 
was fixed " at twelve hundred dollars the first year, 
fourteen hundred dollars the second, and sixteen 
hundred dollars the third year, and that the latter- 
named sum he the salary after that time." It was 
also voted to allow him an annual vacation of six 
weeks. March 4th a meeting of the male members 
of the church was called to make arrangements for 
the ordination of Mr. Prentiss, wdio had accepted the 
call so unanimously extended to him. The installation 
took place April 9th. He remained pastor of the 
church until Sept. 30, 1850. The years of his pas- 
torate were those of great prosperity to the society. 
Fifty-five new members were added, and the utmost 
harmony prevailed between pastor and people. 

Oct. 15, 1850, a call was extended to Rev. Wheelock 
Craig, of Newcastle. Me., and he was installed Dec. 
4, 1850. His salary was placed at twelve hundred 
dollars, with a vacation of three weeks. He remained 
with the church eighteen years, during which time 
two hundred and five persons were added to the 
church membership. Many of these joined during 
the great religious awakening of 1857-59. For many 
months during this revival daily union prayer-meet- 
ings were held in this church, over which Mr. Craig 
personally presided. In the midst of this interest, in 
1858, he was invited to the professorship of modern 
languages at Bowdoin College, but he preferred to 
remain in his pastorate, where be was respected and 
beloved not only by his own society, but by the com- 
munity at large. 

In 1866 the church was again injured by fire. 
While it was being repaired services were held in 
Pierian Hall. 

In 1868, Mr. Craig's health began to fail, and his 
church granted him a leave of absence for four 
months, his salary to be continued, and his pulpit 
supplied during his absence by his brother, Rev. 
Henry Craig. He sailed from New York May 23, 
1868, landing in Ireland. He traveled through many 
countries of Europe. His health appeared to improve 
until his arrival in Italy. Finding his strength fail- 
ing he hastened back to Switzerland for the winter, 
but after several weeks of rapid decline he died at 
Neufchatel, Switzerland, Nov. 28, 1868. The last 
words of Scripture that he spoke were, " There shall 
be no night there, but the Lamb which is in the midst 
of the throne shall be their light." His remains were 
brought to this city, and his funeral services were held 
at his own church Dec. 24, 1868. His funeral sermon 
was preached by Rev. Dr. Weld, of Boston, from 
Psalms xii. 1, " Help, Lord, for the godly man ceaseth, 
for the faithful fail from among the children of men." 

Feb. 12, 1870, a call was extended to Rev. Cassius 
M. Terry, of New York City, to become pastor of 
the church. This call was accepted Feb. 16, 1870, 
and he commenced his labors in June, but his instal- 
lation did not take place until Nov. 3, 1871. During 
6 



the fall of 1871 his health began to fail, and his 
church was grieved but not surprised when, Feb. 25, 
1872, he wrote a letter asking his dismissal. His 
resignation was accepted March 1, 1872. During 
his connection with the church he had received forty 
persons to membership, which is the highest percent- 
age per annum received by any pastor during the his- 
tory of the church. He afterwards removed to Min- 
neapolis, Minn., but change of climate failed to 
eradicate the seeds of disease sown by the east winds, 
and he died of consumption Aug. 18, 1881. His 
memory is cherished with the utmost respect and 
affection by this people. 

After the resignation of Mr. Terry in March the 
church was supplied until October very acceptably 
by Rev. Dr. L. T. Townsend, of Boston. 

At a meeting held Oct. 21, 1872, it was voted to 
extend a call to Rev. Matthew C. Julien, of New 
York, with a salary of three thousand five hundred 
dollars. It was accepted, and the installation took 
place Dec. 11, 1872. 

Mr. Julien found the church burdened with a debt 
of two thousand seven hundred dollars. This he im- 
mediately took measures to liquidate. He called a 
meeting of the church and society, and a sum more 
than sufficient to cover the amount was raised at once. 
Since that time no debt has been allowed to accumu- 
late. At the beginning of each year estimates deemed 
sufficient to defray the expenses for the ensuing year 
have been made, and the records show that in no case 
have they been exceeded. 

His next effort was to reorganize the Bible school 
on a new basis. In this he was eminently successful, 
as is abundantly proven by the prosperous condition 
of the school to-day. It has an average attendance 
of upwards of two hundred pupils, and were our ac- 
commodations suitable we have every reason to be- 
lieve that the membership would be greatly increased. 

Extensive repairs and alterations were made in the 
church edifice during the summer and fall of 1879. 
The organ was taken from the rear gallery and placed 
in front of the audience, and the interior of the church 
was tastefully frescoed and refurnished. It was re- 
dedicated Dec. 11, 1869, with interesting and appro- 
priate exercises. Addresses were made by Rev. Dr. 
Duryea, of the Central Congregational Church, Bos- 
ton, and Rev. Mr. Heath, of New Bedford. The 
music was furnished by the New Bedford Choral 
Association. 

It may be well here to mention certain legacies that 
have been bestowed by members of the church now 
deceased. The silver communion service was the 
gift of Mr. and Mrs. Robert Gibbs. It consists of a 
tankard, two plates, and four cups. Mr. Ivory H. 
Bartlett, Jr., donated in his will five hundred dollars 
to the Bible school. 

The deacons who have served since the organiza- 
tion of the church, including those previously men- 
tioned, are as follows : Joshua Barker, Simeon Bailey, 



82 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



Frederick Read, Charles Coggeshall, Reuben Nye, 
Gilbert Richmond, Joseph Goodspeed, Augustus P. 
Hamlin, Allen Crowell, William G. Edwards, Ezra 
B. Chase, Eben Nye, Isaac C. Sherman, William 0. 
Woodman, Fred. A. Washburn, Isaac N. Barrows. 

Among those who were conspicuous in the earlier 
history of the church not only for their loyalty but 
also for the public value of the service they rendered, 
some of whom have already been referred to, may be 
mentioned the names of Mr. and Mr. Robert Gibbs, 
Mrs. Alfred Kendrick, Pensa Barker, Clarissa Barker, 
Eliza Tobey, Dr. Alexander Read, John A. Kasson, 
Jonathan Fussell, Marsena Washburn, Caroline To- 
bey, Isaac D. Hall, Deacon Joshua Barker, Deacon 
Simeon Bailey, and Deacon and Mrs. Reuben Nye. 

Mr. Julien has now been pastor of this church ten 
years. He labors with this people with great faith- 
fulness and acceptance, and fearlessly preaches what 
he considers the truth of God. The perfect harmony 
which to-day prevails throughout this church and so- 
ciety, is largely due to his influence. 

The First Baptist Church was organized June 30, 
1813, with the following members: John Brown, 
Elizabeth Coggeshall, Emily Brown, Susan Macom- 
ber, Alles Tobey, James Tripp, Susan Tripp, John 
Wrightington, Philip Cannon, Jr., Deborah Potter, 
Nancy Hitch, Pamelia Stowell, Catharine Martin, 
Perivilla Lowdon, Mercy Andrews, Elizabeth Tuell, 
Phebe Cannon, Hannah Covell, Sally Greene, Catha- 
rine Tallman, John Pickens, Dolly Wilcox, and 
Huldah Thomas. 

The first pastor of the church was Rev. George H. 
Hough, from April, 1814, to January, 1815. His suc- 
cessors have been as follows: Revs. Silas Hall, 1817-19; 
James Barnaby, 1819-23; Isaac Chase, 1823-24 ; Fran- 
cis Wayland, supply ; Daniel Curtis, 1825-26 ; Gideon 
B. Perry, 1827-30; S. P. Hill, John E. Weston, and 
S. Lovell, supplies ; Asa Bronson, 1831-33 ; John O. 
Choules, 1833-38; M. M. Dean, G. J. Carlton, sup- 
plies ; Henry Jackson, 1838-45 ; Rufus Babcock, D.D., 
1846-50; John Girdwood, 1850-65; George S. Chase, 
supply ; D. D. Winn, 1866-79 ; H. K. Pervear, 1880, 
present pastor. 

The church first worshiped in a hall on Second 
Street near Mill. Upon the division of the town the 
old town-house at the Head of the River was purchased 
by the society and removed to the corner of South 
Second and School Streets, and was dedicated July 3, 
1817. This was occupied until Oct. 29, 1829, when 
their present church edifice was dedicated. This was 
enlarged in 1833, the interior changed in 1841. It 
was repaired in 1856 and again in 1879, when exten- 
sive alterations and repairs were made. The present 
membership is two hundred and fifty. 

The North Baptist Church 1 was organized Nov. 
13, 1873. The corner-stone of the church edifice was 
laid the following spring, the religious part of the 



i By Rev. Charles F. Nicholson. 



exercises being conducted by Rev. J. D. Fulton, D.D., 
then of Boston. At the formal opening of the house 
the dedicatory sermon was preached by Rev. George 
C. Larimer, D.D., then of Boston. Rev. O. E. Cox 
was the first pastor, and retained the position about 
two years. His successor was Rev. Charles A. Snow, 
who continued in the pastorate six years. The pres- 
ent incumbent became the third pastor of the church 
Oct. 1, 1881. There have been two baptisms and sev- 
eral additions by letter during the past year. The 
present membership is one hundred and twenty-five. 

The church is officered as follows : Pastor, Rev. 
Charles F. Nicholson ; Deacons, Luther G. Hewins, 
Thomas Pope, Annibald Dalrymple ; Clerk, Luther 
G. Hewins, Jr. ; Sexton, Samuel T. Eldridge. 

Most of the original constituent members (about 
thirty) withdrew from the William Street Baptist 
Church of this city for the express purpose of starting 
a new church interest, which was felt to be a great 
and immediate necessity, in the north part of the city. 

Mr. Augustus Green, of the William Street Baptist 
Church of this city, has from the first been an ardent 
advocate and generous contributor to the North Bap- 
tist Church enterprise. He has given to this object, 
all told, about seventeen thousand dollars. 

An important auxiliary of the church is an inter- 
esting Sunday-school of about two hundred members, 
which is earnestly at work studying and teaching the 
word of God. 

There is a pleasant parsonage adjacent to the church 
edifice on County Street. 

The Second Baptist Church was organized Jan. 
22, 1845, and in the same year their first house of 
worship was dedicated. The first pastor was Rev. 
Thomas U. Allen. Among others of the early min- 
isters were Edmund Kelley, Elder Jackson, C. Bray, 
Richard Vaughn, P. Bowler, T. P. Valentine, and 
C. Woodward. 

Salem Baptist Church. — This church was organ- 
ized Dec. 7, 1858. It was composed of ninety-five 
persons, who, with their pastor, Rev. William Jack- 
son, withdrew from the Second Baptist Church. 
Among the original members of the church were 
William Bush, Scipio Blackwell, Peter Nelson, John 
C. Dunlap, Edwin Lewis, and Anthony G. Jour- 
dain, Jr. The pastor, Rev. William Jackson, was 
born in Norfolk, Va., Aug. 16, 1818. The house of 
worship occupied by the society is on North Sixth 
Street, and was formerly known as the Centre Chapel. 
The church has had but two pastors, Rev. William 
Jackson, from 1858 to 1869, and Rev. J. H. Lee, from 
1869 to the present time. 

The Fourth Street Methodist Episcopal Church.' 2 
— Every branch of the Christian Church worthy of an 
existence deserves to have its history recorded for the 
benefit of succeeding generations, and for its own 
honor. 

2 By Rev. A. McCord. 



NEW BEDFORD. 



83 



This church was built in 1831, and dedicated in 
February, 1832. At this time it formed a branch of 
the Elm Street (now the County Street) Society. 
During 1831 and 1832, Rev. Asa Kent officiated, 
and at the Conference of 1832, A. D. Sargeant and 
Daniel Webb were appointed to serve both charges. 

In 1833, by mutual consent, they separated, and 
Fourth Street became a separate and distinct church 
under the pastoral care of A. U. Swinerton, who re- 
mained two years. 

Only three of the original Acushnet members came 
from Elm Street to Fourth Street, viz. : Z. Cushman, 
B. K. Saver, and Bloomy Holmes ; the last is still 
living. 

Rev. Swinerton was greatly prospered, receiving 
forty -seven into the church by profession, and twenty- 
nine by letter. During his pastorate the church was 
financially embarrassed for years with a debt of six 
thousand dollars. 

In 1835, Rev. Sanford Benton was appointed to this 
church, and labored successfully for one year, when 
he was removed at his own request. 

In 1836, Rev. Phin. Crandall was stationed here, 
and remained two years. While here he distinguished 
himself in a controversy with Rev. Mr. Morgrige on 
the doctrine of the Trinity in the public press. 

In 1838, Rev. W. Emerson served this church. 

The records of this pastorate are wanting. 

Rev. Daniel Webb was appointed to this charge in 
1839. He remained but one year. 

In 1840, Rev. Mr. Campbell supplied this church. 
A very interesting revival of religion attended his 
labors. He was removed at the end of his first year, 
and afterwards became what was then called a " Mil- 
lerite." 

In 1841, Rev. George Pool was appointed, but re- 
mained only one year, when he was appointed prin- 
cipal of the E. Greenwich Academy. He was very 
popular with the church, and they regretted his re- 
moval. A general religious interest prevailed during 
his short pastorate, and his removal was considered 
detrimental to the prosperity of this church. 

In 1842, Rev. Mr. Swinerton was reappointed to 
this charge, and remained two years, — a fact which 
showed the high estimate in which this church held 
this worthy man. He raised for missions §57.70. 

Rev. Isaac House was sent here in 1844. He was 
eloquent and popular, drawing large audiences. He 
became sick in the fall of this year, and died July 7, 
1847. 

Rev. Daniel Webb supplied the balance of the 
year. 

In 1846, Rev. P. Townsend became pastor. He 
died in April, 1877, at his home in Cochesett, Mass. 

In 1847, Rev. Daniel Filmore became pastor, and 
served with great acceptance. 

In 1849, Rev. W. H. Richards came to serve this 
society. While pastor here his wife died. 

In 1850, Rev. M. Chase was appointed pastor, and 



his ministry was very successful, adding a large num- 
ber to the church. At the end of this year he reported 
two hundred and ten members and sixty-two proba- 
tioners. The next year he reported two hundred and 
sixty-seven members and one hundred and sixteen 
probationers. At the close of this year he, with others, 
bought the Allen Street Church, and formed a new 
society with members from the Fourth Street Society. 
The above figures include those that went to found 
the Allen Street Society. This move was afterwards 
much regretted, owing to the weakeningof the mother- 
church by it. 

In 1852, Rev. Richard Livesey became pastor. 
This year thirty -five removed by letter to Allen 
Street, which, with the number before removed, 
reduced the membership at Fourth Street to one 
hundred and ninety-one members and eighteen pro- 
bationers. 

At the close of this Conference year the Providence 
Annual Conference was entertained by this society. 
Bishop Janes presided and Bishop Baker was present. 

In 1853, Rev. J. Mather was selected for this ap- 
pointment, and remained two years. During his 
pastorate nine were received by letter and four by 
profession. Owing to the number removing to Allen 
Street, the membership was reduced to one hundred 
and seventy-two, and seven probationers. 

In 1855, Rev. George M. Carpenter was stationed 
here. He remained two years. The membership 
was reduced during his pastorate by the continued 
flow to Allen Street and deaths and removals to one 
hundred and thirty-six, and six on trial. 

At this date the tide to Allen Street ceased to flow 
from this church. 

In 1857, Rev. Mr. Baylies was appointed pastor. 
This was a year of general religious revival through- 
out the country, and quite a number were added to 
the church ; reported one hundred and thirty-two 
members and forty-two probationers. 

In 1858, Rev. J. T. Benton became pastor, and re- 
mained two years. He reported one hundred and 
forty-two members, and twenty-two on probation. 

In 1860, Rev. S. F. Upham, since elected professor 
in Drew Theological Seminary, Madison, N. J., was 
appointed pastor and served two years. During his 
pastorate fifteen were added to the church, fourteen 
of them by letter, yet such was the decrease by 
death and removal that only one hundred and thirty- 
four members and fifteen probationers remained at 
the close of his pastorate. During his pastorate the 
church building was enlarged and remodeled at a cost 
of six thousand three hundred dollars. 

The house was rededicated in February, 1861, by 
Rev. L. D. Barrows. 

In 1862, Rev. N. Bemis was appointed the pastor. 

At the close of his pastorate he reported one hun- 
dred and thirty-seven members and fourteen proba- 
tioners. 

In 1863, Rev. E. H. Hatfield was appointed pastor, 



84 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



and served two years. The records show no recep- 
tions into the church during his pastorate. There is 
a large falling off in membership at this time not 
accounted for. He reported one hundred and thir- 
teen members and ten probationers. 

In the spring of 1865, for the first time in its his- 
tory, Fourth Street was left " to be supplied." Rev. 
Joseph Marsh, a local preacher, was invited to serve 
the church. His wife died during this pastorate. 
He reported the tide falling,— only one hundred and 
five members and eight probationers. 

In the spring of 1866, Rev. William H. Jones, of 
the New Hampshire Conference, was appointed to 
this charge. At this time a debt of two thousand 
four hundred dollars, contracted at the time when the 
church was improved. He reported three admitted 
by letter and four by profession. Total members, 
one hundred and ten, and thirteen on trial. 

In 1867, Rev. E. S. Stanley was sent as pastor. 
There was some increase during this pastorate. He 
reported one hundred and eighteen members, and 
twenty-one on trial. 

There is a break in the records here. The next 
report is that of Charles Ryder, who supplied this 
church from May 1, 1873, to July 1st, and then re- 
signed. 

Charles Morgan supplied from Sept. 1, 1873, to 
March 25, 1874, and reported twenty-three conver- 
sions. At the Conference of 1874 he was returned as 
pastor, and served to April, 1875. 

In 1875, Rev. R. W. C. Farnsworth was appointed 
pastor, and served until April, 1878. 

In 1878, Rev. Asa N. Bodfishwas appointed pastor, 
and remained three years. He reported one hundred 
and thirty members. This number was found re- 
duced to one hundred and eighteen. 

In 1881, Rev. A. McCord was appointed pastor. 
The outlook was exceedingly gloomy. The church 
building was in urgent need of repairs. The pastor 
went to work and raised, in and out of the church, 
two thousand three hundred dollars, and thoroughly 
repaired, painted, and refurnished the church inside 
and out. 

All the bills were paid, so that at the close of that 
year he could report no debt. The winter of that 
year a revival started, and many were converted and 
received on probation. The work continued into the 
next year, and during the second year he received 
into full connection fifty-five, and in March, 1883, 
twelve remain on probation. Other improvements 
have been made in the church facilities and paid for. 
The amount expended for improvements in one way 
and another during the two years has reached about 
two thousand five hundred dollars, which has all been 
raised. The church feels that the tide has turned, and 
trust in God as their hope for years to come. The 
Sabbath-school has largely increased. The member- 
ship of the church is one hundred and eighty, and 
twelve on probation. 



Allen Street Methodist Episcopal Church.— This 

house of worship was built in 1842 by William and 
Joseph Smith, Christian Baptist preachers, and was 
occupied for several years by that denomination. 

Nov. 8, 1851, it was offered for sale by Hervey Sul- 
lings and James A. Tripp, the proprietors, and princi- 
pally through the exertions of the Rev. Moses Chase, 
then in charge of the Fourth Street Church, it was 
purchased by the following persons : Stephen Wood, 
Joseph Brownell, John Allen, Albert D. Hatch, Ezra 
Kelley, Rev. Moses Chase, and Thomas R. Peirce, all 
of whom were members of the Fourth Street Church 
except Mr. Peirce. They obtained a supply for the 
pulpit until the 8th of December, when the Rev. An- 
drew McKeown was appointed by the presiding elder 
until the ensuing session of the Providence Confer- 
ence. 

The following members of the Fourth Street Church 
were the founders of this society : Robert A. Sher- 
man, Eliza R. Sherman, Henry M. Allen, Phebe A. 
Allen, Solomon Chadwick, Nancy W. Cliadwick, 
Benjamin Buffington, John Allen, Sarah W. Allen, 
Matilda C. Anderson, John Tripp, Polly Tripp, Sarah 
P. Tripp, Hope Sherman, Mary E. Macomber, Mary 
E. Miller, Nicholas Mack, Frederick A. Chase, Su- 
sannah Rogers, Stephen Wood, A. D. Hatch, H. H. 
Tillson, Alanson Williston. 

The following persons were appointed to serve as a 
board of trustees, viz.: Robert A. Sherman, Henry 
M. Allen, Solomon Chadwick, Davis Thomas, John 
Allen, Stephen Wood, Warren Howland, Alanson 
Williston, and Benjamin Buffington. 

The house of worship was reopened with appro- 
priate religious services Jan. 22, 1852. A sermon was 
preached on the occasion by the Rev. Moses Chase. 

Mr. McKeown's successors have been as follows : 
Revs. J. B. Gould, J. A. M. Chapman, Henry Baylies, 
P. T. Kinney, John Livesey, William Kellen, F. J. 
Wagner, E. A. Lyon, Thomas Ely, Freeman Ryder, 
J. M. Durell, V. N. Matson, Bradford T. Roy, B. P. 
Raymond, J. H. Humphrey, Charles S. Nutter, and 
in 1881 Rev. George W. Wright, M.A., the present 
pastor, was appointed. 

Rev. George W. Wright, the present pastor, was 
born at Beekman, Dutchess Co., N. Y. He graduated 
at Wesleyan Academy, Wilbraham, Mass., in the class 
of 1868, and also graduated at Wesleyan University, 
Middletown, Conn., in class of 1872. He studied 
theology at the School of Theology of Boston Univer- 
sity during the year 1873. This (ecclesiastical year, 
1881) year was characterized by an extensive and 
powerful revival, resulting in a large number of con- 
versions and a large increase in numbers and interest 
in the Sunday-school. 

The various departments of the church are health- 
ful and vigorous. The membership of the church is 
one hundred and eighty ; probationers, forty-eight. 
The Sabbath-school has numbered at its regular ses- 
sion as high as two hundred and twenty-five. 



NEW BEDFORD. 



85 



Mr. Jethro C. Brock, Esq., is the present popular 
superintendent. The present board of trustees are 
Henry M. Allen, Charles E. Cook, J. Harvey Sher- 
man, Jethro C. Brock, S. D. Robinson, Charles A. 
Tuell, Frederick D. Bless. 

The Pleasant Street Methodist Episcopal 
Church 1 of New Bedford, Mass., was organized May 
24, 1S44. In the spring of 1843 the Elm Street 
Methodist Episcopal Church appointed a committee 
from her trustees, who purchased a lot on Pleasant 
Street, and erected an edifice thirty by forty feet for 
the purposes of a Sunday-school. Nearly seventy 
members from that society volunteered the care of 
this new mission and soon established social meetings. 
The organization which speedily followed was effected 
without dissension, it being apparent to the mother- 
church that the step was fully authorized by the relig- 
ious necessities of that part of the city. 

Its career has been marked by great religious pros- 
perity. Hundreds have bowed at her altars to the 
sceptre of Immanuel. Her Sunday-school ranks 
among the largest in New England. 

The original edifice was enlarged during the pas- 
torate of Rev. John Livesey, which extended from 
August, 1843, to the spring of 1845. 

The present edifice was dedicated July, 1849, and 
improved during the pastorates of Revs. L. B. Bates 
and E. F. Clark. 

The following have been her pastors : John Livesey, 
1843-45; Samuel Beedle, 1845-46; S. C. Brown, 
1846 ; C. H. Titus, 1846-48 ; Jonathan Cady, 1848- 
50; John Hobart, 1850-51; H. C. Atwater, 1851-53; 
Frederick Upham, 1853-55 ; E. B. Bradford, 1855-57 ; 
John Howson, 1857-59 ; Charles Nason, 1859-61 ; 
William McDonald, 1861-63; W. F. Farrington, 
1863-64; N. P. Philbrook, 1864-66; L. B. Bates, 
1866-69; J. E. Hawkins, 1869-72; W. T. North, 
1872-75; T. K. Green, 1875-78; J. W. Malcolm, 
1878-80 ; E. F. Clark, 1880-83. 

County Street Methodist Episcopal Church. 2 — 
This society was organized in 1820, and worshiped in 
the church on Elm Street (below Purchase) till 1859, 
when the new building on the corner of County and 
Elm Streets was completed, and dedicated May 5th 
of that year. 

The following are the names of the pastors, with dates 
of their service: Jesse Fillmore, 1820-21; Solomon 
Sias, 1822-23; Eph. Kebby, 1824; Frederick Upham, 
1825; Jacob Sanborn, 1826-27; Asa Kent, 1828; 
Timothy Merritt, 1829-30; Daniel Webb, 1831-32; 
Daniel Fillmore, 1833; Thomas C. Pierce, 1834-35; 
Shipley W. Wilson, 1836-37; Isaac Bonney, 1838-39; 
Joel Knight, 1840-41 ; John Lovejoy, 1842-43; A. P. 
Wheeler, 1844; David Patten, 1845-46; James D. 
Butler, 1847-48; Robert M.Hatfield, 1849-50; Daniel 
Wise, 1851-52; E. T. Fletcher, 1852-53; W. T. Har- 
low, 1854-55; John Cooper, 1856; H. S. White, 



l By Rev E. F. Clark. 



2 By Leonard B. Ellis. 



1857-58; Mark Trafton, 1859-60; William S. Studley, 
1861-62; Mark Trafton, 1863-64; R. W. Humphries, 
1865-67; D. P. Leavitt, 1868-70; E. McChesney, 
1871-73; Luther T. Townsend, 1874; W. F. Crafts, 
1875-76; W. F. Whitcher, 1877-78 ; W. L.Phillips, 
1879-80; E. T. Towle, 1881; H. D. Kimball, 1882-83. 
The church officers were as follows: Stewards, Ben- 
jamin Pitman, Ambrose Vincent, George G. Gifford, 
George M. Eddy, Benjamin Anthony, Charles De 
Wolf, Sylvanus Bennett, Savory C. Hathaway, James 
Taylor; Class-Leaders, Addison Woodard, Caleb L, 
Ellis, Savory Hathaway, Frank A. Butts, Jr., William 
J. Sherman, Josiah Richmond, Jona. Covell, Thomas 
H. Soule, Fred. H. Vinal, Nathan L. Paine, William 
B. Dwight, John B. Smith, Job Wade, James B. Rus- 
sell, Timothy M. Gifford, Joseph R. Slocum, George 
T. Allen, George T. Hardwick, George N. Dyer, Chas. 

A. B. Peterson, William M. Butler, George G. Gifford, 
Jr., Mark T. Vincent; District Steward, Ambrose Vin- 
cent ; Recording Steward, Benjamin Pitman ; Secre- 
tary, Mark T. Vincent ; Treasurer, George M. Eddy ; 
Collector, Mrs. Joseph R. Slocum ; Trustees, James 
Taylor (president), L. B. Ellis (secretary), Benjamin 
Anthony (treasurer), F. A. Soule, S. T. Perry, George 
M. Eddy, S. C. Hathaway, Job Wade, George G. Gif- 
ford ; Local Preacher, Addison Woodard. 

The following are the officers of the Sunday-school: 
L. B. Ellis, superintendent; Savory C. Hathaway, 
Mary E. Austin, assistants; Benjamin Pitman, secre- 
tary ; William M. Butler, assistant; Emma C. Austin, 
treasurer ; Charles L. Paine, librarian ; Mark T. Vin- 
cent, Annie L. Almy, Lillie S. Perry, Mary A. Willis, 
assistants. 

African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church.— 
This church was organized March 5, 1850, and con- 
sisted of the following members : Edward Thomas, 
Alexander Devol, Isaac Henson, William H. Harris, 
Sarah Harrison, Jane Thomas, Mary Ann Devol, 
Harriet Wright, Mary Harris, Celia Williams, Cath- 
arine Henson, Phebe Henson, and Charles Eaton. 

They first held services in a school-house on the 
corner of Eighth Street and Mechanics' Lane, after- 
wards at the residence of Mr. Alexander Devol, on 
Middle Street, until 1851, when they removed to their 
present house of worship. The pastors have been as 
follows: Rev. Leonard Collins, H. Thompson, James 
Simmons, Dempsey, Peter Ross, Joseph Hicks, Clin- 
ton Leonard, Samuel M. Giles, W. B. Smith, Na- 
thaniel Stubb, Lucas Sayler, Thomas Davis, William 

B. Smith, George H. Washington, J. B. Small, W. D. 
F. Pyle, John F. Lloyd, Silas A. Mitchell, William 
B. Heath, Daniel Davis, N. H. Turpin, George H. 
Washington, and William B. Bowens. 

African Methodist Episcopal Bethel Church — 
Those churches styling themselves African Methodist 
separated from their white brethren of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church at a convention assembled in Phila- 
delphia in April, 1816. 

This church was organized in 1842, by Rev. Eli N. 



86 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



Hall, of Providence, with the following persons: 
Jacob Thomas and wife, John Bailey and wife, John 
Elsemore and wife, Walter Hawkins and wife, James 
Oook and wife, John Williams and wife, James Allen, 
George F. Fletcher, Grafton Johnson, John F. Chew, 
Jackson Hawkins, Henry J. Johnson, Hatty Peter- 
son, Porter Hendrickson and wife, James Dyre and 
wife, and Jesse Richardson. 

During the same year a house of worship was built, 
at a cost of eighteen hundred dollars. This was de- 
stroyed by fire in 1854. The present building was 
commenced in 1855. The corner-stone was laid by 
Joseph R. Turner, but no work on the church was 
done for seven years. Rev. H. J. Johnson at length 
formed the " One Object Society" to carry out and 
complete the work; and finally, after upwards of ten 
years' persistent effort, aided by liberal contributions 
from the public, the church was finished and paid for, 
at a cost of about four thousand five hundred dollars. 
Pastors, Revs. John Butler, Henry J. Johnson, Rich- 
ard Robinson, Leven Tillman, Peter Gardner, H. J. 
Johnson, Dayton Doyle, Thomas M. D. Ward, J. D. S. 
Hall, Joseph R. Turner, Lewis S. Lewis, Jacob Mitch- 
ell, Henry J. Young, William Grimes, William De- 
mond, H. J. Johnson, J. P. Shreeves, J. H. W. Hur- 
ley, John R. V. Morgan, Joseph G. Smith, William 
H. Johnson, John T. Hayslett, Stephen V. Douglass, 
P. L. Stanford, E. T. Williams, Joseph P. Shreeves, 
William J. Laws, and Rev. William H. Hunter, the 
present incumbent. 

Grace Church. 1 — The initial step in the formation 
of a Protestant Episcopal Church in New Bedford was 
taken Oct. 2, 1833, when a meeting of gentlemen in- 
terested in the church resolved upon its establish- 
ment, elected wardens, vestry, and a clerk, and took 
measures for securing an act of incorporation. The 
project was largely aided by the advice and services 
of Rev. Mark A. De W. Howe (now Bishop of Cen- 
tral Pennsylvania), who was present at the meeting 
as a representative of the Massachusetts Convocation. 
The parish, at first called Christ Church, was incor- 
porated March 19, 1834, under the name of " The 
Wardens, Vestry, and Proprietors of Grace Church 
of New Bedford." 

For some two years the new parish rented as a 
place of worship a building on Middle Street which 
was owned and had been occupied by the Second 
Christian Society. In 1834 the subject of building a 
church was agitated, and a lot was bought on Union 
Street, upon which, July 30, 1835, the corner-stone of 
a wooden church of Gothic style, with two towers 
in front, was laid, and the building was completed 
and consecrated in the following year. 

Immediately upon the organization of the parish 
Rev. Nathaniel T. Bent became minister in charge as 
a missionary of the Massachusetts Convocation, but 
after the lapse of two months was elected rector, and 



1 Contributed by Col. C. B. H. Fessenden. 



faithfully and efficiently served as such till his resig- 
nation in November, 1838. 

Early in 1839, Rev. Theodore W. Snow was chosen 
rector, but was obliged to resign in 1841 in conse- 
quence of impaired health, affecting mind as well as 
body. 

In March following, Rev. Thomas R. Lambert, 
then a chaplain in the United States navy, was called 
to the rectorship. He accepted the position for a 
year, having obtained a furlough for that time, and, 
that being extended, re-engaged for another year. 
He was then elected permanent rector, but in 1845 
being ordered on sea duty by the department, he re- 
signed. Rev. Dr. Lambert is now rector of St. John's, 
Charles town. 

From September, 1846, to February, 1848, Rev. 
George D. Wilder (now rector of Christ Church, 
Riverdale, N. Y., and the accomplished secretary of 
the Church Congress) acted as rector. 

At Easter, 1848, Rev. Sanford J. Horton succeeded, 
and held the position till November, 1851, when he 
resigned. Dr. Horton, now the head of a flourishing 
church school at Cheshire, Conn., was greatly beloved 
by the parish, but the meagreness of his stipend com- 
pelled him to sever his connection with the parish. 

In February, 1852, the parish called again its first 
rector, Rev. Mr. Bent, but failing health forbade his 
acceptance, and Rev. Charles W. Homer was chosen 
and accepted the position. At this time the parish, 
never before in a very prosperous financial condition, 
was at low tide in its monetary affairs. The rector's 
stipend was but seven hundred dollars, and he was 
fitfully paid ; the church building was in a wretched 
state, and the outlook was dreary enough. The sec- 
ond year of Mr. Homer's incumbenc'y a spasmodic 
effort was made to secure a new church, one of stone. 
It utterly failed, and the failure left the parish de- 
pressed and well-nigh disheartened. The rector, 
then in the flush of youth, was unequal to the 
needed struggle for success, and in October, 1854, 
resigned. He is now rector of St. James', one of the 
largest churches in Brooklyn, L. I. 

Rev. Spencer M. Rice followed as rector, entering 
upon his work in February, 1855. Coming into the 
church from the Methodist denomination, Mr. Rice 
brought with him not a little of the zeal and fervor 
of that sect, and a shrewd, practical knowledge of 
affairs. He was remarkably faithful and successful 
in the performance of parochial duty, and a wise 
counselor and indefatigable helper in managing the 
temporal interests of the parish. It goes without 
saying that he was successful. The parish income 
showed it, the new interest in church work manifested 
it, and the complete renovation of the church edifice 
and the extinction of the church debt proved it. Mr. 
Rice was induced by the state of his health to resign 
in 1860. He is now residing in Jersey City, N. J., 
having lately, after a long rectorate, resigned the 
charge of Grace Church in that city. 



NEW BEDFORD. 



87 



In September following Rev. Josiah P. Tustin, D.D., 
became rector, and resigned in April, 1862. 

Rev. James Mulchahey succeeded him in Septem- 
ber, 1862, and held the rectorship for some seven 
years. During that time the lot in the rear of the 
church was bought, and the old house thereon con- 
verted into a commodious chapel. He had the satis- 
faction of leaving the parish in good condition, the 
result of his intelligent, faithful, and devoted service. 
Rev. Dr. Mulchahey, after some years' residence as 
rector of a church in Toledo, Ohio, was elected an 
assistant minister of Old Trinity Parish, New York, 
and is now in charge of St. Paul's in that city. 

The next rector was Rev. Edmund Rowland, who 
assumed charge in November, 1869. In May, 1871, 
he resigned, upon the invitation of Bishop Coxe to 
act as assistant rector of St. John's, Buffalo, N. Y. 
After an unsuccessful attempt to fill his place he was 
unanimously and urgently recalled, and resumed the 
rectorship, remaining till December, 1878, when he 
resigned and took charge of Calvary Church, Clifton, 
Cincinnati, Ohio, where he now resides. His term of 
service in Grace Church was longer than that of any 
of his predecessors, covering a period of nine years. 
His rectorship, though marked by no extraordinary 
achievement, was grandly successful. The church 
grew steadily and healthily in every direction ; needed 
changes and improvements in church and chapel were 
quietly made ; a rectory was provided by a few mem- 
bers of the parish ; efforts were made to establish a 
mission in the north part of the city, which resulted 
in the erection of a new church there, and the germ 
of the new Grace Church was in the church building 
fund which the rector started and so hopefully and 
patiently nurtured. 

The present rector, Rev. George A. Strong, assumed 
his duties on Easter-day, 1879. He did not suffer the 
project of building a new church to slumber, and the 
gift of an eligible site for it by two devoted women 
of the parish settled the success of his appeals. The 
Easter offerings of 1880, appropriated to the fund, 
amounted to sixteen thousand dollars, which, with 
the four thousand dollars gathered in Mr. Rowland's 
time, and the expected avails of the sale of the old 
church and lot, warranted immediate steps for begin- 
ning work. The corner-stone of the new Grace 
Church, on the corner of County and School Streets, 
was laid by Rev. Dr. Rowland, Sept. 11, 1880. The 
building, mostly completed, was opened for service 
Nov. 11, 1881, Rev. Phillips Brooks, D.D., preaching 
the sermon ; and Oct. 19, 1882, the building, finished 
and paid for, was consecrated by Right Rev. Benjamin 
H. Paddock, bishop of the diocese. The cost of the 
church, exclusive of the lot (the market value of 
which was about ten thousand dollars), was forty- 
seven thousand dollars. Its seating capacity, about 
six hundred, with sittings for nearly two hundred 
more in the adjoining chapel, is none too great for 
present needs. In the tower is a chime of bells, ten 



in number, weighing over eleven thousand pounds, 
the gift of the late Stephen G. Driscol. They were 
rung for the first time on Christmas-eve, 1882. 

The parish to-day, with a rector in whom its mem- 
bers are thoroughly and heartily in unison, with its 
church sittings nearly all taken, with an income in 
excess of its ordinary expenses, and with the interest 
in church services and church work steadily increas- 
ing, occupies an assured position, and should exert a 
widening conservative influence. 

St. James' Episcopal Church, situated on County 
Street, at its junction with Linden Street, has been 
from the date of its erection one of the attractive 
features of the city, partly because of the unique 
style of its architecture, and in part because of the 
extraordinary circumstances connected with the or- 
ganization and growth of the parish. 

Early in the spring of 1878 there was a movement 
among the English operatives in the Wamsutta Mills 
tending to the establishment of a congregation which 
should be distinct from the old parish church; situ- 
ated on Union Street. Their relations with the older 
parish were most amicable, but the remote distance 
of the church from the mill district, the rapid increase 
of the population, and the promise in a near future of 
a still greater addition to the numbers of English 
church people in the city favored the movement for a 
new parish. At the instance of the then rector of Grace 
Church, the Rev. Edmund Rowland, and under a 
suggestion from the Bishop of Connecticut, who is 
also dean of the world-famed Berkeley Divinity 
School, the Rev. C. H. Proctor, a recent graduate of 
the school, and at the time doing active missionary 
work in the mining districts of Pennsylvania, was in- 
vited to take charge of the whole movement. It was 
proposed to make the organization a mission chapel, 
to be supported in part by the parish of Grace Church, 
in part by the missionary society of the diocese, and 
in part by voluntary contributions from the people 
who would join the movement. With this agreement, 
Mr. Proctor accepted the position offered to him, and 
held the first service with the congregation in a hired 
shed on Purchase Street, near the mills, on the 10th 
of March, 1878. This first service and surroundings 
have been graphically described : The cobwebbed 
beams were hidden with sheets of Wamsutta cloth ; 
two packing-boxes turned on end and covered with 
calico served as altar and pulpit ) the alms were col- 
lected in two new and bright tin pie-plates ; a bor- 
rowed parlor-organ and an extemporized choir of 
young girls furnished the music; a paper screen in- 
closed a corner for a vestry-room. 

The names of about forty individuals were entered 
as a nucleus about which to gather the new parish. 
Almost at the outset, and before the new minister had 
fairly taken position, it was discovered that the Dioc- 
esan Missionary Board discouraged and repudiated 
the whole scheme and had promised it no support, 
and at the same time as an adjunct chapel to Grace 



88 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



Church the work would receive no possible encourage- 
ment, and Mr. Proctor found himself forced to face a 
most discouraging outlook, — a church of forty souls, 
a salary of three hundred dollars, and the assurance 
that his work must be independent of all local sup- 
port beyond his own congregation. This was the be- 
ginning of a work whose after-history is said to have 
no parallel in the church. Mr. Proctor, suffering 
with distressing ill health, but nerved with determina- 
tion, called his people together on the 28th of March, 
just two weeks after the first service, laid the case 
clearly before them, and expressed his desire to ac- 
complish what they had wished and planned, and 
then and there took the first steps in organizing the 
parish. Articles of association were drawn up and 
signed by those who were canonically entitled to do 
so. The parish was christened " St. James," com- 
memorating both the teaching of that apostle and 
also the memory of a dear friend of the rector, whose 
Christian name was thus incorporated with the work, 
and the first vestry was elected as follows: Wardens, 
Andrew Bannister and James Boardman ; Treasurer, 
William Smith; Clerk, A. McCreary ; Vestrymen, 
Sidney Smith, James Slater, William Robinson, Wil- 
liam Philips, George Ramsbotham. Through the 
kindness of the heirs of the Rodman estate a disused 
school-house was loaned free of rent to the new parish, 
and from this date services have been held continu- 
ously. Plans for the erection of a church building 
were taken in hand immediately. Subscriptions were 
solicited, and an almost uninterrupted flow of gifts 
and donations poured down upon the rector. A choir 
was organized under Mr. Proctor's direction, whose 
previous study of church music in the English cathe- 
drals proved of great service, and a feature was estab- 
lished in the rendering of the services of the church 
which has scarcely since abated and which has always 
been a strong attraction. 

Minor societies were put in operation. The St. 
James' League, organized April 15, 1878, with Mrs. 
Sidney Smith as president, and the St. James' Sewing- 
School, with Miss Ella C. Adams as president, organ- 
ized soon after, have both assisted largely in strength- 
ening the work. On Easter-day, April 21st, upwards 
of three thousand dollars had been received or pledged 
for building purposes. On the 22d of May, under 
the direction of Judge Alanson Borden as justice of 
the peace, the parish received its legal organization 
and title, and Mr. Proctor was instituted rector. On 
Wednesday, June 6th, money enough having been 
secured, the parish purchased and secured the title- 
deeds to the most eligible site upon which the church 
now stands. On Saturday, the 15th of June, with 
religious services, ground was broken on the new lot, 
the Rev. Mr. Rowland, of Grace Church, participating 
with the rector in the exercises and giving the address 
of the occasion. Mr. Proctor, breaking the first sod, 
was followed by Mr. Rowland, and then by the long 
line of people on both sides of the inclosed space. 



Plans for the new edifice were adopted from those 
presented by W. C. Brocklesby, architect, of Hartford, 
Conn. On Friday, July 25th, being St. James' Day, 
the corner-stone was laid with impressive ceremonies, 
the Rev. Dr. Mulchahey, of St. Paul's, New York 
City, giving the address, followed by Mr. Rowland, of 
Grace Church, the stone being laid in place by the 
rector of the parish, Mr. Proctor. On Tuesday even- 
ing, December 24th, the church was occupied for the 
first time, although in as yet an unfinished condition, 
the workmen not entirely leaving the church until 
February, when the rector placed the last and upper- 
most brick on the top of the tower, a scaffolding 
being especially prepared for the purpose. So, with- 
out the aid of any other single parish, as such, and 
without assistance from any missionary board, dioc- 
esan or otherwise, St. James' Church became an 
established fact in less than twelve months' time. 
With the advice of responsible persons, the church 
was completed, with its tower and necessary furniture 
and some of the ordinary properties of a church 
building, adding thereby a comparatively small debt 
to the original undertaking, but which without these 
additions would have been almost from the first wholly 
free. Sixteen thousand dollars have been raised in 
four years in cash offerings and memorial gifts, and 
the fairest promises are made for sustaining the work 
in the future. 

The parish has been self-sustaining from its founda- 
tion, and has extended its influence in a short space 
of time from forty souls to near four hundred families. 
The parish list now numbers about one hundred and 
fifty families immediately connected with the church, 
but this in nowise includes the large community 
who depend upon the ministrations of the rector. 
The christenings alone in St. James' average nearly 
one for every Sunday in the year. 

The rector of the parish, its founder and first rector, 
Charles Hayden Proctor, is an M.A., graduate of 
Trinity College, class of 1873, and of the Berkeley 
Divinity School, class of 1876. His qualifications for 
the position he holds have been enhanced by the ex- 
perience of close observation and study in English 
cathedrals, and during a recent visit in England his 
work in St. James' Church and among the English 
Church people received most cordial and substantial 
recognition from His Grace the Archbishop of York, 
the Bishop of Manchester, and more recently from 
the late Dean of Westminster, and also from the late 
Archbishop of Canterbury. While in the Northern 
Convocation he was specially honored with a license 
to officiate from the archbishop's own hand. With 
a natural firmness of determination, Mr. Proctor has 
been enabled to accomplish much that many men 
would have shrunk from undertaking, and the church 
established under his hand will be a lasting monu- 
ment, than which one could ask to deserve no greater. 

North Christian Church. — This church was " con- 
stituted a Christian Church Jan. 25, 1807." The 



NEW BEDFORD. 



89 



founders of the society were formerly members of the 
Baptist Church in Dartmouth, under the pastoral 
charge of Elder Daniel Hix. The following are the 
names of the original members: Obed Kempton, 
Ruth Kempton, John Hathaway, Edith Hathaway, 
Jonathan Haskins, Sarah Haskins, Sarah Strange, 
Lois Hervey, Patience Hatch, Remembrance Wood, 
Nabby Russell, Nabby Tobey, Betsey Chase. 

At a meeting of the church, Sept. 26, 1811, Mr. 
Mandell was appointed to "keep the records," Obed 
Kempton treasurer, and Abraham Gifford " to receive 
the regular contributions." Jabez Hammond was or- 
dained as the first deacon by Elders Hix and Taylor 
on May 29, 1812. 

The first clergymen of whom the records make 
mention, who preached for the society at different 
periods during its first existence, were Elders Daniel 
Hix, Frederick Plummer, John Gray, Douglass Far- 
num, Benjamin Taylor, and Abner Jones. 

Elder Benjamin Taylor was the first settled minis- 
ter of whom the records make mention. He com- 
menced his labors with the church in 1812, and con- 
tinued his charge until 1819. 

Aug. 19, 1817, a committee was selected to inform 
Elder Elias Smith, who had occasionally preached 
to the church, that he could no longer be received in 
that capacity. The objection to Mr. Smith was his 
tendencies to the doctrines promulgated by the Uni- 
versalists. Mr. Smith was the father of Matthew 
Hale Smith, and one of the founders of the " Chris- 
tian sect." Another noteworthy item in connection 
with Elder Smith is that he was one of the origina- 
tors of the Herald of Gospel Liberty, the first relig- 
ious paper ever published in America. 

Sept. 4, 1819, Elder Taylor dissolved his connection 
with the church and took up his residence in Swan- 
sea. His successor was Elder Moses How, who settled 
with them during the fall of 1819. 

About 1820, Elder Simon Clough visited the church 
and officiated frequently ; he preached during the 
greater part of 1823-24. 

In December, 1826, Elder Charles Morgridge, of 
Boston, was settled as minister. The pulpit was sup- 
plied in the interim by Elder Hervey Sullings. 

During the fall of 1831, Mr. Morgridge resigned his 
pastoral charge, and in January, 1832, Elder Lovell, 
formerly a Methodist preacher of Portsmouth, N. H., 
succeeded him. He officiated for about two years. 

In 1833 the church was reorganized, and a charter 
of incorporation was obtained from the General Court, 
dated March 14th. 

On retirement of Mr. Lovell, Rev. Mr. Morgridge 
again renewed his connection with the church, and 
remained with it until the spring of 1841. 

During August, 1841, an invitation was extended 
to Rev. Silas Hawley to become pastor, and he con- 
tinued until January, 1843. At this date Elder P. R. 
Russell supplied the pulpit for about a year. Soon 
after his withdrawal Elder A. G. Morton became 



pastor, and continued till Dec. 29, 1851, when he 
withdrew. 

Nov. 11, 1852, the society voted to extend an invi- 
tation to William R. Stowe, which he accepted, and 
continued with the society until January, 1854. On 
his retirement Elder David E. Millard, of Broom- 
field, N. Y., was engaged to preach for the society. 
He entered upon his duties May, 1854, and in Sep- 
tember of the same year received and accepted an in- 
vitation to assume the pastorship. In July, 1855, he 
tendered his resignation, which was accepted. At a 
special meeting held during the following December 
Rev. T. C. Moulton was elected pastor. Mr. Moulton 
returned no answer to the call until November, 1856, 
when he declined the invitation. 

For upwards of eighteen months the church was 
without a settled pastor, the pulpit being supplied by 
a committee. Finally, in May, 1857, Rev. S. W. 
Whitney, of New York, was engaged, and remained 
till some time in 1858. 

The supply of the pulpit was again in the hands of 
a committee, which at length, in September, 1858, 
succeeded in securing the services of the Rev. T. C. 
Moulton, and he continued to act in this capacity 
until March, 1859, when he was elected pastor, and 
remained until September, 1868. He was succeeded in 
November, 1868, by Rev. Austin Craig, who resigned 
Aug. 30, 1869. His successors have been Rev. A. J. 
Kirkland, Rev. O. A. Roberts, and Rev. S. Wright 
Butler, the present incumbent. 

The society first worshiped in the shop of Mr. Obed 
Kempton, on the corner of Purchase and Middle 
Streets; then in a rope-walk in the south part of the 
city. In 1808 or 1809 the church on Middle Street 
was erected by Mr. Abraham Gifford and others for 
the society. It was used by it for a house of worship 
until 1833, when the large and commodious church 
which it now occupies, opposite the Parker House, 
was built. 

The church has always been liberal in the support 
of the gospel and generous in its charities. 

The Middle Street Christian Church. 1 — The 
Middle Street Christian Church was constituted 
March 21, 1828, of members who, at their own re- 
quest, were set off for that purpose by the North 
Christian Church, which was organized in 1807. The 
members were Abraham Gifford, William Cranston, 
William Whitten, Warren Maxfield, Watson Ellis, 
Ezra S. Kempton, Samuel James, James Barlow, and 
Elder Harvey Sullings, a preacher. They met at the 
house of Obed Kempton, northwest corner of Middle 
and Purchase Streets. The first baptism was of Mary 
Pease and Rebecca Gifford. The first settled min- 
ister was William Coe. The first meeting-house 
erected was on Middle Street, south of Mr. Kempton's 
house. The pastors were the venerable William Coe, 
three year.-.; Luther Baker, a man 'of " holy life;" Isaac 



i By N. SummerUell, D.D. 



90 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



Smith, called the " excellent man ;" Moses How, under 
whom a great revival took place in January of 1837. 
Many were added to the church, and in 1834 they 
moved into the church on Middle Street, opposite 
Sixth Street, where they now (1882) worship. Elder 
How was called the " good pastor." He continued 
with this church till July, 1844. He died in 1882, in 
the seventieth year of his ministry and the ninety- 
second year of his age, honored, respected, and be- 
loved through all New England, and by the Chris- 
tians through the United States. 

Elder How was followed in 1844 by the "good 
preacher," O. E. Morrill, and in 1848, Morrill was 
succeeded by Elder Brown. In 1849 to 1850, John 
Taylor, "the tender-hearted minister," preached, and 
the church was much revived. From 1850 to 1857 
the aged Benjamin Taylor was their pastor, who was 
succeeded by Elder James S. White, who continued 
pastor to 1861, when Benjamin S. Batchelor was set- 
tled, and filled the pulpit with great success until 
1875. A young minister named A. A. Kirkland then 
supplied the pulpit for some months till the eloquent 
pulpit orator, Z. T. Sullivan, was settled, who con- 
tinued drawing large congregations until 1877, when 
he accepted a call from the Congregational Church at 
Brockton, and was followed by Elder Daniel L. Craft, 
who filled it for two years. In 1880, N. Summerbell, 
D.D., former president of Union Christian College, 
was settled. More than forty members have been 
added up to this time; also a heavy debt, which had 
been accumulating for the past five years, has been 
paid. The present number of members is two hun- 
dred and thirty-four. There is a good Sunday-school, 
of which Isaac W. Benjamin is superintendent, and 
Frank L. Davis, assistant. 

The peculiar characteristic of the Cbristian Church 
is its conformation to the New Testament form of 
Christianity. It, therefore, accepts the Bible as the 
heaven-given and only perfect creed, Christ as the 
only heaven-appointed leader, charity as the greatest 
Christian grace, and Christian union as a duty. It 
states its faith in Bible language with the exactness 
of verbal accuracy, and submits to no additions to 
the Bible, but extends fellowship and communion to 
all Christians. 

Rev. Dr. Summerbell, the present pastor, is the 
well-known originator and editor of The Christian 
Pulpit, a monthly, and former editor of the Herald of 
Gospel Liberty, Dayton, Ohio; is the author of many 
popular works, the most important of which are his 
"History of the Christians," from the birth of the 
Saviour to the present time, royal octavo, five hun- 
dred and seventy-six pages, and his " Discussions," 
and his remarkably popular work called "Christian 
Principles," all of which have passed through many 
editions. The "Christian Principles," after passing 
through eight editions, has been " revised and abridged 
by Rev. R. J. Wright, LL.D.," and published at his 
own expense for universal distribution. 



The church has been much strengthened under his 
labors, and its former distinction as a church of revi- 
vals and deep religious experience has returned. The 
present church clerk is Frank L. Davis. 

South Christian Church. — The house of worship 
on the corner of Sherman and Bonney Streets was 
built in 1851-52 by Booth & Hathaway, at a cost of 
about four thousand dollars. It contains sixty pews, 
and will seat about three hundred and fifty persons. 
Meetings were first held in the vestry in February, 
1852. June 9th the house was dedicated. The ser- 
mon on the occasion was preached by Rev. George 
H. Eldridge, who commenced his ministerial services 
there the previous April. In five days subsequent to 
the dedication pews enough were sold to pay every 
bill on the house and leave a surplus of four hundred 
dollars in pew stock belonging to the society. During 
that summer it was organized as the "South Christian 
Society," and in September following it was " con- 
stituted a Christian Church," consisting of the fol- 
lowing persons: Pardon Wilcox, Tillinghast Sowle, 
Cranston Wilcox, Josiah S. Bonney, William Miller, 
Henry T. James, William H. Macy, Barbara Sowle, 
Betsey Wilcox, Hannah H. Albert, Phebe A. James, 
and Sarah Chace. 

Elder Hervey Sullings was an active member of 
this church and contributed liberally to its support. 
When the society was without a pastor he often sup- 
plied the pulpit, and was favorably received. He 
died in December, 1859, about eighty years of age. 

Rev. George H. Eldridge was the first pastor, and 
continued his labors until April, 1856. For nearly 
two years after the retirement of Mr. Eldridge the 
supplies of the pulpit were irregular. In December, 
1856, the church received a visit from Rev. I. H. Coe, 
and subsequently extended a unanimous call to him 
to become pastor. The invitation was accepted, and 
Mr. Coe entered upon his duties April 1st of the fol- 
lowing year, and has continued from that time to the 
present, and is now the oldest settled pastor in this 
city. He was born in Woodstock, Conn., May 12, 
1818. 

The Spruce Street Christian Church was organ- 
ized June 28, 1869, with the following members: 
Nicholas S. Chadwick, first pastor, William Bosworth, 
Isaac S. Thomas, George L. Dyer, George L. Eldrige, 
Joseph W. Robertson, Sarah M. Eldrige, Mary E. 
Ellis, Lydia Berree, Susan E. Johnson, Abby Berree, 
Lydia R. Grimshaw, Martha G. Turner. 

Jan. 25, 1880, Rev. Gardner Devan commenced his 
labors with us, and Feb. 8, 1881, resigned. 

July 14, 1881, church called Rev. Allen Damon to 
be their pastor, who is serving us to date, Sept. 19, 
1882. Church as now organized : Allen Damon, pas- 
tor ; Deacons, Richard E. Macomber, Isaac S. Thomas ; 
Treasurer, B. F. H. Reed ; Clerk, J. S. Thomas ; Su- 
perintendent of Sabbath-school, Laurens W. Faunce; 
Chairman of Business Meetings, E. J. H. Tripp. 

March 26, 1871, Mr. Chadwick resigned. Services 



NEW BEDFORD 



91 



in church were continued by different pastors, Elders 
Howe, Murry, Greenwood, Peirce. Rev. Mr. Kirkland 
supplied three months. Joseph W. Thomas was pas- 
tor for the year ending Nov. 24, 1872. 

Dec. 1, 1872, Rev. Ellen Gastin commenced her 
labors with us, and on Feb. 23, 1873, resigned. 

April 6, 1873, C. F. Burleigh commenced preaching 
here, and on July 9th following was ordained and in- 
stalled as pastor. He resigned April 28, 1878. 

During his pastorate, which was longer than any 
other, the church has seen some prosperity, and has 
also been called to pass through some grievous trials. 

The church now numbers fifty-eight, together with 
an interesting Sabbath-school, with prospects of much 
greater growth and usefulness. 

This church differs somewhat from all others in the 
city, as it does not own the church property. It is 
held by the Spruce Street Mission Society. 

The Christian Union Church, 1 New Bedford, was 
organized about the 1st of January, 1875, worshiping 
in a hall for one year, at which time they had com- 
pleted a house of worship on High Street, it being 
dedicated by Rev. Edwin Burnham on the 12th day 
of January. The church has from the first organiza- 
tion numbered about sixty, some being added and 
some leaving. Only four deaths have occurred in the 
eight years of time since its first existence. 

There is connected with the church a small Sab- 
bath-school, numbering about forty to fifty scholars, 
yet in a good healthy condition. 

The creed of the church is the Bible only. Its 
mode of baptism is immersion. Its test of fellowship 
is Christian character, open communion to all Chris- 
tians, or, as its name indicates, union with all true 
Christians. 

Its mode of government is adopted from Matt, 
xviii., accepting no human forms. Its bond of union 
is Christian love, allowing all or any members to leave 
when they cease to love, and return on the same 
principles. 

The faith of the future is " that the wages of sin is 
death ;" " the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus 
Christ." 

The Universalist Church. 2 — The present house of 
worship on William Street is the second house that 
has been built in New Bedford. The first house was 
erected in 1836, and stands on the southeast corner of 
Filth and School Streets. In this house the Univer- 
salists held public worship for about twelve years, 
and had for regular pastors John M. Spear, G. T. 
Farnsworth, and S. S. Fletcher, who were very good 
preachers. In 1849 the society, having become much 
involved in debt, sold their house to the Catholics, 
since which it has been known as the St. Mary's 
Church. 

In 1851 some of the Universalists of the old church, 
with others who had come to New Bedford within a 



1 By A. M. Higgins, M.D. 



2 Contributed by Hon E. L. Barney. 



few years, who felt the need of worshiping God and 
promulgating the doctrines of Universalism, came to- 
gether and secured the services of the then Rev. 
Hiram Van Campen,and held religious worship each 
Sabbath-day in a small hall (Sears' Hall it was called) 
on Cheapside, nearly opposite and in front of the 
City Hall. Here Mr. Van Campen preached for 
several years, and the congregation grew and in- 
creased. In 1854 the Rev. Mr. Stevenson was em- 
ployed, and under his ministry, with the good seed 
sown by Mr. Van Campen, the people resolved to 
have a house of worship, and in August, 1855, the 
present house was completed and dedicated, and 
since which time public worship has been regularly 
held, with a few slight intermissions in the change of 
pastors. The pastors have been the Revs. B. V. Ste- 
venson, J. J. Twiss, T. G. St. John, S. L. Rosepaugh, 
George W. Skinner, I. C. Knowlton, C. B. Lombard, 
J. H. Farnesworth, William C. Stiles, and G. F. 
Flanders, D.D. ; the last named is the present pastor. 
Mr. Flanders is a very able, learned, and eloquent 
preacher, and under his ministry the society is in an 
excellent condition. 

John P. Knowles, G. L. Barney, Benjamin Alsey, 
Mr. Van Campen, John M. Foster, Benjamin F. 
Brownell, and others now dead have been the most 
prominent citizens and supporters of this church in 
the past, and still live and are interested in the soci- 
ety. New members have joined, such as John P. 
Knowles, Jr., H. M. Knowlton, A. G. Walker, and 
others, with many excellent ladies, and these all are 
the friends and supporters of the society. It is but 
simple justice to say that during all the past this 
church has maintained the doctrines of the early 
founders of Universalism in America, and fervently 
adhere to the fundamental doctrines of the Universal- 
ist denomination. 

It has always aided in the works of charity, love, 
and temperance in this community, and sought to 
elevate man. It practices the exact fatherhood of 
God and the brotherhood of man, upon which basis 
alone comes all the workings of the true good spirit 
in man. 

Society of Friends. — Meetings were first held in 
the village of Bedford in 1772; but we learn that 
they were held at the Head of the River as early as 
1725, and a portion of the meeting-house now occu- 
pied by the Friends there was built in 1727. 

They first met here in a school-house which stood 
upon a rock just east of the northeast corner of School 
and Third Streets. This was the only place of wor- 
ship in the village for some years. Their first house 
was built in 1785, on Spring Street. 

These comprise most of the early Friends: Joseph 
Rotch and his son William Rotch, Sr. ; Joseph Rus- 
sell, who owned the principal portion of the place 
eolith of Elm Street; William Russell, who emigrated 
from Nantucket and lived to a very advanced age, 
being nearly a hundred years old at his death; he 



92 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



built the fourth house in the village; Seth Russell, 
the father of Seth and Charles Russell, whose resi- 
dence was on the west side of Water Street ; Benjamin 
Taber, grandfather of William C. Taber, who built 
one of the three first houses in the village; Joseph 
Austin, the first hatter; Matthew Howland, father of 
George Howland, deceased; and Daniel Ricketson, 
father of Joseph Ricketson, who was for many years 
cashier of the Commercial Bank. 

Subsequently we find as members the following dis- 
tinguished citizens: Abraham Smith, William Rotch, 
Jr., and his brother Thomas, Samuel Rodman, Thomas 
Hazard, Elisha Thornton, John Howland, father of 
Capt. James Howland, Humphrey Russell, William 
Sawyer Wall, father of William A. Wall, the cele- 
brated artist of this city, and Cornelius Howland. 

The preachers of whom we have knowledge are 
Thomas Rotch, James Davis, Elisha Thornton, Job 
Chaloner, Lydia Rotch, afterwards dean, Mary Card, 
Deborah Otis, and Joseph Davis. The above persons 
are deceased. There are still living Susan, Rhoda, 
and Rachel Howland, Susan R. Smith, Mary Shove, 
Rhoda H. Taber, Josiah Holmes, Jr. 

The first clerk of whom we have any information 
is Caleb Greene. He was succeeded by Abraham 
Sherman, Jr., who held the post twenty-six years. 
The next was William C. Taber, who officiated nine- 
teen years; after him Charles R. Tucker and Mat- 
thew Howland served a short time, when he was 
again chosen, and is at present acting in that ca- 
pacity. 

The former elders of the society were Caleb Greene, 
William Rotch, William Rotch, Jr., Francis Taber, 
Barnabas Taber, and Abraham Sherman, Jr., W. C. 
Taber, W. P. Howland, Charles R. Tucker, Matthew 
Howland, and Seth K. Akin. 

The present meeting-house is on Spring Street, be- 
tween Sixth and Seventh. 

Josiah Holmes, Jr., Rachel S. Howland, William 
Thompson, Ruth S. Murray, Rebecca H. Smiley, 
ministers; William C. Taber, Matthew Howland, 
Seth K. Akin, Betsey P. Wood, Sarah H. Anthony, 
Deborah Wing, Mary A. Smith, Anna G. Wood, 
Susan T. Thompson, elders. While Friends have 
their recognized or recorded ministers, they do not 
hold the pastoral relation as it exists in other re- 
ligious organizations. 

The Seamen's Bethel.— The first meeting to take 
into consideration the expediency of forming a society 
to promote the interests of seamen was held at the 
Merchants' Insurance office, May 17, 1830. Stephen 
Merihew was chosen chairman, and H. G. O. Colby 
secretary. A committee, consisting of Messrs. S. S. 
Smith, S. J. S. Vose, and J. F. Emerson, drew up a 
constitution, which was adopted at the same meeting. 

Jan. 28, 1831, a committee, consisting of Messrs. B. 
Rodman, T. Riddell, and W. C. Nye, reported in 
favor of building a chapel for mariners. In May 
following a house and lot on what is now known as 



Bethel Street was purchased of Mary Rotch for four- 
teen hundred dollars. At the first annual meeting 
of the society, held June 7, 1831, it was resolved that 
the form of worship should be perfectly unsectarian, 
and that all denominations should have the privilege 
of supplying the pulpit. 

Services were first conducted in the old Town Hall 
every Sunday morning, each of the clergymen in the 
place officiating in turn. The first meeting was held 
Sunday, July 31, 1831. About this time the house 
which had been purchased was moved to the south 
part of the lot, and a chapel, forty-five by forty feet, 
was built by Mr. Shaw from Bristol, R. I., under the 
direction of a committee consisting of Messrs. Samuel 
Rodman, Jr., T. Riddell, and W. W. Swain. 

The first chaplain was the Rev. Enoch Mudge, who 
commenced his labors April 27, 1832. May 4th the 
society was incorporated by act of the General Court. 
Rev. Mr. Mudge resigned in July, 1844, and was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Moses How, who remained fifteen 
years. The present efficient chaplain, Rev. James D. 
Butler, was his successor. Mr. Butler entered upon his 
duties as chaplain and agent April 15, 1859, and re- 
mained until 1863, when he resigned and became 
pastor of Trinity Methodist Episcopal Church, Paw- 
tucket, R. I., and was subsequently pastor at New 
London. In 1870 he returned to New Bedford, where 
he has since resided. Mr. Butler has now served the 
New Bedford Port Society seventeen years, and his 
service has not only been a long one but an honor- 
able one. A writer, in speaking of him, says, " As 
a laborer he ranks high in his denomination. His 
piety is of no ordinary cast, and he is diligent and 
persevering in all his duties." 

Rev. Samuel Fos succeeded Mr. Butler in 1863, and 
remained until 1869. 

In March, 1866, the Bethel was partially destroyed 
by fire. The burnt portion was immediately rebuilt, 
and the whole edifice thoroughly repaired. July 26, 
1867, the church was reopened with appropriate ex- 
ercises. A sermon was preached on the occasion by 
Rev. L. B. Bates. 

The present officers of the Port Society are as fol- 
lows : Hon. George Howland, Jr., president; Wil- 
liam Phillips, Jireh Swift, vice-presidents ; James 
Taylor, recording secretary ; James D. Butler, cor- 
responding secretary; Gideon B. Wright, treasurer; 
Rev. James D. Butler, chaplain ; Joseph C. Delano, 
Alexander H. Seabury, George B. Richmond, Oliver 
Prescott, Edward D. Mandell, C. B. H. Fessenden, 
Abram T. Eddy, Edmund Rodman, Samuel H. Cook, 
Henry T. Wood, F. A. Washburn, George F. Bart- 
lett, Matthew Howland, Timothy D. Cook, George R. 
Phillips, John F. Tucker, Benjamin Anthony, James 
E. Stanton, Benjamin T. Cummings, William R. 
Wing, John P. Knowles, Jr., Louni Snow, board of 
managers. 

St. Lawrence Roman Catholic Church. — The 
first pastor of this church was Rev. Father Lavasey, 



NEW BEDFORD. 



93 



who built the first church edifice on Allan Street in 
1820, at a cost of eight hundred dollars. In 184!) the 
house was sold, and the TJniversalist Church corner 
Fifth and School Streets was purchased. This was 
occupied until the completion of their present church 
edifice in 1870, when the name of the church was 
changed to St. Lawrence, it having previously been 
called St. Mary. St. Mary's Church is now used for 
children's mass and Sunday-school. The present pas- 
tor is the Rev. Hugh J. Smyth, assisted by Rev. Owen 
Kiernem. 

The Church of the Sacred Heart is located on 
Ashland Street, corner of Robeson, and Rev. George 
Pager is pastor. 

St. John Baptist (Portuguese) is located on 
Wing Street, corner Fifth. Rev. Antonio M. Freitas 
is the present pastor. 

Howland Chapel. — This chapel was erected in 
1870 by Matthew Howland as a place of worship for 
the operatives and others in the vicinity of the Wam- 
sutta Mills, who were destitute of a house of wor- 
ship. In the summer of that year Mr. Howland pur- 
chased a lot of land on the east side of Purchase Street, 
and immediately commenced the erection of the 
chapel, which is thirty-six feet by fifty-five feet in 
size. 

It was completed and furnished at an expense of 
little over seven thousand dollars, all of which sum 
was paid by Mr. Howland. The chapel was dedi- 
cated Jan. 13, 1871, and on the following Sabbath a 
school was opened under the superintendence of 
Henry T. Wood, of this city, and in the evening relig- 
ious services were held for the benefit of all who in- 
clined to come, it being distinctly understood there 
was no tax to be levied or contribution called for or 
sectarianism to be exercised. It was remarked in one 
of the newspapers at the time that " the chapel was 
completely filled with people, who showed a marked 
interest in the exercises of the evening." In a short 
address on the occasion, Mr. Howland said that the 
erection of the chapel had not been from any selfish 
motive, but to furnish a comfortable and agreeable 
room for those who felt destitute of a place of wor- 
ship in this part of the city to come and listen to the 
preaching of the gospel and be taught the simple 
truths of the Bible. 

Since the organization of the school, twelve years 
ago, it has been kept up without omission, most of 
the time under the faithful and efficient superintend- 
ence of H. T. Wood, who resigned about a year since, 
and was succeeded by Robert B.Taber.. The average 
attendance of the school has ranged from one hundred 
and twenty to one hundred and fifty. 

The expenses connected with the chapel since its 
erection, such as warming, lighting, salary of sex- 
ton, fuel, etc., have been paid by Mr. Howland. 
Many of the small expenses connected with the school 
have been paid by little contributions from the chil- 
dren. The school has also quite a good library. 



The Second Advent Church.— The first meetings 
of this sect in New Bedford were held in 1840, by 
William Miller, of New York, and among its early 
supporters here were Francis Whitton, Ellery Rec- 
ords, Henry V. Davis, William B. King, William 
Gifford, Stephen D. Jordan, Dr. Baker, Asa Coombs, 
Curtis Gammons, Pardon Potter, James Baxter, Hat- 
til Kelley, Jeremiah Tripp, John F. Vinal, and John 
Gammons. 

The first settled pastor was Elder Joseph Turner. 
The church is located on Kempton Street, near County. 
E. E. Church, Phineas White, deacons; Phineas 
White, Benjamin Irish, William B. Hambly, Ezra 
Wing, William B. King, George W. Maker, E. E. 
Church, Frederick Stanton, James G. Harding, 
church and finance committee: James G. Harding, 
clerk and treasurer. 

There is also a Union Church located at Allen's 
Corner, Plainville; Olivet Chapel, on Acushnet Av- 
enue, corner of Blackmer; Rockdale Union Free 
Chapel Association, organized March 19,1873; and 
Missionary Chapel. South Water Street, corner of 
Leonard. 

Extinct Churches.— The following churches are 
extinct : 

The Pacific Church. — This church was organ- 
ized Oct. 8, 1844, with the following persons; Perry 
G Macomber and wife, Samuel Bennett and wife, 
Ebenezer Rider, John W. Tripp and wife, George 
Perry and wife, John S. Holmes, Mrs. Susan Perry, 
Laban Thatcher, Sarah Allen, Hannah Chase, Fanny 
Thomas, Sarah Slocum, Sarah Cobb, Rebecca Albert, 
Thankful Hawes, Almira Ellis, Abby Copeland, Susan 
Vincent, and Betsey Holmes. 

October 13th, Rev. Sylvester Holmes and wife, Jon- 
athan Wheeler and wife, Seth C. Nichols, Eliphalet 
Daggett, Esther Sowle, and others were received into 
the church. 

Sabbath afternoon, November 3d, the following 
persons were admitted to membership by letter: I. 
H. Bartlett, Joseph Seabury and wife, Deborah C. 
Bartlett, and Miss Abby Jane Clapp. November 4th, 
Perry G. Macomber and Jonathan Wheeler were 
chosen deacons. 

The pastors were as follows: Revs. Sylvester 
Holmes, Mr. Colburn, Timothy Stowe, Bernard Paine, 
T. C. Jerome, I. L. Harris, and Rev. C. J. K. Jones. 

The church disbanded April 17, 1878, the member- 
ship of nearly one hundred going to North Congre- 
gational Church and Unitarian Church, almost en- 
tirely to the former. 

The church property was sold to the Second Ad- 
ventists. 

Third Christian Church. — This church was 
organized in 1826. It was known as the African 
Christian until 1840, when the name was changed to 
Third Christian. The house of worship was on 
Middle Street, and was dedicated June 24, 1830 ; 
sermon by Elder William Quinn. Shortly after the 



91 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



society was admitted to the Christian connection. 
The names of those constituting the church were 
John Christopher, Joseph Antone, N. Anderson, 
Moses Sheperd, Samuel Wilson, Charles R. Cook, 
Samuel Richards, Ruth Johnson, Dinah Farmer, 
Rebecca Bailey, Sally Antone, Margaret Sheperd, 
Catharine Dixon, Jane Fute, Avis Williams, Char- 
lotte Cook, and Abby Christopher. 

The following were the pastors : Rev. Messrs. Wash- 
ington Christian, Jacob Perry, Isaac Smith, Luke Wal- 
dron, Haves, Anthony, Henson, Francis, Sunrise, Be- 
man, and J. B. Smith. 

To meet the expenses of repairs the property was 
mortgaged to the Five Cents Savings-Bank, which 
foreclosed the mortgage in 1859, and the church be- 
came extinct. During the latter part of its existence 
it was known as the Free-Will Baptist Church. 

Cannon ville Union Church was organized 
through the efforts of Messrs. Edward S. Cannon, 
Charles Cannon, W. H. Sturtevant, Ellis Bartlett, 
Isaac Bolles, and George W. Hathaway. A house of 
worship was built by William Wilcox, costing one 
thousand dollars, of which sum seven hundred and 
fifty dollars was raised by Messrs. Cannon. It was 
dedicated Dec. 9, 1841, sermon by Rev. G. F. Pool. 
In the spring of 1842 a church was formed, having a 
membership of forty-two. 

The first settled pastor was Rev. Edward H. Hat- 
field, whose ministry began in 1849. He continued 
only six months ; supplies were then procured until 
the next session of Conference, when Rev. Charles 
Noble was sent to the church. After a year's service 
he gave up the keys to Mr. Cannon, and Conference 
relinquished the station. Mr. Cannon then employed 
Rev. W. H. Sturtevant, paying him his salary out of 
his own pocket. In April, 1852, Rev. Mr. Tripp, a 
Baptist clergyman, took charge, and remained until 
the February following. Mr. Edward S. Cannon was 
the mainspring of this church. 

The Centre Church was organized Feb. 12, 
1845. The following were some of the original mem- 
bers : James H. Collins, William H. Stowell, Isaac 
Bly, David Ilsley, Prentiss W. Cobb, Benjamin G. 
Wilson, Robert Luscomb, William Bly, Ruth Bly, 
Deborah Simmons, and Eliza Tubbs. 

It was at first attempted to form a church of the 
Christian denomination, but the clergymen invited to 
do this declining, invitations were extended to Rev. 
Messrs. Ephraim Peabody, Davis, and E. B. Hall, of 
Providence, by whom the society was organized. 
Rev. Charles Morgridge was the first pastor ; he 
preached until March, 1845. The next was Rev. 
Jonathan Brown, of Naples, N. Y., who officiated 
about three years without much success. The church 
then voted not to employ any but Unitarian minis- 
ters. In October, 1848, Rev. Moses G. Thomas was 
installed. His pastorship continued until 1854, when 
the financial affairs of the church became so full of 
embarrassment that it was voted to disband. 



The Mount Pleasant Church owed its origin 
to Noah Tripp and some twenty-two others from the 
Pleasant Street Church. The house was built in 
1852. In the commencement it was proposed to 
make it free to all denominations, but it was after- 
wards deemed necessary to organize as a Methodist 
Church, which was done April 19, 1854. The first 
pastor was Rev. E. W. Dunbar. He was followed 
by Rev. Messrs. Gavitt, Hinks, Worthing, and Ham- 
len, who preached a year each. The house was then 
sold to the Baptists, who held services but a short 
time. 



CHAPTER XL 

NEW BEDFORD.— ( Continued.) 

PKESS— EDUCATIONAL— BANKS, ETC. 

The Medley, or New Bedford Marine Journal — The Mercury — The 
Standard — The Whaleman's Shipping-List — The New Bedford Signal 
— Numerous other Newspapers — Friends' Academy — Free Public Li- 
brary — The National Bank of Commerce — The Merchants' National 
Bank — The Mechanics' National Bank — The First National Bank — 
The Citizens' National Bank — Institution for Savings— Five-Cent 
Savings-Bank — Water-Works — New Bedford and Fairhaven Street 
Railway — Post-Office — Wamsutta Mills — Potamska Mills — Grinnell 
Mills — Gosnold Mills, etc. — Masonic — Star in the East Lodge — 
Eureka Lodge — Adoniram Chapter R. A. M. — Sutton Commandery — 
Early Physicians — Fire Society, 1809 — The Ship Rebecca — Miscella- 
neous. 

The first paper published in New Bedford was The 
Medley, or Neio Bedford Marine Journal, the first num- 
ber of which was issued Nov. 27, 1792, " printed and 
published by John Spooner, at his office near Rotch's 
wharf." It was a small sixteen-column sheet. The 
first number contained news from Italy, France, and 
England, and a record of the proceedings of the 
Second Congress of " Confederated America." John 
Spooner notifies the inhabitants that "he has just re- 
ceived from New London and for sale the following 
books." In the list were " Watts' Hymns," " Fen- 
ning's Spelling-Book," "Vicar of Wakefield," " Sea- 
men's Journals," " Adventures of Gil Bias," " Fanny, 
or the Happy Repentance," etc. He also advertises 
for sale Dutch quills, wafers, etc., and will take 
" cash or any of the above books given in exchange 
for clean cotton or linen rags, old sail-cloth, or junk." 

Caleb Green advertises " Books and book-binding," 
while William Rotch, Jr., "Respectfully informs his 
Customers and Friends he has for sale wholesale and 
retail, at his store in New Bedford, sail-cloth, coarse 
and fine sheetings, pork and salt, Philadelphia and 
Russia bar-iron, paints, etc." 

The brig " Mary" is advertised to sail for Havre de 
Grace, Cornelius Grinnell, master; and the sloop 
" Mayflower," Gibbs West, master, for New York and 
Chesapeake. 

The Neiv Bedford Mercury, a weekly newspaper, was 
established in 1807 by Benjamin Lindsey, who had 



NEW BEDFORD. 



95 



previously worked as compositor and foreman in the 
printing-office of the Palladium in Boston. It was a 
small sheet of sixteen columns, printed " on good 
paper and in fair type," the subscription price two 
dollars, exclusive of postage, and "payable half- 
yearly in advance." In his address to the public 
the editor says, "It is our wish and intention to pub- 
lish a useful and, as far as our resources will permit, 
an entertaining journal, embracing all those objects 
which properly fall within its scope, etc. ... In 
politics we shall adopt the truly republican principles 
of Washington's ' Farewell Address,' convinced that 
all Americans are alike interested in their support. 
Thus doing, we shall 

"' Nothing extenuate, 
Nor set down aught in malice.' " 

The first issue contains " very late foreign news" 
(for those ante-clipper-ship, ante-steam-power, and 
ante-telegraph times), a proclamation by Thomas 
Jefferson, and various local advertisements by Abra- 
ham Sherman, Peter Barney & Son, and Russell, 
Thornton & Co. In the second number is an adver- 
tisement of a new line of stages between New Bed- 
ford and Boston, announcing that the "stage will 
start from Crocker's tavern in New Bedford at sun- 
rise on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, and ar- 
rive at Boston at three o'clock p.m." 

The founder of the Mercury conducted it alone till 
1826, when his son, Benjamin Lindsey, Jr., was asso- 
ciated with him. In 1831 they started the Daily Mer- 
cury (the first daily established in New Bedford), and 
thesenior proprietor soon after retiring, the entire man- 
agement devolved upon the son, who published it till 
July 15, 1861, when, having been appointed United 
States consul at St. Catharine's, Brazil, he sold the 
newspaper establishment to C. B. H. Fessenden and 
William G. Baker. 

The Mercury, under Mr. Lindsey's management, 
grew in importance and value, was edited with abil- 
ity, and for many years enjoyed a wide circulation. 
For a long time it had no competitor, there being 
then no evening paper, and its close attention to the 
fullness and accuracy of its ship news secured for it a 
generous list of subscribers. 

Fessenden & Baker took charge of the paper upon 
the very eve of the late civil war. It was not an 
auspicious time for such an undertaking by men of 
limited pecuniary means and unacquainted with the 
details of newspaper business. But the new proprie- 
tor- had a decided taste for journalism, and lost noth- 
ing in reputation, if they gained nothing in money, by 
the venture. The character of the paper did not 
suffer by the transfer. It honestly and heartily sup- 
ported the Republican administration in the prosecu- 
tion of the war and afterwards in the great wofk of 
reconstruction. It advocated at an early day the 
arming of the enslaved negroes and their emancipa- 
tion, one of its editorials having the caption, " We 



must fight them or free them." In the darkest days 
of the Rebellion its leading articles were cheery and 
hopeful, prophesying progress through a big disaster, 
and showing unbounded confidence in the final tri- 
umph of the nation. Even beyond the circumscribed 
limits of its circulation it exerted a healthful and 
conservative influence, for its columns were scrupu- 
lously kept free from anything that would offend 
good taste or injure public or private morals, and 
it was vigorous in its advocacy of all real reform. 
It was persistent in urging the introduction of pure 
water into New Bedford as a sanitary and economic 
measure, and the supplementing of the loss to the 
city from the inevitable decline of the whale fish- 
ery by the increase of manufactures, both which 
have gradually come to pass. 

May 1, 1876, the Mercury passed by purchase into 
the hands of the present proprietors, Messrs. Stephen 
W. Booth, Warren E. Chase, and William L. Sayer, 
who now, under the style of the Mercury Publishing 
Company, conduct it. Mr. Booth had for years been 
in the employ of Fessenden & Baker as clerk and 
then business manager. Mr. Chase had large expe- 
rience and skill as a compositor, and Mr. Sayer had 
graduated with honor from the Mercury office as re- 
porter. Young, hopeful, intelligent, industrious, and 
determined to succeed, they have kept up the tone of 
the paper, and in many respects improved its appear- 
ance. Republican in principle, it is independent of 
party, its editor, Mr. Sayer, approving or condemning 
measures without regard to their party origin or sup- 
port. The paper is losing nothing of vigor in its old 
age, keeps up with the current of opinion on matters of 
public concern, is breezy with local news, and prom- 
ises to grow and prosper with the growth and pros- 
perity of the city, because it supplied a public need. 

The Old Colony Gazette was started in October, 1808. 
In 1811 the name was changed to the New Bedford 
Gazette, and again in 1812 to The Bristol Gazette, when 
it was removed to Fairhaven. It was discontinued 
July 10, 1813. Billings & Tucker and David Hollis 
had charge of it in 1810, afterwards Joseph Gleason, 
Jr., until Feb. 5, 1813, when it passed into the hands 
of Paul Taber. 

The New Bedford Courier was established June 12, 
1827, by Benjamin T. Congdon. In 1833 the words 
Weekly Lyceum were added to the title. In the fol- 
lowing year the WorMngmen's Press, a paper first 
issued in May, 1832, was united with the Courier. 
The first number of the consolidated sheets appeared 
Feb. 26, 1834, under the management of Harris & 
Borroughs, to whom Mr. Congdon had transferred his 
interest in the paper. After the publication of the 
second or third number the paper again passed into 
his hands, and was continued by him under the same 
title, New Bedford Weekly Courier and WorMngmen's 
Press, till July 2, 1834, when he sold it to J. George 
Harris and Charles W. Rexford, who changed the 
title to New Bedford Gazette and Weekly Courier, and 



96 



HISTORY OF BRTSTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



published it in connection with the Daily Gazette until 
November 3d of the same year, when the partnership 
was dissolved by the withdrawal of Rexford. Mr. 
Harris edited the paper until 1838. In 1838 the 
name was again changed to The New Bedford Weekly 
Advocate, but neither this paper nor the Daily Gazette, 
which was established in 1833, and edited by Harris & 
Rexford and J. George Harris, were published in 1839. 1 
Mr. Harris is now a retired pay director in the 
navy, residing in Nashville, Tenn., with summer 
residence at New London, Conn. 

The Register, daily and weekly, was published by 
William Canfield in 1839; Morning Register and New 
Bedford Register, by Canfield & Andros, in 1841 ; 
Evening Register and New Bedford Register, by Wil- 
liam Young, in 1845. 

The Daily Evening Bulletin and Semi- Weekly Bulle- 
tin were started in 1842, edited by William Eddy in 
1843, by Charles T. Cougdon in 1844, and by Henry 
Tilden in 1845-46. 

During 1846 the evening paper was published tri- 
weekly, and the name of the weekly changed to The 
Weekly Bulletin and Advocate. 

The Seaman's Reporter and Family Visitor, after- 
wards The New Bedford Reporter and Whalemen's 
Weekly Visitor, edited by Joseph H. Smith, appeared 
in July, 1844. He was succeeded, in 1849, by Charles 
H. Kingsford. In connection with the weekly Mr. 
Smith also published from July 2, 1847, a semi- 
weekly called the New Bedford Reporter and Semi- 
Weekly Democrat. Kingsford afterwards issued an 
octavo sheet, made up of advertisements and circu- 
lated gratuitously. 

The Daily Evening Standard was first issued on Fri- 
day, Feb. 15, 1850, and was a sheet nineteen by 
twenty-seven inches in size. The field had long been 
occupied by the Mercury, and many attempts to es- 
tablish rival newspapers had failed. Mr. Edmund 
Anthony, the originator of the Standard, was a native 
of Swansea, and for some years carried on the print- 
ing business in Taunton, where he founded the Taun- 
ton Democrat, now the Gazette, and its weekly edition, 
now called the Household Gazette. The Standard 
rapidly gained in patronage and favor, and Feb. 6, 
1851, the announcement was made that its circulation 
in the city of New Bedford was more than that of any 
other paper. As a consequence the postal authorities 
awarded to it the advertising of letters not called for, 
and the advertisement appeared in its columns for the 
first time April 16th. The Standard has been en- 
larged several times,— July 1, 1852, Feb. 15, 1856, 
June 8, 1864, Nov. 16, 1865, Jan. 2, 1871, and Oct. 
23, 1879, — and is now a broad sheet twenty-five by 
forty-two inches. With the extension of telegraph 
facilities at the opening of the civil war it became 
advisable to print more than one daily edition. The 
hour of publication had been three o'clock. Another 



i See biographical department. 



edition at 3.30 o'clock first appeared June 1, 1861, and 
was continued till Nov. 7, 1868 ; another at five o'clock 
appeared July 6, 1861, and is still regularly issued. 
For a few months at the opening of the war a morn- 
ing edition was printed, and for a number of summers 
previous to 1870 an extra edition was published at 
1.30 o'clock, in order that it might be circulated the 
same day at the great summer resort on Martha's 
Vineyard. Increased means of transportation have 
since obviated the necessity of this. At one time in 
the course of the war, from Sept. 2, 1864, to April 15, 
1865, the state of the paper market was such that the 
proprietors could not obtain paper the exact size they 
needed, and the columns were temporarily shortened 
about half an inch. In January, 1864, Mr. Anthony 
commenced the publication of the Springfield Union, 
and July 26th of that year it was announced that the 
Standard would appear in the name of E. Anthony 
& Sons, Edmund Anthony (Jr.) and Benjamin An- 
thony being admitted as partners. Mr. Anthony dis- 
posed of his Springfield enterprise in about two years 
and returned to New Bedford, where he died Jan. 24, 
1876, at the age of sixty-seven years. The style of 
the firm continues as before, E. Anthony & Sons. 

The Republican Standard (weekly), published on 
Thursdays, commenced at the same time with the 
daily, the first number appearing Feb. 21, 1850, its 
size beiug twenty-two by thirty-three inches. Its 
prosperity and progress have been proportionate to 
that of the Evening Standard, and it was enlarged Feb. 
16, 1854, Jan. 3, 1867, Jan. 5, 1871, Jan. 4, 1877, and 
Jan. 4, 1883, and its size is now thirty-five by forty-nine 
inches. At the time of enlargement in 1867 the quarto 
form was adopted. These newspapers are the largest 
of their respective classes south of Boston and east 
of Providence, and their circulation is larger than 
that of any other papers in the same section, the 
regular issue of which being between three thou- 
sand five hundred and four thousand copies. The 
Evening Standard is mostly read in New Bedford and 
within ten miles around. Its circulation in the city 
is about two thousand nine hundred copies, or one 
for every nine inhabitants, men, women, and children. 
Three-fourths or more of the circulation of the Repub- 
lican Standard is in the towns of Southern Massachu- 
setts and Eastern Rhode Island, and it is sent regu- 
larly to six hundred post-offices. The aim of the 
Standard has been from the first to present a thorough 
digest of news of every description on all the current 
topics of the time, giving special prominence to de- 
tails of matters of local interest. In politics it has 
been in affiliation with the Republican party, except 
with regard to the tariff. The job-printing depart- 
ment of the office is well organized and does a large 
business. Though inaugurated on what superstition 
has marked as an unlucky day, the enterprise has 
been an unbroken success in all respects, and has be- 
come the largest printing establishment in Southern 
Massachusetts. 



NEW BEDFORD. 



97 



The Whaleman's Shipping-List and Merchants' Tran- 
seript was founded March 17, 1843, by Henry Lindsey, 
and conducted by him until his death in 18f>3. It then 
passed into the hands of Benjamin Lindsey, and was 
owned by him until 1873, when it was purchased by E. 
P. Raymond, who has since conducted it as sole editor 
and proprietor. Mr. Raymond has had the editorial 
management of the paper since 1861. It is the only 
paper of its kind in the world, and its circulation ex- 
tends to London, Dublin, Glasgow, Canary Islands, 
Paris, China, St. Helena, Barbadoes, New Zealand, 
Chili, Tasmania, Berlin, Azores, etc. 

The New Bedford Signal was started Dec. 14, 1878, 
by George Robertson as editor and proprietor. It 
was started as a twenty-column sheet, but has been 
enlarged to twenty-four columns. It is independent, 
" bound to no sect, ruled by no party." 

The New Bedford Times, a weekly paper, was edited 
and published by John Frasier from 1857 to 1861. 

The following papers were short-lived : The Chris- 
tian Philanthropist, 1823, edited by Melcher and 
Rogers; The Censor ; The Record- of the Times, 1830; 
The Advocate, commenced in 1844, published by Henry 
Tilden ; The Union, 1857, by Henry Tilden ; The May- 
flower, 1844; The Independent Press, October, 1848; 
The Harpoon, edited by William Miller ; The Weekly 
Echo, 1849, edited by Moses Brown ; The Whaleman, 
published weekly from 1854, edited by William S. 
Anderson; The Citizen, Dec. 1, 1860; The City Rail 
Advertiser, 1860-61, and The Herald. 

Friends' Academy. 1 — Friends' Academy, now lo- 
cated in New Bedford, west of County Street, and 
between Morgan and Elm Streets, is a day school for 
teaching boys and girls the elements of ancient and 
modern language*, of mathematics, and of natural and 
moral sciences, with certain of their applications. Its 
past of seventy years has witnessed many changes in 
teachers, in pupils, in text-books, in methods, in pros- 
perity, and in the mode of realizing the purpose of 
its founders ; but that purpose itself has always been 
kept in view. The internal history of a school which 
has touched the lives of two thousand pupils would 
form an interesting contribution to pedagogics, but 
where obtain the data? Most adults remember as 
little of school life as of infant life. The world 
dwarfs the school by comparison in the mind of the 
grown-up man. He recalls, at most, some prank of 
himself or his fellows ; naturally, he knows his beard 
bettor than his brain, whatever their relative import- 
ance. Nor can the layman, to use a Germanism, see 
that the moral and natural sciences, that languages, 
even the so-called dead languages, that mathematics 
themselves have been transformed in the last seventy 
years, and that these changes have been reacting in 
the school. Thus it happens that from inquiries, 
from catalogues, from reports one gets so little that is 
interesting or useful. 

i Contributed by Mr. A. Ingrabam. 



The external history of the academy we will tabu- 
late at the end of this brief article, and gain room for 
a glimpse at literary New Bedford of 1810, the year 
in which the village that had owed to William Rotch 
and his associates the greater share of its business 
prosperity was to owe to him and to them its strongest 
impulse in the direction of thought and culture. 

Abraham Shearman, Jr., at his book-store in " Four 
Corners," offered for sale, among other books, " Frag- 
ments in Prose and Verse," by Elizabeth Smith; 
" Memoirs of Frederick and Margaret Klopstock ;" 
Barlow's " Columbiad ;" Beattie's " Elements of 
Moral Science ;" Stewart's " Philosophy of the Hu- 
man Mind ;" " Lectures on Astronomy," by Margaret 
Bryan; Ewing's "Natural and Experimental Phil- 
osophy;" Gregory's " Letters on Taste, Composition, 
and Literature;" Accum's "Analysis of Minerals ;" 
Scott's " Marmion ;" Dryden's " Virgil." 

Cephas Cushman " respectfully informs the public 
in general that he intends opening a day and evening 
school to teach the art of writing." 

Elisha Thornton and his son, Daniel Thornton, 
" propose opening a school jointly on the 11th inst. 
(December, 1809) at the Friends' school-house in the 
village of New Bedford, for the instruction of the 
youth of both sexes, principally in the higher 
branches of literature, viz. : English grammar, geog- 
raphy, use of the globe, the several branches of the 
mathematics, as geometry, surveying, navigation, and 
astronomy." 

Among the laws of New Bedford South School we 
find the following: " The common branches of learn- 
ing to be taught in said school are spelling, reading, 
writing, English grammar, and arithmetic, geography, 
with the use of the globe and making maps upon dif- 
ferent principles ; geometry, trigonometry, with their 
application to the mensuration of heights and dis- 
tances, navigation and surveying of land, mensura- 
tion of superfices and solids, gauging, dialing, book- 
keeping by single and double entry will be taught 
at different prices." 

The Social School had been established near the 
"Head of the River" in 1798. "In this school," 
among other things, " the scholars shall be taught to 
accent and read properly both poetry and prose, be 
put to arithmetic and the study of English grammar 
as soon as the committee and preceptor shall deem 
them qualified therefor." The following books shall 
be used in the school, viz. : Webster's "Institute," 
" Young Ladies' Accidence," the Holy Bible. " The 
senior class shall be instructed one day in each week 
in epistolary and other composition. The pupils 
shall be taught to make and mend their pens on their 
beginning to write joining hand." It is enjoined on 
the teacher "that he never strike the children on the 
head, nor authorize one scholar to inflict corporal 
punishment on another;" and also " that he frequently 
address his pupils on moral and religious subjects, 
endeavoring to impress their minds with the sense of 



98 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



the being and providence of God, and the obligation 
they are under to love, serve, and pray to Him ; their 
duty to their parents and masters and respect to their 
superiors ; the beauty and excellence of truth, justice, 
and mutual love ; tenderness to brute creatures, and 
the sinfulness of tormenting them and wantonly 
destroying their lives." 

The New Bedford Academy, between the villages 
of Fairhaven and Oxford, had been established in 
1799. It was voted by the trustees in 1810, January 
22d, that the committee be directed and are hereby 
authorized to make arrangements to sell the house at 
public sale. 

In October, 1810, Cornelius Wing gives notice that 
he intends to open his evening school at the South 
school-house for the third season. 

In July, 1810, the New Bedford Library Society 
confer with the proprietors of the Social Library on 
the subject of incorporating both libraries in one. 

Member* of the Board of Trustees of Friends' Acad- 
emy.— William Rotch, 1812-28; Elisha Thornton, 
1812-16; Thomas Arnold, 1812-26; Samuel Elam, 
1812-13; Samuel Rodman, 1812-35; William Rotch, 
Jr., 1812-50; William Dean, 1812-50; Abraham 
Shearman, Jr., 1812-23; James Arnold, 1812-68; 
Samuel Rodman, Jr., 1813-76; Obadiah M. Brown, 
1813-22; George Howland, 1817-52 ; Benjamin Rod- 
man, 1817-76; Joseph Rotch, 1823-39; Charles W. 
Morgan, 1823-61; Francis Rotch, 1823-74; Andrew 
Robeson, 1823-62; Thomas A. Greene, 1826-67; Wil- 
liam R. Rodman, 1830-55; Joseph Grinnell, 1836-55; 
Samuel W. Rodman, 1838; William R. Robeson, 1838; 
Benjamin S. Rotch, 1839-82; Andrew Robeson, Jr., 
1839-74; William J. Rotch, 1839; William Logan 
Rodman, 1855-63; Lawrence Grinnell, 1855; Thomas 
R, Rodman, 1856; Edmund Rodman, 1856; George 
Hussey, Jr., 1864-72; Horatio Hathaway, 1864; 
Joshua C. Stone, 1866-69; Leander A. Plummer, 
1868; S. Griffiths Morgan, 1870; William Rotch, 
1870; Morgan Rotch, 1880; Thomas M. Stetson, 
1880; Frederic Swift, 1880; Edmund Grinnell, 1880. 
Presidents of the Board.— William Rotch, 1812-28 ; 
Samuel Rodman, 1828-32; James Arnold, 1832-36; 
William Rotch, Jr., 1836-50; Samuel Rodman, 1850 
-76 ; William J. Rotch, 1876. 

Treasurers of the Board. — William Rotch, Jr., 1812 
-50; William J. Rotch, 1850. 

Secretaries of the Board. — Samuel Rodman, 1812-27 ; 
Samuel Rodman, Jr., 1827-37; Thomas A. Greene, 
1837-41; Benjamin S. Rotch, 1841-46; William J. 
Rotch, 1846-56 ; William Logan Rodman, 1856-64; 
Edmund Rodman, 1864. 

Principals. — John Maitland Brewer, 1812-17 ; Moses 
S. Moody, 1817-18 ; Thomas A. Greene, 1818-20 ; John 
H. W. Page, 1827-29; William Howe Sanford, 1829- 
31; William Mosely Holland, 1831; David Mack, 
1831-36 ; Isaac N. Stoddard, 1835-37 ; John V. Beane, 
1837-45; Simon Barrow, 1845-46 ; Abner J. Phipps, 
1847-58; Edward A. H. Allen, 1855-69; T. Prentiss 



Allen, 1858-64 (male department) ; John Tetlow, 
1869-78 ; Andrew Ingraham, 1878. 

Assistants (the dates are approximate). — Thomas 
A. Greene, 1817; Joseph Congdon, 1820; John F. 
Emerson, William Howe Sanford, Alanson Brigham, 
Oliver Prescott, 1829; Samuel A. Devens, Samuel 
Sawyer, George Washington Warren, Elizabeth Dorr, 
Edward Fabre, 1829; Julia Mack, Joshua Seixas, 
George Ticknor Curtis, William Mack, Francis B. 
Casas, Samuel Mack, Henry Washington Lee, Wil- 
liam D. Taber, P. A. Giraud, J. A. Frentin, Edward 
Seager, M. Moultrop, Nathan D. Gould, George W. 
Winchester, 1835; William Mack, Abby Osgood, 
Samuel Beane, Phineas Adam Beane, F. P. Wierz- 
biski, Erastus W. Woodbury, James H. Coggeshall, 
Charles Peabody, Albert G. Wicks, Simon Barrows, 
J. B. R. Walker, John B. Garland, William Hatha- 
way, J. B. Edwards, Catherine Kittredge, Mary Ann 
Willard, Anna W. Weston, Cyrus Bartlett, J. F. 
Kelly, John Bennett, Hannah B. Robinson, Minerva 
Chase, Mary Washburn, 1845 ; Luke K. Bowers, Cli- 
mena Wakefield, George H. Fillmore, Ivory S. Corn- 
ish, Lorenzo D. Blood, William T. Goodwin, Abby L. 
Hitchcock, 1855 ; Sophia Shepherd, Louisa P. Stone, 
Elvira Johnson, Martha Russell, Clara Kempton, 
Cornelia T. Hart, Annie Gordon, Edwin P. Seaver, 
William Gordon, D. J. Butler, John Tetlow, Jr., 
Caroline A. Hinckley, Emma Saul, Bessie T. Wing, 
Gabrilla T. Eddy, Andrew Ingraham, Cornelius 
Howland, Jr., Mrs. H. B. Warner, L. Papanti, M. 
Blanquet, Max. Eppendorf, Max. Richter, Edward 
C. Dubois, Frances G. Henry, A. C. Maggi, 1869; 
Celia L. Chase, Mary E. Savery, Lorette M. Furber, 
Maria S. Eaton, Louisa H. Clapp, 1875; Charles J. 
Gardner, Caleb A. Burbank, Edward H. Cobb, Charles 
Monier, Arthur Cumming, J. T. White, Mary T. 
Spalding, Maria Maggi, May G. Bonney, Mary S. 
Locke, Mary B. Seabury, Samuel Lepoids. 

Chronology. — 1810. A school-house erected by Wil- 
liam Rotch on a lot of land which he had purchased 
at the corner of County and Elm Streets, in the vil- 
lage of New Bedford. September 17th. Preliminary 
meeting; William Rotch, William Rotch, Jr., Sam- 
uel Rodman, Samuel Elam, Thomas Arnold, James 
Arnold agree to contribute certain sums " for the 
purpose of establishing and endowing an institution 
for the instruction of Friends' children, and such 
others, as it may appear hereafter, as may usefully 
and safely be admitted therein, in the knowledge of 
the languages, of mathematics, and philosophy, and 
such other branches of useful literature as hereafter, 
upon experiment, may be found within the compass 
and means of the institution usefully to teach." 

1812, Feb. 29th. Charter of Friends' Academy 
signed by Elbridge Gerry, Governor of Massachu- 
setts. 

1813, Dec. 3d. The trustees are notified that Sam- 
uel Elam, of Newport, had bequeathed to the academy 
all his printed books and papers. 



NEW BEDFORD. 



99 



1830. Additional land presented by W. Charles 
Morgan, Esq., and others. 

1855, May 9th. Repeal of the first article of the 
by-laws, which made membership in the Society of 
Friends a condition of appointment to the office of 
trustee. 

1855, Sept. 19th. The department for girls made 
entirely distinct from that for boys. 

1856, June 11th. A building committee appointed 
to erect a new school-house on land recently pur- 
chased on Morgan Street. 

1857, May 7th. Dedication of the new building. 
1860. The building enlarged and remodeled. 
1869. Male and female departments completely 

consolidated. 

References for further information : Historical 
Sketch of the Friends' Academy, prepared for the j 
Centennial Year, to which is appended a presentation 
of the course and methods of instruction at present 
pursued. New Bedford : Fessenden & Baker, Print- 
ers, 1876. The historical sketch was contributed by 
Thomas R. Rodman, Esq., the remainder by John 
Tetlow, A.M., then principal of the academy. His- 
tory of New Bedford, by Daniel Ricketson, Esq., pp. j 
325. 

History of the New Bedford Public Schools — 
The first movement to establish a regular system of 
public schools in New Bedford, in conformity to the 
laws of the commonwealth, was made in 1821. Prior 
to that time the only free school which had been sup- 
ported at public expense was one intended for the 
poor alone ; and " it was in every sense," says Mr. j 
James B. Congdon, " a poor school." 

The wealth of the town was intensely hostile to the 
movement. The only man of wealth who acted with 
the people in the matter was John Avery Parker. 
But the attempt succeeded. A school committee was 
appointed, an appropriation of twelve hundred dol- 
lars was voted, and the town was sub-divided into 
school districts. 

A year or two after the opponents of a free-school 
system rallied their forces and were successful. Upon 
the question of appropriating twelve hundred dollars 
for schools, the friends of public education were voted 
down. But the triumph of the contestants was not 
of long continuance, for the very next year the neces- 
sary sum was appropriated to support the schools, 
and active opposition to them, as the system was then 
constituted, ceased altogether. 

But when, after an interval, there was a movement 
for the establishment of a High School, it excited 
acrimonious hostility. Its enemies rallied in force, 
and were repeatedly successful. But its friends as 
often renewed the struggle, and finally the opposition 
gave way and a high school became one of the per- 
manent features of the public-school system of the 
town. 

From that time forward the schools grew more and 
more deeply in popular favor, and as the town in- I 



creased in numbers the appropriations were increased 
in proportion, until the original grant of twelve hun- 
dred dollars, in 1821, had grown to the sum of twenty- 
one thousand two hundred and twenty-five dollars in 
1846, when a charter was granted and accepted, and 
the town became a city. 

Nothing occurred worthy of note for many years. 
The constitution of the school system and the methods 
of instruction followed closely the traditional types 
then prevailing in Massachusetts. The ideal of 
" school-keeping" was very low before, and even for 
some time after the middle of the century the phil- 
osophy of education as exemplified in our public 
schools was extremely vague and indeterminate, and 
many of the methods of instruction had nothing to 
recommend them except that that was the way chil- 
dren had always been taught. Horace Mann, in 
1840, painted a humiliating picture of the average 
Massachusetts public school, and' it is commended to 
the careful study of those fossilized grumblers who 
denounce the reformed methods of instruction as 
damaging innovations of the good old ways, when 
they themselves went to school ; but although the 
New Bedford schools attempted no departures from 
the beaten track, they had at all times many teachers 
of superior ability, who verified in the happiest man- 
ner the adage, as true as it is trite, that " as is the 
teacher so is the school ;" and the character of the 
schools of New Bedford, in general, was no doubt 
above that of most New England schools. 

It was fortunate for the High School, in the days 
when the institution was regarded by many as a 
doubtful experiment, that it had for its principal Mr. 
John F. Emerson, a man of admirable character, fine 
culture, and peculiar aptitudes for his vocation. Such 
a man will make any school which he may undertake 
a success, and Mr. Emerson's administration concili- 
ated the opponents of the High School, and multiplied 
its friends, until, when he resigned his position in 1861 
on account of impaired health, after many years of 
faithful and eminently useful service, it was firmly 
established in the favor of the community. His 
pupils, one and all, speak of him in terms of the high- 
est respect and regard. His lifelike portrait hangs 
in a conspicuous place in the hall of the new and 
noble High School house, an honor which he richly 
earned. 

As the years wore on, and the schools increased in 
size and number as the city grew in population, the 
school committee found the task of supervision too 
exacting to be faithfully performed by gentlemen who 
had each his own personal business to transact. The 
result, it was evident, was a total lack of system in the 
management of the schools, and an unjust irregularity 
in their oversight. Some were measurably cared for, 
others were almost totally neglected, and there was 
lacking a central force to give unity as well as direc- 
tion to the whole. 

In this condition of affairs the plan adopted for relief 



100 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



by several other cities who were in like circumstances, 
of employing a superintendent of the schools, began to 
be discussed and gradually to grow in favor, until at 
length, in 1861, Mr. Abner J. Phipps was elected su- 
perintendent, and was placed as the executive officer 
of the school committee in control of the schools. 
Mr. Phipps had won an enviable reputation as a gen- 
tleman of excellent ability, critical scholarship, and 
capacity to govern and teach youth in a superior 
manner, during a long term of service as principal of 
Friends' Academy in New Bedford. 

As his office had been lately created and had yet to 
establish itself in public favor, he pursued a judicious 
course in attempting no considerable changes in the 
old order of things. He was content to let system 
and methods remain undisturbed, satisfied with labor- 
ing to supply the defects in executive work which had 
specially occasioned his appointment. He held the 
office until the beginning of the year 1864, when he 
resigned to take a similar position in the city of 
Lowell. 

In February, 1865, Rev. Henry F. Harrington, of 
Cambridge, was elected to succeed him. Mr. Harring- 
ton had passed through a peculiarly advantageous ex- 
perience to prepare him for his duties, as he had borne 
a prominent part in the formation of the school sys- 
tem of the then newly-founded city of Lawrence, had 
afterward been superintendent of its schools, and sub- 
sequently an active member of the school committee 
of the city of Cambridge. He immediately entered 
upon the duties of his new office, and as soon as he 
had acquainted himself with the condition of the 
schools, began— having the sympathy and co-opera- 
tion of most of the leading members of his school 
committee — that series of reforms and improvements 
which have secured for the schools of New Bedford a 
distinguished position among the schools of the State. 
It has been claimed by the New Bedford school com- 
mittee, and the claim has never been disputed, that 
their schools have been invariably pioneers in the 
practical exemplification of the admirable methods 
of instruction which now prevail, that there is not 
one of them which, so far as New England is con- 
cerned, did not have its origin in their own city. 

The reorganization of the primary schools, and the 
substitution of intelligent and attractive methods of 
learning to read, learning numbers, etc., in place of 
the old rote methods, were accomplished in 1865. In 
1867 the "New Bedford Manual of Instruction" was 
prepared and adopted. There were at the time no 
hand-books of the kind in New England, and only 
two or three in all the United States. This manual 
was so well approved that it was copied entire into 
the volume of the reports of the State Board of Edu- 
cation in the following year, and thousands of copies 
were distributed by private subscription in the nor- 
mal schools and among the school committees and 
teachers of the State. It was the source and basis of 
wide-spread reforms, and a new and enlarged edition, 



embodying the practical wisdom which had been ac- 
quired meanwhile, was printed in 1874. 

In 1869 a beginning was made towards the intro- 
duction of supplementary reading in the shape oi 
three hundred subscriptions to the Nursery, a child's 
magazine, for use in the primary schools. This was 
the first practical recognition in New England of the 
great principle, now so widely and heartily accepted, 
that it is only reading much which can confer the 
ability to read well. 

In this way step after step was taken to rid the 
schools of whatever there might be of defect in the 
processes of study, and to introduce truer and better 
ways. As might be expected from this earnest and 
resolute feeling after the best, mistakes were some- 
times made. Experiments were tried, some of which 
resulted in failure. But if there had been a timorous 
halting to undertake lest the result should be disap- 
pointing there could have been no vital energy of 
operation, no well-grounded and substantial progress. 
It is to the great credit of the New Bedford School 
Committee that they have uniformly allowed their 
superintendent untrammelled opportunity to make 
proof of his ideals, willing to run the risk of an occa- 
sional failure for the sake of assured successes. Thus 
the New Bedford school work is the first of actual 
experiment. Nothing is practiced because recom- 
mended or practiced in other quarters ; nothing is 
omitted which it has not been proved to be judicious 
to omit. 

The studies of the schools are selected and ad- 
justed to each other on clearly defined principles, so 
that all the school work has a direct and intelligent 
purpose. The most important study is considered to 
be language. This is pursued diligently, having 
paramount attention, through all the grades and de- 
partments of the school system, from the little pri- 
marians of the thirteenth or entering grade to the 
young men and women of the first or graduating 
grade in the High School. The means employed are 
an abundance of interesting reading, and the fre- 
quent writing of compositions in the various forms 
pertaining to that exercise. The specific ends to be 
gained are the acquirement of a full and ready vocab- 
ulary and the capacity of easy and accurate expres- 
sion through speech and with the pen, and this, 
joined to a thorough knowledge of the four funda- 
mental rules of arithmetic, is what Edward Everett 
called " an excellent education." This study is also 
intended, incidentally, to develop the power of orig- 
inal thought, and to lead to a relish for pure, inform- 
ing literature. 

The perceptions are held to constitute the most 
trustworthy instrumentality in the acquirement of 
accurate conceptions of material things, therefore all 
studies are to be illustrated by means of objects to as 
great an extent as may be conveniently possible. 

No study is to he pursued merely for the sake of 
mental discipline, on the ground that there is no time 



NEW BEDFORD. 



101 



for such study. Mental discipline is recognized to be 
one of the essential elements of a good education; 
but in our public schools only so much can justly l>e 
furnished as can be attained through the systematic 
pursuit of the practical information which is provided 
in the course of study. The attention given to arith- 
metic is abridged to the limit of the few topics which 
are desirable for practical use in life, while the com- 
paratively useless details in geography and history 
with which the text-books on those subjects are 
crowded are omitted. 

The proper relations of mental to moral instruc- 
tion, that vital subject, have been set forth in a late 
New Bedford Annual School Beport as follows: 

" Mental education has no inherent moral force. 
It is the obedient vassal of character. As the needle 
follows the lead of the magnet, so the intellect follows 
the lead of the sentiments, and if they be corrupt 
mental education becomes only a promoter of evil. 
The training of the sentiments, then, is incalculably 
more important than the training of the mind; and 
in all conflicts between mental training and character 
training, as regards the appropriation of time, of effort, 
or of money to one or the other, mental training is 
always to give way." 

The efforts thus put forth for the best possible school 
system and school work have received an incalculable 
advantage from the benefits derived from the "Sylvia 
Ann Howland Fund." This fund is the fruit of a 
gift of one hundred thousand dollars to the city in 
the year 1870 by the lady whose name it bears, the 
income to be divided between the Free Fublic Li- 
brary and the public schools. It is an admirable pro- 
vision of the donation to the schools that no portion 
of the avails are to be devoted to any purposes which 
the city is legally bound to provide through taxation. 
The city pays six per cent, for the use of the fund, 
and thus the school committee have had in possession 
annually since the year 1870 to expend for the good 
of the schools the sum of three thousand dollars. 
They have been enabled to supply all needful appli- 
ances to secure the best possible results of study, — 
books of reference and for reading, apparatus and 
cabinets for scientific illustration, museums for ob- 
jective teaching, maps, globes, musical instruments, 
and all the other appurtenances of a thoroughly fur- 
nished school-room. And so greatly have these as- 
sistances given interest to the vocation of the teachers, 
as well as high tone-and character to the teaching, 
that several teachers who have been offered higher 
salaries to go elsewhere have declined on the sole 
ground that they could not bear to surrender the ad- 
vantages derived from the "Howland Fund." 

It is a singular fact that the only three instances in 
the history of Massachusetts in which large sums of 
money have been given by private munificence for 
the good of public schools should have occurred in 
Bristol County, — in New Bedford, Fall Biver, and 
North Easton. 



The organization of the school system is as fol- 
lows: There are five departments, viz., High, Gram- 
mar, Primary, Country, and Mill School Departments. 

These departments (except the Mill School) are 
sub-divided into thirteen grades, whose total corre- 
sponds with the number of school years. Of these 
grades the Primary Department includes four, the 
Grammar Department five, and the High School De- 
partment four. They are designated by numbers, 
the youngest in the list being the thirteenth. 

There are twenty-two public school-houses in the 
city. Of these a portion are quite old, and will have 
to give place before long to new and better structures. 
Others have been reconstructed, and will serve their 
purpose for many years longer, while several are new 
and are replete with every convenience. The city 
government is very liberal in furnishing additional 
accommodations for the ever-enlarging number of 
pupils. An excellent school-house has lately been 
completed at a cost of about twenty thousand dollars. 

The High School house is a model edifice, of im- 
posing proportions and a striking and pleasing style 
of architecture, while the interior is faultless in its 
carefully-studied arrangements. It has eight school- 
rooms, two art- or draughting-rooms, a library, a 
philosophical lecture-room with apparatus-room at- 
tached, a chemical laboratory thoroughly fitted at 
great expense, in which twenty-four pupils can work 
at the same time, clothes' room and dressing-room, 
and a hall which will accommodate more than a 
thousand persons. The cost of the building was one 
hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars. 

The Mill School is an exceptional institution, de- 
signed to serve two purposes, — the chief one to give 
children who work in the mills a more fitting educa- 
tion than they could obtain by being classed in the 
regular grades, the other to allow the pupils in the 
regular grades who are constantly at school the op- 
portunity of uninterrupted progress by preventing 
the drawbacks which would be incident to periodical 
increment by children discharged from the mills, who 
are not capable of being classed with regular pupils 
without clogging the wheels of progress. The Mill 
School is admirably taught and highly valued. 

The total appropriation for the New Bedford schools 
for the year 1883 was eighty-three thousand eight hun- 
dred dollars. There were in service during the year 
1882 one hundred and fifteen teachers, of whom only 
seven were men. 

Aimwell School is located on North Street, near 
Foster. Mrs. W. H. Knight, principal ; Mrs. George 
O. Buckley and Miss Mary L. Smith, assistants. 

The New Bedford Free Public Library.— The 
commonwealth of Massachusetts, recognizing from 
the earliest period of its history the educational influ- 
ence of public libraries, gave the assistance of its 
legislation in the promotion of their establishment 
and management. 

Early in the present century laws were enacted 



102 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



giving corporate powers to the proprietors of social 
libraries, many of which had been established in 
various parts of the commonwealth, and under the 
provisions of the law the number was increased, their 
•condition made permament, and their management 
rendered convenient and effective. 

But a few years after the incorporation of the town 
of New Bedford, the want of books and the inability 
of most of the inhabitants to procure them led to a 
combination of effort for that purpose. 

The early settlers of the village of Bedford were 
intelligent, as well as industrious, frugal, and virtuous. 
They were so far enlightened as to understand the 
value of books, and they saw clearly that the remedy 
for individual inability to procure them was such a 
combination of means and efforts as would render the 
united ability the property of each. 

Several such combinations were formed in New 
Bedford previous to the passage of the act conferring 
upon them corporate powers. 

The proprietors of Dobson's Encyclopaedia were 
the earliest to form this social and profitable arrange- 
ment. For our unlearned and isolated people this 
work was a library in itself. Eagerly and thoroughly 
were its pages read and consulted, and the well-worn 
volumes now in the Free Public Library bear testi- 
mony to the fact, so creditable to the people of the 
village. 

The Library Society followed. This was a more 
comprehensive effort. The desire for books had out- 
grown the ability of Dobson to satisfy. The Social 
Library followed. This was a vigorous, well-directed, 
and well-managed association. The good sense of all 
recognized the wisdom of combination, and in the 
union there was found strength. The three associa- 
tions were united, and the New Bedford Social Library 
had a long, prosperous, and profitable career. 

When the passage of the State law allowed the 
proprietors to become a body corporate, advantage 
was taken of its provisions. For nearly half a cen- 
tury this valuable collection of books was the princi- 
pal source whence w r as supplied the desire of the 
people for knowledge and intellectual recreation. 
"Library-day" was always a welcome day. There 
was in attendance generally a large number of intel- 
ligent seekers, and the result of that intercourse with 
books for which this library provided was a marked 
and most promising and interesting feature in the 
characters of the young men and women of New 
Bedford. 

The act to authorize cities and towns to establish 
and maintain public libraries was passed by the Gen- 
eral Court of Massachusetts, May 24, 1851. 

The ordinance for the establishment and govern- 
ment of a free public library in New Bedford was 
passed Aug. 16, 1852. 

The first movement in the undertaking was an un- 
successful one. It was made in the City Council July 
8, 1851, by Warren Ladd, then a member of the pop- 



ular branch of that body. The order was only to con- 
sider the expediency of the measure. It passed the 
Common Council without a dissenting voice, but the 
aldermen non-concurred. It will be seen that this 
movement was but forty-five days after the passage of 
the enabling act. 

On the 27th of May, 1852, a large petition, headed 
by James B. Congdon, was presented to the Council. 

The petition was referred to the Committee on 
Public Instruction, who reported on the 14th of June. 
They recommended an appropriation of fifteen huu- 
dred dollars for the establishment of the library. 

In their report the committee attach great import- 
ance to the fact that they had been assured that, 
" provided the authorities should, by the passage of 
the order making the appropriation asked for, estab- 
lish the principle that the maintenance of a free city 
library for the continuous education of the people 
will be the settled policy of the city," the five thousand 
volumes of the New Bedford Social Library would be 
transferred to the city. 

Quoting the words of James B. Congdon, through 
whom this offer of the proprietors of the library was 
made, they say, "With such a foundation to build 
upon, with the appropriation now prayed for to give 
it a position for immediate and extended usefulness, 
the library would open to our inhabitants the means 
of innocent enjoyment and of valuable acquisition, 
and be a source of commendable pride to our citizens." 

But the Free Public Library had, in fact, been es- 
tablished before the presentation of the report. The 
appropriation bill for the year, which had already 
passed, contained an item of fifteen hundred dollars 
for the library. Councilman Pitman, 1 who was a 
member of the committee to whom the petition was 
referred, had anticipated the favorable action of the 
Council, and had introduced and carried an amend- 
ment to the bill making the appropriation as above 
stated. This amendment was made previous to the 
presentation of the report of the committee. The ap- 
propriation bill passed July 20, 1852. The date of the 
adoption of that amendment is the date of the establish- 
ment of the New Bedford Free Public Library. 

The library was opened for the use of the people 
and the delivery of books on Thursday, the 3d day of 
March, 1853. 

The number of volumes at the opening was between 
five and six thousand. 

It is an interesting and creditable fact that the New 
Bedford Free Public Library is the only public library 
established under the law of 1851, excepting that in 
Boston, noticed by Edwards in his elaborate " Me- 
moirs of Libraries," published in London in 1859. 

The six thousand volumes with which the library 
opened have now increased to about forty-three thou- 
sand. 



1 Hon. Robert C. Pitman, one of tlie present judges of the Superior 
Court of the commonwealth. 



NEW BEDFORD. 



103 



The building now occupied by the New Bedford 
Free Public Library was erected in 1856-57. Its cost 
was about forty thousand dollars. It is built of brick, 
with granite underpinning and steps and freestone 
ornaments. 

The corner-stone of the building was laid on the 
28th of August, 1856. 

Of the library building the upper rooms only are 
occupied by the library. The principal room is neat 
and tasteful in its architectural features and conve- 
nient in its arrangements. It has two tiers of alcoves, 
one on the floor and one on the gallery, which is car- 
ried around the whole room, excepting on the north 
end where the stairs lead to it. An iron railing divides 
the alcoves from the visitors. Reading-desks outside 
the railing contain the periodicals, which are acces- 
sible to all, and seated at these desks the visitors are, 
in addition to these, furnished with any books they 
may wish to consult. The delivery is at a table at the 
north end. A stand for newspapers occupies a central 
position in the room. Six other rooms are occupied 
for library purposes, four for books, one for the trus- 
tees, and one for the convenience of the librarian and 
his assistants. 

The library has had a growth unexpectedly rapid, 
and at this time the want of more room is severely felt. 

The trust funds established for the benefit of the 
library are three. 

The first upon the list is the George Howland, Jr., 
Fund. Its amount is the sum of two years' salary of 
George Howland, Jr., as mayor, sixteen hundred dol- 
lars. 

Under the will of Charles W. Morgan there was 
paid to the city by William J. Rotch, his executor, 
the sum of one thousand dollars, which constitutes 
the Charles W. Morgan Fund. 

Under the will of Sylvia Ann Howland the city of 
New Bedford was paid the sum of one hundred thou- 
sand dollars. The testament of this excellent lady 
contained the following interesting item : 

" I give and bequeath to the city of New Bedford 
the sum of one hundred thousand dollars, and direct 
that this sum shall be invested judiciously under the 
direction of the City Council, and the income there- 
from shall be expended and used for the promotion 
and support within the city of liberal education, and 
the enlargement from time to time of the Free Public 
Library." 

Of this bequest fifty thousand dollars were set apart 
for the library, and constituted the Sylvia Ann How- 
land Free Public Library Fund. Its income is now 
the chief dependence of the trustees for the " enlarge- 
ment" of the library, as the appropriation by the city 
barely suffices for the salaries and other expenses of 
the institution. 

During the delay which attended the litigation upon 
the will of the deceased the funds of the estate largely 
increased, and in addition to the bequest of fifty thou- 
sand dollars which constitutes the fund, about ten 



thousand dollars was paid into the treasury of the city 
as interest or income and placed to the credit of the 
library. 

Under the direction of the trustees of the library a 
plain white marble tablet, commemorating this noble 
act, was placed in the principal room of the institution. 

It is surrounded by a frame of tasteful design and 
of perfect execution. The whole, both in plan and 
performance, including the site selected for its erec- 
tion, is one which commends itself to the good sense, 
the feelings of propriety, and the grateful emotions 
of the people of New Bedford. The inscription upon 
the tablet is as follows: "This tablet commemorates 
the enlightened liberality of Sylvia Ann Howland, 
who bestowed upon the city of New Bedford the sum 
of two hundred thousand dollars ; one hundred thou- 
sand dollars to aid in supplying the city with pure 
water, and one hundred thousand dollars as a fund 
for the promotion of liberal education by the enlarge- 
ment of the Free Public Library, and by extending to 
the children and youth of the city the means of a wider 
and more generous culture." 

It will be seen by this inscription that the whole 
amount bequeathed to the city of New Bedford by 
this lady was two hundred thousand dollars. One- 
half the sum was applied to the construction of the 
New Bedford water-works, the other was equally 
divided, forming the library and educational fund. 

The amount of the several trust funds established 
for the benefit of the Free Public Library, which have 
been severally noticed, is fifty-two thousand six hun- 
dred dollars. 

The annual income is three thousand one hundred 
and fifty-six dollars. 

This income is a vital element in the existence of 
the library. We have seen that the ordinary annual 
appropriation is necessarily absorbed by the expenses 
of management. It is, therefore, mainly upon the 
income of the permanent funds that the trustees 
depend for the supply of books and periodicals, and 
for the constant renovation which the active use of 
the books renders necessary. 

Mr. Robert Ingraham was the first librarian (Octo- 
ber, 1852), and has officiated in that capacity to the 
present time, a period of over thirty years, and it may 
truly be said that much of the success of this library 
is due to Mr. Ingraham's zeal, intelligence, and in- 
dustry. 

The National Bank of Commerce.— The Bedford 
Bank was organized in 1803 with a capital of $60,000; 
Thomas Hazard, president; John Pickens, cashier. 
Capital increased in 1804 to $150,000, and continued 
with same officers until 1812, when charter expired. 

The Bedford Commercial Bank was organized in 
1816 •with a* capital of $100,000; George Howland, 
president; Joseph Ricketson, cashier. The capital 
was increased in 1821 to $150,000; in 1825, to $250- 
000; in 1831, to $400,000; and in 1851, to $600,000. 
George Howland continued as president until his 



104 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



death in 1852. E. M. Robinson filled the office from 
1852 to 1860; Thomas Nye, Jr., from 1860 to 1869; 
Thomas S. Hathaway, from 1869 to 1878; Francis 
Hathaway was elected August, 1878, and is the pres- 
ent incumbent. 

The bank has had five cashiers, as follows: Joseph 
Ricketson, 1816-34; James H. Crocker, 1834-38; 
Thomas B. White, 1838-73; Benjamin F. Coombs, 
1873-76 ; and James H. Tallman, 1877 to present time. 

The Bedford Commercial Bank continued until 
Dec. 19, 1864, with the same capital ($600,000), when 
it was organized as " The National Bank of Commerce 
of New Bedford," with a capital of $600,000, which 
was increased in 1874 to $1,000,000, its present capital. 

The directors at the time of its organization as a 
national bank were Thomas Nye, Jr., president, Wil- 
liam J. Rotch, Thomas S. Hathaway, George Hussey, 
Matthew Howland, Charles L. Wood, William Hath- 
away, Jr., Thomas Knowles, Henry Taber, William 
C. N. Swift. 

The present (1882) board of directors are as fol- 
lows: Francis Hathaway, William Hathaway, Jr., 
William C. N. Swift, Matthew Howland, William J. 
Rotch, Henry Taber, Thomas Nye, Jr., Leander A. 
Plummer, Charles W. Clifford, William A. Robinson, 
and Morgan Rotch. 

The Merchants' Bank of New Bedford was or- 
ganized July 23, 1825. The first board of directors 
were as follows: John A. Parker, Samuel Borden, 
Job Eddy, Abraham Barker, Joseph Bourne, Win. 
H. Allen, David R. Greene, John Coggeshall, Jr., 
Alfred Gibbs ; John Avery Parker, president, James 
B. Congdon, cashier. 

Mr. Parker was president of the bank until his 
death, Dec. 30, 1853. Mr. Congdon was cashier of the 
bank until Jan. 1, 1858, when he resigned. Charles 
R. Tucker succeeded Mr. Parker as president, and 
held that office until his death, Dec. 21, 1876. Jona- 
than Bourne succeeded Mr. Tucker, and is now presi- 
dent. P. C. Howland succeeded Mr. Congdon, and is 
now cashier. 

The Merchants' Bank of New Bedford was reorgan- 
ized as the Merchants' National Bank of New Bed- 
ford, Feb. 14, 1865. The board of directors at the time 
of reorganization, Feb. 14, 1865, were as follows: 
Charles R. Tucker, Abraham Barker. David R. 
Greene, Gideon Allen, Thomas Bradley, Dennis 
Wood, J. Bourne, Jr., William P. Howland, An- 
drew Hicks. 

The capital stock Feb. 14, 1865, was $600,000, with 
a surplus of $166,050.58. The present (Sept. 11, 
1882) board of directors are Jonathan Bourne, George 
F. Bartlett, George R. Phillips, William R. Wing, 
Andrew Hicks, George F. Kingman, Lewis S. Judd, 
Samuel C. Hart, Thomas H. Knowles, Gilbert Allen, 
Abraham H. Howland, Jr., Francis B. Greene, Wil- 
liam N. Church ; J. Bourne, president, P. C. How- 
land, cashier. Capital, $1,000,000; surplus and un- 
divided profits (Sept. 11, 1882), $488,177.43. 



The Mechanics' National Bank. 1 — This was 
originally a State bank, incorporated Oct. 3, 1831, 
under the name of "The President, Directors, and 
Company of the Mechanics' Bank in New Bedford," 
and to so continue until Oct. 1, 1851, with a capital of 
$200,000. 

The first meeting of the stockholders was held July 
16, 1831, and the first meeting of the directors July 
23, 1831. The names of the directors were as follows: 
William R. Rodman, Thomas Mandell, George T. 
Baker, Joseph R. Shiverick, John Perkins, Edmund 
Gardner, Pardon Tillinghast, Andrew Robeson, Dud- 
ley Davenport. William R. Rodman was the first 
president. He held the office for twenty years, re- 
signing October, 1851. Thomas Mandell succeeded 
him, being elected president Oct. 11, 1851, and hold- 
ing the office till his death, which took place Feb. 13, 
1870. Hon. William W. Crapo was chosen president 
June 1, 1870, and still retains that position. 

Pardon Tillinghast, the first vice-president, was 
elected Jan. 10, 1866, resigning June 1, 1870. Hon. 
Andrew G. Peirce was chosen vice-president June 1, 
1870, and still holds the office. 

Joseph Congdon was elected cashier Oct. 6, 1831, 
holding the position till Oct. 7, 1857, a period of 
twenty-six years, when he resigned on account of ill 
health. E. Williams Hervey succeeded Mr. Congdon 
as cashier, being elected Oct. 7, 1857, and holding the 
position till Aug. 9, 1S82, when ill health compelled 
him to resign after a period of nearly twenty-five 
years as cashier and twenty-nine years in the service 
of the bank. James W. Hervey was the third cashier, 
being elected Aug. 12, 1882, having served the bank 
since 1857, and as assistant cashier since Oct. 8, 1859. 

Joseph R. Shiverick, the first secretary, served till 
Oct. 5, 1859; James H. Collins, Oct. 8, 1859, to Oct. 
12, 1861; Thomas Wilcox, elected Oct. 12, 1861, still 
retains the office. 

Of the original board of directors none are living. 
Of those who have served the interests of the bank 
as directors but not at present connected with the 
bank only two are living, viz.: William Watkins, 
elected Oct. 6, 1852, resigned Feb. 8, 1879, to accept 
the presidency of the First National Bank of this 
city; Edmund Taber, elected Oct. 3, 1849, resigned 
1861, and is now interested in the oil districts of Vir- 
ginia. 

The capital of the Mechanics' Bank under the 
State charter was twice increased. The first increase 
was $200,000, April 12, 1854, making $400,000, and 
the second of $200,000, June, 1857, making $600,000, 
the present capital of the Mechanics' National Bank. 
The present surplus is about $250,000. 

In March, 1849, the Legislature was petitioned for 
a renewal of the original charter, which by limitation 
would expire Oct. 1, 1851. The Mechanics' Bank did 
not cease business as a State bank until the 31st of 



1 Contributed by James W. Hervey. 



NEW BEDFORD. 



105 



March, 1865, although the bank was reorganized as a 
national bank June 3, 1864. 

The following is a list of the present board of di- 
rectors, with the dates of their election : Hon. William 
W. Crapo, Oct. 9, 1861 ; Hon. Andrew G. Peirce, 
John R. Thornton, Jan. 8. 1867; Jireh Swift, Oct. 3, 
1849; Thomas Wilcox, Oct. 9, 1861; Edward D. 
Mandell, Feb. 26, 1870; Horatio Hathaway, June 3, 
1871; Loum Snow, E. Williams Hervey, June 9, 
1872; Edward Kilburn, Jan. 9, 1883. 

The present officers of the bank are: President, 
Hon. William W. Crapo, elected June 1, 1870; Vice- 
President, Hon. Andrew G. Peirce, elected June 1, 
1870; Secretary, Thomas Wilcox, elected Oct. 12, 
1861 ; Cashier, James W. Hervey, elected Aug. 12, 
1882 ; Assistant Cashier, Lemuel T. Terry, elected 
Aug. 12, 1882; First Cook-keeper, Nathan C. Hatha- 
way, elected Aug. 12, 1882 ; Second Book-keeper, Al- 
fred Thornton, elected Aug. 12, 1882. 

The First National Bank.— The Marine Bank of 
New Bedford was organized April 3, 1832, with a capital 
of two hundred thousand dollars, which was increased 
the next year to three hundred thousand dollars, in 
1851 to five hundred thousand dollars, and in 1855 to 
six hundred thousand dollars. Joseph Grinnell, Na- 
thaniel Hathaway, Kimball Perry, Joseph G. Tilling- 
hast, Alexander H. Campbell, Ephraim Kempton, 
Benjamin Russell, Joseph R. Anthony, and William 
W. Swain were elected directors. Joseph Grinnell was 
president from the organization to 1864. The cashiers 
were John E. Williams, William M. Sisson, and John 
P. Barker. This bank was among the first of the State 
banks to adopt the national system. In 1864 it be- 
came a national bank, changing its name to the First 
National Bank of New Bedford. This bank com- 
menced business with the capital of the old bank 
(six hundred thousand dollars), which was increased 
in 1869 to one million dollars. The directors were 
Joseph Grinnell, Ward M. Parker, William Gitford, 
Edward W. Howland, Edward C. Jones, Lemuel Kol- 
lock, George F; Barker, Otis Seabury, and J. H. Bart- 
lett, Jr. Joseph Grinnell was elected president, and 
John P. Barker cashier. Mr. Grinnell was president 
until January, 1878, and was succeeded by Edward 
\V. Howland and William Watkins. Mr. Barker was 
cashier until 1874, when W. P. Winsor, the present 
cashier, was elected. This bank has been since its 
organization a designated depository of the United 
States. 

The Citizens' National Bank was incorporated 
May 17, 1875, with the following board of directors : 
Joseph A. Beauvais, John P. Knowles, William J. 
Kilburn, Charles Tucker, Joseph H. Cornell, L. S. 
Judd, and John F. Tucker. The first president was 
Joseph Beauvais, who has officiated to the present 
time. T. B. Fuller was chosen first cashier, and is the 
present incumbent. Capital upon organization was 
two hundred and fifty thousand dollars, which has 
been increased to five hundred thousand dollars. 



The New Bedford Institution for Savings was 
incorporated in 1825 with the following incorporators: 
William Rotch, Jr., Gilbert Russell, Cornelius Grin- 
nell, Andrew Robeson, Haydon Coggeshall, Benjamin 
Rodman, John A.Parker, Eli Haskell, Richard Wil- 
liams, George Howland, Joseph Bourne, Abraham 
Shearman, Jr., William W. Swain, Thomas Rotch, 
Thomas A. Greene, Charles W. Morgan, Samuel 
Rodman, Jr., John B. Smith, William C. Nye, 
Thomas S. Swain, William H. Allen, Lemuel Wil- 
liams, Jr., John Howland, Jr., Charles H. Warren, 
William P. Grinnell, Joseph Ricketson, Charles Grin- 
nell, Nathan Bates, John Coggeshall, Jr., James How- 
land (2d), Gideon Howland. 

The first officers were : President, William Rotch, 
Jr. ; Treasurer, Abraham Shearman, Jr. ; Secretary, 
John B. Smith. 

The first board of trustees were as follows : William 
Rotch, Jr., Gilbert Russell, Cornelius Grinnell, Hay- 
don Coggeshall, John A.Parker, Eli Haskell, Joseph 
Bourne, Abraham Shearman, Jr., Thomas Rotch, 
Thomas A. Green, Charles W. Morgan, Samuel Rod- 
man, Jr., William C. Nye, Thomas S. Swain, John 
Howland, Jr., William P. Grinnell, Nathaniel Bates, 
John Coggeshall, Jr., Gideon Howland. 

The following is a list of officers from 1825 to 1883: 
Presidents, William Rotch, Jr., Abraham Baker, 
Thomas Mandell, Pardon Tillinghast, William C. 
Taber, and William Watkins; Secretaries, John B. 
Smith, Abraham Shearman, Jr., Thomas A. Green, 
Joseph Ricketson, George Howland, Jr., James B. 
Congdon, Charles R, Tucker, William C. Tate, Ed- 
mund Taber, and Henry T. Wood ; Treasurers, Abra- 
ham Shearman, Jr., William C. Taber, George W. 
Baker (William C. Taber, treasurer pro tern.), Reuben 
Nye, William C. Coffin, and Charles H. Peirce. 

The present trustees are William C. Taber, Wil- 
liam Hathaway, Jr., Benjamin T. Ricketson, John R. 
Thornton, George A. Bourne, William J. Rotch, Wil- 
liam Watkins, Edward D. Mandell, Matthew How- 
land, Henry T. Wood, Gilbert Allen, Andrew G. 
Pierce, Leander A. Plummer, Charles H. Giftbrd, 
Asa C. Peirce, Charles Taber, William G. Wood, 
j William C. Taber, Jr., Joshua C. Hitch, John F. 
Tucker, Abraham T. Eddy, Horatio Hathaway, 
George 0. Crocker, Edward S. Taber, Thomas M. 
Hart, Lemuel M. Kollock, Abraham H. Howland, Jr., 
Charles W. Clifford, Isaac W. Benjamin, Francis 
Hathaway, William A. Robinson, Charles W. Plum- 
mer. 

The first deposit was made by Rhoda E. Wood, of 
Fairhaven, Mass., of fifty dollars, Aug. 15, 1825. 

Present amount of deposits, Jan. 3, 1883, $9,474,- 
804.58; undivided earnings, $317,457.67; total funds, 
$9,792,262.2.".. 

The New Bedford Institution for Savings has never 
passed a regular semi-annual dividend on account of 
any of the financial disturbances which have occurred 
since its organization in 1825. The trustees of the 



106 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



institution have always pursued a conservative policy, 
and the institution has the confidence not only of the 
local community but has a well-earned reputation 
abroad. There has never been a " run" on the insti- 
tution at any time of financial panic in other cities. 

The rooms on Hamilton Street, in the rear of the 
Merchants' National Bank, which were occupied by 
the institution in its earlier history, becoming inade- 
quate to its increasing business, the present building, 
at the corner of William and North Second Streets, 
was erected, and in 1854 the office was transferred 
thither. 

The whole amount of dividends paid during the 
existence of the institution is eight million six hun- 
dred and seventy-six thousand three hundred and 
eighty-six dollars and thirty-three cents. 

The New Bedford Five Cents Savings-Bank was 
incorporated May 5, 1855, with the following incor- 
porators: Thomas B. White, W. H. Taylor, L. Kol- 
lock, I. H. Bartlett, A. H. Seabury, Charles Almy, 
Henry H. Crapo, George Howland, Jr., and Asa R. 
Nye. The first board of trustees were George How- 
land, Jr., Henry H. Crapo, Alexander H. Seabury, 
John P. Barker, Charles Almy, Thomas B. White, I. 
H. Bartlett, Nehemiah Leonard, Andrew Roberson, 
Jona. P. Land, William Phillips, Edward S.Cannon, 
Edward W. Howland, Moses Howe, Joshua Rich- 
mond, George F. Barker, Dennis Wood, Charles 
Hitch, James Darfee, Lemuel Kollock, Asa R. Nye, 
Edward D. Mandell, William P. Howland, Alden G. 
Ellis, T. A. Beauvois, Moses G. Thomas, Samuel 
Ivers, Simpson Hart, Abner J. Phipps, W. H. Tay- 
lor, Joseph Taylor, W. L. Rodman, Horatio Leonard, 
John Wood. The first officers were George Howland, 
Jr., president; H. H. Crapo and A. H. Seabury, vice- 
presidents ; John P. Barker, treasurer, and Charles 
Almy, secretary. 

The officers from the organization to the present 
time have been as follows: George Howland, Jr., 
president; Charles Almy, secretary ; A. H. Seabury 
and H. H. Crapo, vice-presidents from 1855 to 1858 ; 
A. H. Seabury and Dennis Wood, vice-presidents 
from 1858 to 1874 ; Dennis Wood and Frederick S. 
Allen, vice-presidents from 1874 to 1878 ; Frederick 
S. Allen and Lemuel Kollock, vice-presidents from 
1878 to 1883; John P. Barker, treasurer from May, 
1855, to October, 1855; T. C. Ricketson, from October, 
1855, to April 6, 1861 ; B. Ricketson, Jr., from April, 
1861. 

The present trustees are as follows : George How- 
land, Jr., Fred. S. Allen, Lemuel Kollock, Charles 
Almy, William Phillips, James Durfee, Alexander 
H. Seabury, Samuel Ivers, Thomas Wilcox, William 
G. Taber, George R. Phillips, John P. Knowles (2d), 
E. Win. Hervey, Warren Ladd, Joseph Taylor, Henry 
J. Taylor, William J. Kilburn, William R. Wing, 
William N. Church, James P. Macomber, J. Aug. 
Brownell, Loum Snow, Jr., Frederick S. Gifford, 
Thomas H. Knowles, H. C. Denison, Samuel H. 



Cook, Samuel C. Hart, Edwin S. Thayer, C. B. H. 
Fessenden, Thomas B. Tripp, Benjamin I. Cummings, 
Philip B. Purrington, Edward H. Allen, George F. 
Kingman, Edwin Dews, Parkman M. Lund, Frederick 
S. Potter, Edmund Grinnell, John F. Swift. 

The first deposit was made May 26, 1855, by Horace 
W. Barker, of $25. The present (Dec. 29, 1882) 
amount of deposits is $3,109,118.64 ; surplus, $44,880.- 
76; earnings, $27,867.67; reserve fund, $45,101.94. 
Money goes on interest the second Wednesday of 
January, April, July, and October. Dividends are 
payable on the second Wednesday of April and 
October. 

Water-Works. 1 — The first movement towards in- 
troduction of water in New Bedford was made in 
March, 1860. Various plans were subsequently 
thoroughly discussed and examined, and April 18, 
1863, the acts for supplying the city with pure water 
were passed by the General Court. November, 1865, 
plans as hereinafter described were adopted, and an 
ordinance to regulate the proceedings of the commis- 
sion. William W. Crapo, Warren Ladd, and David 
B. Kempton were appointed commissioners. 

December 13th a board of commissioners was or- 
ganized with W. W. Crapo as chairman, and James B. 
Congdon clerk. The years 1866 to 1869, inclusive, 
were occupied by process of construction, and water 
was introduced in the latter part of 1869. 

Water is obtained from a storing reservoir, arti- 
ficially formed by constructing a dam across the val- 
ley of the Acushnet at a point about seven miles 
north of the centre of the city. The area of water- 
shed of the storing reservoir is three thousand three 
hundred acres; area of water surface of reservoir is 
three hundred acres; capacity of reservoir, four hun- 
dred million gallons ; elevation of surface of full 
reservoir, forty feet above high tide. 

The dam is six hundred feet long, twenty feet wide 
on top, with slopes two to one. In the middle is a 
puddled wall from six to twelve feet wide. Inner 
slope is protected by lining of huge-size stone. Water- 
way, located at east end of dam, fifty feet wide, con- 
structed of rubble hydraulic masonry, except over 
fall, which is hammer-dressed; whole rests on timber 
and plank platform, and that upon foundation of 
puddled earth. Gate-chamber located at west end of 
dam, and is carried out into reservoir about fifty feet. 
Chamber is of hammer-dressed stone, laid in hydraulic 
cement mortar; the house is of birch, whole rests on 
timber and plank foundation. Soon after dam was 
first completed leaks began to appear in the vicinity 
of gate-house, and on Feb. 15, 1868, a breach occurred 
in this part of the dam, the gate-house and over one 
hundred feet of the dam being carried away. The " 
cause was due to fine sand under the gate-house and 
culvert becoming saturated and running like quick- 
sand. This trouble was obviated in rebuilding. 

1 Contributed by R. C. P. Coggeshall. 



NEW BEDFORD. 



107 



From the dam at the storing reservoir the water 
flows by gravity through a single ring brick conduit. 
The conduit is in form of an egg-shape oval. Its in- 
terior dimensions are three and four feet, the lower 
end being a semicircle of three feet diameter. Its 
length is five and five-eighths miles. There are three 
overflows on this line of conduit for the discharge of 
surplus water. The grade is 0.58 per mile. 

The outlet of the conduit is into the receiving res- 
ervoir. This reservoir has a capacity of three million 
gallons. When filled the water has a depth of twelve 
feet, and its elevation is thirty feet above tide. 

Its embankments are twelve feet wide on top. The 
outside slope is two to one. The inside slope is one 
and one-half to one. The inside slope has a lining of 
puddled earth four feet wide at the top and ten feet 
wide at the bottom of the reservoir, and carried down 
three feet below the bottom. The inside slope is pro- 
tected by a lining of granite stone one foot thick, hav- 
ing the joints well filled with fine gravel. From the 
receiving reservoir to the pump-well the water is con- 
ducted in a stone culvert. The length of this culvert 
is two hundred and sixty-nine feet. The dimensions 
of the pump-well are: length, thirty-one feet; width, 
twelve feet; depth, seventeen feet. There are four 
recesses, five by six feet, for the pumps. From the 
pump-well the water is raised a height of one hun- 
dred and twenty-four feet to the distributing reser- 
voir, through a sixteen-inch force-main two thousand 
two hundred feet long. The pipe system is also sup- 
plied in the lower section direct from the pumps 
through a ten-inch main. The distributing reservoir 
has a capacity of fifteen million gallons. When filled 
the water has a depth of seventeen feet, and its eleva- 
tion is one hundred and fifty-four feet above tide. Its 
embankments are from eight to eighteen feet above 
the natural surface of the ground. The top is fifteen 
feet in width, and its slopes are two to one. On its 
inner slope is a lining of puddled earth seven feet 
wide at the top and fifteen leet wide at the bottom of 
the reservoir, and carried down five feet below the 
bottom. Upon the inside slope of the embankment 
is a wall of granite, eighteen inches thick at the bot- 
tom and twelve inches at the top. Between the back 
of the stone facing and the front of the puddle is a 
layer one foot thick, composed of small stones and 
gravel. There are two pumping-engines. The larger 
engine was designed by William J. McAlpine, C.E., 
and was built by the Quintard Iron-Works, New York 
City. It is a vertical beam condensing engine, with 
two vertical single-acting pumps. Its general dimen- 
sions are: steam-cylinder, thirty-eight inches diameter, 
eight feet stroke; beam, twenty-six feet long; fly- 
wheel, sixteen feet diameter and twelve tons weight. 

The pumps are placed one on each side of the beam 
centre. Diameter of pumps twenty-eight inches, stroke 
four feet eight inches. The beam is supported by a cast- 
iron hollow column which serves as an air-chamber. 
This engine is supplied with the "Sickles" adjustable 



cut-off', and is capable of using steam expansively to 
any desirable extent. It passes slowly over the centres, 
thus giving the pump-valves time to close. This en- 
gine has the capacity of pumping five million gallons 
in twenty-four hours. In the line of duty this engine 
has given excellent results. The smaller engine is a 
Worthington compound duplex engine, of a capacity 
of pumping three million gallons in twenty-four hours. 
In 1873 a stand-pipe was erected near the distributing 
reservoir. Its internal diameter is five feet, and the 
elevation of its top is one hundred and ninety-seven 
feet above tide. The distributing pipes are partly of 
cast iron and partly of wrought iron, cement-lined. 
There are forty-four and one-fifth miles of pipes in use, 
ranging from four to twenty-four inches in diameter. 
Of this length about nine and a half miles are of 
wrought iron, cement-lined, the rest being of cast 
iron. There is also about one mile of smaller distrib- 
uting pipes, ranging from one inch to four inches. In 
December, 1882, there were in use three hundred and 
ninety-one stop-gates, three hundred and thirteen 
fire-hydrants, four thousand two hundred and three 
taps, forty-one mitres, and twenty-three motors. The 
average daily consumption for 1882 was two million 
three hundred and twenty-six thousand three hun- 
dred and fifty-two gallons. Bonded indebtedness is 
seven hundred thousand dollars. The total receipts 
for the year 1882 were forty-six thousand seven hun- 
dred and sixty-six dollars and nineteen cents. The 
cost of management and repairs during that year 
was twenty-three thousand four hundred and forty- 
six dollars and fourteen cents. 

George A. Briggs was chief engineer and superin- 
tendent from the commencement of the works until 
1871. William J. McAlpine, chief engineer, was con- 
sulting engineer during construction. Since 1871 the 
superintendents have been as follows, viz. : 1871-72, 
Israel C. Cornish; 1872-77, George B. Wheeler; 
1877-81, William B. Sherman; 1881, Robert C. P. 
Coggeshall, present incumbent. 

The ordinance to establish the Acushnet Water 
Board, to take the place of the water commissioners, 
was passed Oct. 1, 1869. The board consists of five 
members, and reports to City Council. The mayor and 
president of Common Council are members ex officio. 
Of the members chosen at large one retires each year, 
but the retiring member is eligible to a new election. 
The following citizens have acted as members of this 
board: Hon. William W. Crapo, David B. Kemp- 
ton, Warren Ladd, George B. Richmond, Henry F. 
Thomas, George Howland, Jr., Henry J. Taylor, 
George H. Dnnbar, Rufus A. Soule, Fredericks. Allen, 
Abraham H. Howland, Jr., Thomas Bennett, Jr., Ed- 
win Dews, Alanson Borden, William H. Matthews, 
Thomas W. Cook, Thomas R. Rodman, William T. 
Soule, Robert W. Taber, George Wilson, J. B. Tomp- 
kins, Jr., George.R, Stetson, and William N. Church. 
The clerks of the Acushnet Water Board have been 
James B. Congdon. William B. Sherman, and Robert 



108 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



C. P. Coggeshall. The water registrars have been 
James B. Congdon and James H. Hathaway. In 
December, 1882, the name of the water board was 
changed from " Acushnet" to the New Bedford Water 
Board. 

In April, 1878, the General Court passed an act en- 
abling the city to increase its water supply by taking 
such an amount as is needed from either Long Pond 
or Little Quitticus Pond. It was afterwards voted by 
the water board that the proposed additional supply 
should be taken from Long Pond. The line of the 
proposed conduit has been determined, and the land 
through which it will pass has been taken by law. 
This preliminary action leaves the work in a condi- 
tion for future operations whenever it becomes neces- 
sary. 

The New Bedford and Fairhaven Street Rail- 
way Company was incorporated Feb. 6, 1872, and on 
the 2d of the following month was organized with a 
capital of fifty thousand dollars. The board of direc- 
tors were William W. Crapo, Warren Ladd, Weston 
Howland, James V. Cox, George Wilson, Samuel P. 
Burt, Nathan S. Ellis, Andrew G. Peirce. Andrew 
G. Pierce, president and treasurer; Samuel P. Burt, 
clerk ; Charles A. Gray, superintendent. Its track 
commenced at Linden Street, on Purchase, and was 
laid south to School Street, and east on School to 
steamboat wharf; from Purchase on William, through 
William, North Second, Middle Street, across the 
bridge, and in Fairhaven to the station of the Fair- 
haven Branch Railroad. Total length of road three 
and three-tenths miles. 

Its present officers are as follows: Warren Ladd, 
president and manager ; Andrew G. Peirce, treasurer ; 
Edward T. Peirce, clerk ; Directors, Warren Ladd, 
Andrew G. Peirce, William W. Crapo, Weston How- 
land, George Wilson, James V. Cox, Samuel P. Burt, 
Edward Kilburn. Capital stock one hundred and 
thirty-five thousand dollars. 

The track has been extended from School on Fourth 
to Cove Street, and from William, on North Second, 
through Union, Sixth, Elm, Summer, and Parker to 
Cedar Street. Present total length of track six and 
four-tenths miles. 

Post-Office. — The New Bedford post-office was es- 
tablished Jan. 1, 1794, with William Tobey as post- 
master. The following is a list of postmasters from 
1794 to present time, with dates of appointment: 
William Tobey, 1794; Abraham Smith, June 20, 
1806; Richard Williams, April 4, 1826; Simon Bai- 
ley, June 20, 1840 ; Edward W. Green, June 13, 1845 ; 
Simon Bailey, June 18, 1849; Thomas Coggeshall, 
Dec. 30, 1852 ; Joseph C. Kent, June 8, 1853 ; John 
Fraser, April 6, 1857; Cyrus W. Chapman, April 16, 
1861 ; Edmund Anthony, Feb. 3, 1870; Thomas Cog- 
geshall, March 1, 1876, present incumbent. 

Wamsutta Mills.— Long before .the decline of the 
whale fishery it became apparent that this industry 
could not furnish a sufficient field for the capital 



and enterprise of the town, and that New Bedford 
must look to other employment for growth and 
progress. Commercial New England was yielding to 
manufacturing New England, and New Bedford, not 
relinquishing her control of the whale fishery, sought 
to add the machinery of the manufacturer. The 
first really efficient move in this direction after the 
cordage-factory was the establishment of the Wam- 
sutta Mills. 

The beginning of these mills dates back to 1846, 
when the corporation was chartered. A stone mill, 
now called the No. 1 mill, 212 feet by 70, with four 
floors, was built in 1847, and in the following year 
work was begun with 15,000 spindles and 300 looms. 
Six or seven years later, or about 1854, the increased de- 
mands of the trade required an extension of the mills, 
and another four-storied stone building, 245 feet Ions: 
by 70 wide, was erected immediately adjoining the 
original mill, and equipped with 16,000 spindles and 
300 looms. But the demand for the goods gradually 
outgrew the increased supply, and in 1865 a duplicate 
of mill No. 2 was put into operation with 16,000 more 
spindles and 300 more looms. The close of the war 
seemed to give a fresh impulse to the business, for it 
was found necessary to build a new mill in 1868 on a 
grander plan than the older structures. This was 
mill No. 4, which is of brick, with granite founda- 
tions, 495 feet in length, 75 feet in width, and five 
stories high. This important addition almost doubled 
the productive capacity of the establishment, the new 
mill containing 38,000 spindles and 1100 looms. It 
proved to be sufficient, however, for only seven years, 
and in 1875 mill No. 5 was built. It stands on a line 
with No. 4, and is substantially uniform with it, 
though its dimensions differ somewhat, being shorter 
and wider, 433 feet in length by 93 in width. In it 
were placed 50,000 spindles and 1000 looms. In 
1881-82, No. 6 mill was built of brick, three stories 
high, 569} feet long and 95 feet wide, containing 
51,000 spindles and 1072 looms, and employs 600 
hands. 

This large area of machinery is driven by several 
Corliss engines of immense power. One of these 
monster engines, two thousand horse-power, mightier 
by six hundred horse-power than the great engine at 
the Centennial Exhibition, has a stroke of ten feet, 
| and the weight of its fly-wheel alone is fifty tons. 

The product of the mills is chiefly the Wamsutta 
shirting and sheeting, of world-wide fame. 

This immense establishment employs 2400 persons, 
has a total of 200,000 spindles, and 4300 looms rang- 
ing in width from 40 to 120 inches. Capital, $3,000,000. 
The present officers are as follows : Joseph Grinnell, 
president; Edward Kilburn, agent ; and Andrew G. 
Peirce, treasurer. 

The Grinnell Mill.— The new mill of the Grinnell 

Manufacturing Company is 666 feet long, 98 feet wide, 

and three stories high, with flat roof, and a basement 

i about six feet high, two-thirds above ground. The 



NEW BEDFORD. 



109 



height of the first story is 15 feet, the second 14] feet, 
and the third 15] to 17 feet. The whole will cover 
almost an acre and a half. As stated before, it ranges 
from east to west along the north part of the Rodman 
Dike property, at the south side of Kilburn Street. 
The engine-house, at the southwest corner, is 40 by 
50 feet, a single story 28 feet high. The boiler-house 
is 52 by 68 feet, a single story 22 feet high. 

The picker building, 117 by 98 feet, and from 15} 
to 17 feet high, is situated 28 feet west of the main 
building. In the southeast part of this structure is 
the picker- room, 77 by 62 feet, and it also contains a 
repair-shop, 85 by 32 feet, and a cloth-room, 85 by 36 
feet. It is connected with the mill by a structure 28 
by 30 feet, which contains the main entrance to the 
mill, a harness-room, lap-elevator, etc. The picker 
building being of the same width as the mill, ranges 
with it. Farther to the west is the office building, 
48 by 24 feet, 15] feet high, and containing in addition 
to the offices a supply-room in the basement. The 
united length of the connected buildings is 859 feet. 

The mill contains 1264 looms 40 inches wide and 
9600 spindles. The power is furnished by a Corliss 
engine with two cylinders, each thirty-two feet in 
diameter and six feet stroke. 

Potamska Mills. — Potamska Mill, No. 1, was built 
in 1871, and went into operation with a capital of 
$600,000. It is 345 by 92 feet, four stories high ; the 
weaving-shed is one story high, 108 by 97 feet ; the 
picker-room is two stories high, 119 by 40 feet. It 
has 48,000 spindles and 1006 looms. 

No. 2 mill was built in 1877, the main building 
being 348 by 92 feet, four stories high; the L 184 by 
92 feet, two stories high ; the weaving-shed 184 by 92 
feet, one story high ; and the picker-house 71 by 47 
feet, two stories high ; all built of brick. This mill 
has 58,328 spindles and 1428 looms. The total num- 
ber of spindles in both mills is 106,328, and the total 
number of looms 2424. 

These mills manufacture fine lawns, satteens, cre- 
tonnes, jeans, and print cloths. Both mills are 
driven by Corliss double twenty-eight-inch cylinder, 
five-foot stroke engines, of eight hundred horse- 
power each, both mills employing about twelve hun- 
dred operatives. 

James Robinson was the first president and treas- 
urer. He was succeeded Aug. 27, 1875, by Horatio 
Hathaway, who was succeeded by the present officers, 
— Andrew G. Peirce, treasurer, elected in 1878, and 
Edward Kilburn, president, elected in 1879. Hiram 
Kilburn has been superintendent from the commence- 
ment. The goods of these mills have an enviable 
reputation for honest work and quality of material. 

The Gosnold Mills were incorporated in 1848 and 
organized in 1855, With the following board of direc- 
tors: Thomas Nye, Jr., Lemuel Kollock, William 
Phillips, W. J. Rotch, John R. Thornton, James D. 
Thompson, Jonathan Bourne, Jr., and Edward B. 
Mandell. 



The first president was Lemuel Kollock, who served 
until April 20, 1865, when he was succeeded by James 
D. Thompson, and April 21, 1875, Mr. Thompson was 
succeeded by the present president, Mr. Joseph H. 
Cornell. 

The first treasurer and clerk was Frederick Bryant, 
who was succeeded Feb. 17, 1856, by William Phil- 
lips. In 1858, Mr. L. M. Kollock became treasurer 
and clerk, and continued in that office until April, 
1865, when he was succeeded by James D. Thompson. 
Mr. William W. Webb was chosen clerk at the same 
time. Mr. Thompson officiated until April 18, 1876, 
when he was succeeded by Mr. Joseph H. Cornell, the 
present incumbent. Mr. George Wilson was elected 
treasurer April 30, 1872, when the following new 
board of directors were chosen: George Wilson, 
James H. Cornell, George F. Kingman, James M. 
Lawton, and John B. Little. John A. Bates was 
elected secretary April 15, 1873, and continues to the 
present time. Mr. Little was succeeded Aug. 1, 1874, 
by Atmore Holmes as a director, and in April, 1876, 
Mr. Lawton was succeeded by William G. Taber. 
The mills have had but two superintendents, John 
W. Kingsbury and the present, Mr. Henry Howard. 

The mills manufacture hoop, band, scroll, rod, 
horse-shoe, and hame iron and chains of every de- 
scription. The growth of these mills has been steady, 
and from a comparative small beginning they now 
rank among the representative institutions of the city. 

Masonic— Star in the East Lodge, 1 F. and 
A. M. — This is the oldest Masonic lodge in the city, 
having been chartered Dec. 10, 1823, with the follow- 
ing charter members: Timothy I. Dyre, Anthony D. 
Richmond, George Randall, Asa Wood, Alden D. 
Stoddard, Jonathan Buttrick, Oliver Swain, Charles 
Coggesliall, Thomas Cole, Zaccheus Cushman, Sam- 
uel Hall, Eastland Babcock, Timothy G. Coffin, Reu- 
ben Swift, Joseph E. Melcher, James Maddix, Sam- 
uel James, James Mooers, Mendell Ellis, Silvanus 
Ames, and Edward T. Taylor. 

This venerable lodge has always quietly and faith- 
fully exemplified the beautiful principles of Free- 
masonry, and its records are heavily laden with 
blessings of widows and orphans who through a long 
term of years have had their hearts made glad and 
burdens lightened by its generous aid. 

Its officers and members have carried on the good 
work whether the prevailing public opinion was for 
or against the fraternity, and it is one of the honored 
lodges that met regularly and duly attended to its 
business all through the fanatical Anti-Masonic ex- 
citement. Its roll embraces the names of a large 
number of our best citizens iu character and integ- 
rity, and it furnished the charter members of Eureka 
Lodge of this city, as well as many of those of Con- 
cordia Lodge of Fairhaven and Noquochoke Lodge 
of Westport. 

i By James C. Hitch. 



110 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



The Past Masters of this lodge since its charter are 
Timothy I. Dyre, George Randall, Oliver Swain, 
Ephraim Kempton, Abner Bourne, Anthony D. 
Richmond, Thomas T. Wells, John Sargent, Lucien 
B. Keith, Timothy G. Coffin, John Freeman, Timo- 
thy Ingraham, Samuel W. Hayes, Henry F.Thomas, 
Henry Taber (2d), Isaac M. Richardson, George H. 
Taber, John B. Baylies, Shipley W. Bumpus, Albert 
H. W. Carpenter, William W. Arnold, Wanton T. 
Drew, James Taylor, Ezekiel C. Gardiner, Anthony 
D. Hall. 

Its present membership is three hundred and sixty, 
and its officers are Theodore W. Cole, W. M. ; Fred- 
erick A. Bradford, S. W. ; Frank M. Ashley, J. W. ; 
Edward Stetson, Treas. ; James C. Hitch, Sec. ; Ben- 
jamin F. Jenney, Chap.; Andrew M. Marts, M. ; 
Washington A. Jenkins, S. D. ; Bartholomew Othe- 
man, J. D. ; Thomas R. Brownell, S. S. ; Ernest A. 
Wheaton, J. S. ; George Peirce, O. ; Ansel F. Blos- 
som, Tyler. 

Eureka Lodge, 1 F. and A. M. — The membership 
of Star in the East Lodge having grown so large, 
it was deemed advisable by members of the fraternity 
to have another lodge, and Eureka Lodge was 
chartered May 8, 1857, with the following-named 
members: Timothy Ingraham, Isaac M. Richardson, 
Benjamin Russell, Moses H. Bliss, Stephen A. Tripp, 
Moses G. Thomas, Lineas Wood, James C. Tripp, and 
Henry F. Thomas. 

It has always been prosperous from the beginning. 
Its Past Masters are Timothy Ingraham, Henry F. 
Thomas, Isaac M. Richardson, Amasa L. Gleason, 
Charles W. Seabury, John A. Lee, Abraham H. How- 
land, Jr., Thomas B. Tripp, James L. Sherman, Ansel 
G. Baker, William T. Soule, William O. Woodman. 

Its present membership is three hundred and 
twenty-six, and its officers are Frederick W. Mosher 
W. M. ; William H. Waterman, S. W. ; Edward H 
Field, J. W. ; Humphrey A. Gifford, Jr., Treas. 
William A. Mackie, Sec. ; Edwin Whittaker, Chap. 
George S. P. Bradford, U. ; Arnold B. Wady, S. D. 
Simpson J. Blossom, J. D. ; Charles L. Tripp, S. S. 
Henry L. Dwight, J. S. ; Thomas J. Borden, I. S. 
George Peirce, O. ; Ansel F. Blossom, Tyler. 

Adokiram R. A. Chapter. 1 — This old organiza- 
tion has been imparting the impressive and delightful 
lessons of Chapter Masonry to generations in this 
section of Massachusetts, and its members may be 
found in all parts of the world, carrying on the work 
of other chapters which they have organized. Its 
charter is dated Oct. 4, 1816, and was granted to the 
following companions of Attleborough and vicinity : 
George Ellis, Manning Richards, George W. Robin- 
son, Otis Robinson, James Warren, Richard Carrigue, 
Jabez Newell, Edward Richardson, Obed Robinson, 
Jr., Darius Briggs, Abiathar Richardson, Jr., John 
Whiting, Daniel Babcock, Carlos Barrows. 

1 By James C. Hitch. 



It was moved to Taunton on the 5th of July, 1825, 
and after twenty years good service its location was 
changed to this city, Nov. 25, 1845. 

Its Past High Priests are Richard Carrigue, George 
Ellis, James W. Crossman, John Howard, William 
W. Crossman, Samuel Caswell, Jr., Timothy Ingra- 
ham, Moses G. Thomas, Wanton T. Dew, John A. 
Lee, Abram H. Howland, Jr., William W. Arnold, 
Albert H. W. Carpenter, James L. Sherman, Albert 
E. Wright. 

Its present membership is three hundred and 
eighty-four, aud its officers are William M. Thorup, 
H. P.; Ansel G. Baker, K. ; John W. Taylor, S. ; 
George R. Stetson, Treas. ; H. Wilder Emerson, Sec. ; 
Charles H. Brownell, Chap. ; Frank M. Ashley, C. H. ; 
Benjamin S. Jenkins, P. S. ; Henry C. W Mosher, R. 
A. C. ; Joseph W. Chadwick, Stephen A. Brownell, 
Charles W. Potter, Jr., M. V. ; Ansel F. Blossom, 
Tyler. 

Sutton Commandeey of Knights Templar, 2 
and the Appendant Orders. This commandery was 
chartered May 4, 1864, with the following members : 
John B. Baylies, Albert H. W. Carpenter, Gustavus 
Delano, Wanton T. Drew, John Anson Lee, Charles 
H. Sanford, Elisha C. Leonard, Joshua B. Winslow, 
Henry Field, Jr., Jacob L. Porter, Francis L.Porter, 
Robert C. Topham, Jacob B. Hadley, David Brayton, 
William E. Mason, Hiram Wheaton, Larnet Hall, 
Jr., Stephen W. McFarlin, Amasa L. Gleason, John 
Valentine, Jr., John Fuller, William W. Arnold, An- 
dreas T. Thorup, Henry G. Pomeroy, George Bliss, 
James H. C. Richmond, William A. Searell, James 
D. Driggs, William O. Woodmau, Nathan Lewis, 
George R. Paddock, David S. Small, Peter Fales, 
Peter D. Cutter, John Terry, and Ansel Tripp. 

It has been very nourishing from the start, and the 
utmost harmony and good fellowship has existed 
among all the Sir Knights. 

It was named in honor of Sir Knight Gen. William 
Sutton, of Salem, who was much interested in all that 
pertained to Freemasonry, particularly to Templar 
Masonry, and he presented Sutton Commandery with 
a beautiful banner. 

The Past Eminent Commanders are John B. Bay- 
lies, Albert H. W. Carpenter, John A. Lee, Abraham 
H. Howland, Jr., Gardner T. Sanford, Henry Field, 
Jr., and James Taylor. 

Its present membership is two hundred and nine, 
and the officers are William T. Soule, E. C. ; James 
L. Sherman, Gen.; William H. Matthews, Capt. 
Gen. ; Frederick A. Bradford, Prelate ; Jacob B. 
Hadley, Treas.; H. Wilder Emerson, Rec. ; Ezekiel 
C.Gardiner, S. W. ; Edwin Dews, J. W. ; William 
H. Sherman, St. B. ; Theodore W. Cole, Sw. B. ; 
Henry C. W. Mosher, W. ; Charles H. Wood, 3d G. ; 
Benjamin S. Jenkins, 2d G. ; Thomas L. Allen, 1st G. ; 
Ansel F. Blossom, Sen. 

2 By James C. Hitch. 



NEW BEDFORD. 



Ill 



Early Physicians. — Probably tlie earliest physi- 
cian within the limits of the old town of Dartmouth 
was Dr. Daniel Hathaway. 

Dr. Benjamin Burg was also an early physician. 
He died Sept. 18, 1748, and was buried in the old 
cemetery at Acushnet. 

Another well-known physician of his time was 
Elisha Tobey, who died May 10, 1781. 

Dr. Samuel Perry was also a physician of consid- 
erable repute. He had two sons, both well-known 
practitioners in the town. Dr. Samuel, Jr., died 
Oct. 26, 1820, and his brother, Dr. Ebenezer, March 
18, 1822. 

Dr. Silas Tompkins died here Dec. 21, 1853. 

Dr. William Gushing Whitridge was born in Tiv- 
erton, R. I., Nov. 25, 1784, and died at New Bedford, 
Mass., Dec. 28, 1857, in the seventy-fourth year of his 
age. His father was a distinguished physician in his 
day, and his surviving brothers, Dr. Joshua R. Whit- 
ridge, of Charleston, and Dr. John Whitridge, of 
Baltimore, rank deservedly high in the cities of their 
adoption. Dr. Whitridge entered Brown University 
in 1800, but subsequently went to Union College, 
Schenectady, N. Y., where he was graduated with 
distinction in 1804. He entered at once as a pupil 
in his father's office, and attended one full course of 
lectures at Harvard University. He did not, how- 
ever, at that time take a medical degree, and in 1847 
received from Harvard the honorary title of Doctor 
of Medicine. 

The first theatre of his practice was Tiverton, R. I., 
where he continued to labor with success until 1822, 
when he removed to New Bedford. Here he toiled 
in a widening circle of professional occupation until 
death bore him from the scene of his labors. His per- 
sonal appearance was highly prepossessing, and his 
manners were simple and unaffected. He possessed a 
quick and ready perception, a rare faculty of analy- 
sis, and a remarkable facility in the attainment of 
useful and important facts bearing upon his profes- 
sion. The public confidence in his skill as a physi- 
cian was very great, and at the time of his death he 
had the largest consultation practice in New Bedford. 
Dr. Whitridge was frequently delegated by the Mas- 
sachusetts Medical Society to attend the sessions of 
the American Medical Association, and was present 
at those of Boston and New York. 

Dr. Alexander Read was a physician of high stand- 
ing, and one of the leading members in the profession 
in this part of the State. He was born in Mil ford, 
July 10, 1786. He was graduated in 1808 at Dart- 
mouth College, having acquired the reputation of 
good scholarship and unblemished morals. He pur- 
sued his medical studies under the direction of Dr. 
Greene, of Worcester, and of Nathan Smith, M.D., 
and in 1811 commenced the practice of his pro- 
fession in New Bedford. He soon acquired the repu- 
tation of a skillful and attentive physician, and re- 
ceived the patronage of a numerous circle of intelligent 



and wealthy citizens. 'A course of lectures prepared 
and delivered by him on chemistry and botany with 
great acceptance was a happy introduction to the 
youthful portion of the more intelligent population, 
and many of the attendants remained ever after his 
ardent friends. 

Possessing by nature a sanguine temperament, and 
by cultivation and intercourse with good society a 
refined taste, he was fitted to be an ornament in the 
circle in which he moved. He was made to love and 
to be loved. He was kind, conciliatory, and con- 
siderate. Naturally modest and self-diffident, he 
wondered at his own success. He seemed to live 
more for others than for himself. His own happiness 
was an incident rather than an end in his pursuits. 
His ruling passion was to promote the well-being of 
those with whom he associated. Hence as a physi- 
cian he was ardent in the pursuit of knowledge, care- 
ful in his observation of the changing phases of dis- 
ease, kind in his deportment, courteous in all the 
relations of life, and skillful to perceive and minister 
to the necessities of his numerous patients. 

In 1816 he received the degree of M.D. at New 
Haven. Dr. Read was a skillful surgeon as well as 
physician, and was much devoted to that branch of 
his profession. His advice was much sought and ap- 
preciated by his professional brethren. They felt 
that their reputation was safe in his hands, that 
when called in counsel he would sustain and not sup- 
plant them. He scorned the low art to which, it 
must be confessed, a few, even of educated men, re- 
sort for the acquisition of business. Quackery,- 
whether in its infinitesimal or more heroic develop- 
ment, received from him no countenance. He pub- 
lished but little. His remarks on the mode of prep- 
aration and uses of Datura Stramonium are a model 
of simplicity and directness in medical communica- 
tions. 

His crowning excellence was his reverence for God. 
His was the religion of the Bible. He acknowledged 
its claims and reverently bowed to its teachings, and 
in the hour of affliction and sickness he was rewarded 
by its abundant consolations. Religion with him 
was an abiding principle, not the fitful vagary of an 
excited imagination. 

Such was Dr. Read, — a good husband, kind father, 
beloved physician,, and in every relation eminently 
a good man. 

His fatal disease was hematuria, followed by 
chronic disorganization and protracted suffering. 

Fire Society, 1809.— The following is a " Listof the 
members of the Bedford Fire Society, with ('A') watch- 
word, June 10, 1809, presented to the fire-wards, viz. : 
Joseph Ricketson, Elisha Thornton, Jr., Barnabas 
Taber, Job Eddy, James Allen (2d), Simpson Hart, 
Cornelius Howland, Nicholas D. Greene, Daniel 
Taber, Nathan Taber, Abraham Shearman, Jr., Caleb 
Green, William Sawyer Wall, Jahaziel Jenney, Wil- 
liam James, Peter Barney, Josiah Wood, Francis 



Ill' 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



Taber, John Thornton, Peleg Howland, William 
Ross, Gilbert Howland, Gilbert Russell, Sands Wing, 
Caleb Congdon, Benjamin Lincoln, Freeman Barrows, 
and John H. Howland. 

" By order of the society, watchword ' A.' 

"Caleb Greene." 

Attached to this list is the following notice: 
" To Caleb Congdon, one of the fire-wards for the 
town of New Bedford, the inclosed list of the mem- 
bers of the Bedford Fire Society with its watchword 
is presented thee for thy government or direction, to 
give orders to said members at any fire which may 
happen. The watchword is not to be divulged." 

An Interesting Document— The old borough of 
Dartmouth, England, the fishing community at the ; 
mouth of the Dart, gave our old Dartmouth its name. 
Many incidents connected with its name and history 
made this ancient borough, whose franchise dates 
back to the reign of Richard Coeur de Lion, closely 
associated with the commemorative exercises. 

An address " To the mayor, recorder, and aldermen 
of the city of Dartmouth, county of Devon, England," 
had been prepared, and was read to the meeting. 
Having been signed by the mayor, aldermen, Common 
Council men, and clerk of the city of New Bedford, 
and by the selectmen and town clerks of the towns 
uniting in the celebration, and beautifully engrossed, 
it was sent to its destination. 

The time required by its engrossment, and to obtain 
the large number of necessary signatures of persons 
dwelling widely apart, brought the end of the year 
'before it could be forwarded. 

It was not until Washington's Birthday, 1866, that 
the mayor of the city received a response to this 
greeting from the old Dartmouth of America to the 
old Dartmouth of Great Britain. But when it was 
received the delay was not cared for or thought of. 
The reply was dated on the " Fourth of July," 1865, 
was signed by the mayor, recorder, clerk, and bur- 
gesses of the borough of Clifton Dartmouth Hard- 
ness, in the county of Devon, England. One of the 
councilors bears the significant name of John Bully. 
It is a well-written document, and its tone is kind and 
manly. In these respects it fully met the circum- 
stances of the occasion and the wishes and expecta- 
tions of those to whose greeting it was an answer. 
But the form in which it appeared was a surprise and 
a delight. Its elegant chirography upon vellum is a 
picture in itself; and this, with its beautiful illumi- 
nations of border and other chaste ornamentation, 
give the whole a rare, rich, and attractive appear- 
ance. 

The Ship " Rebecca." 1 — The ship " Rebecca" was 
the first ship built in New Bedford. She was 
launched in the spring of 1785. George Claghorn 
was the master-carpenter, who afterwards built the 
frigate "Constitution," the pride of our navy. 

1 By William T. Russell, written in 1814. 



The " Rebecca" was owned by Joseph Russell and 
his sons Barnabas and Gilbert Russell. The timber 
of which she was built was chiefly cut in the south- 
westerly part of the town, now covered with houses 
and gardens. She measured 175f J tons, which at that 
time was considered so immensely large thatshe was the 
wonder and the admiration of all the country round. 
People from Taunton, Bridgewater, and all the neigh- 
boring towns came to New Bedford to see the big 
ship. There was a woman figure-head carved for her, 
and when it was about being put upon her a number 
of the Friends' Society remonstrated against so vain 
and useless an ornament, and she went to sea without 
it. 

The owners of the " Rebecca" had some difficulty 
in finding a man of sufficient experience to trust with 
the command of so big a ship. Now we have a 
schooner of larger tonnage running to New York as a 
packet (schooner "Richmond" is one hundred and 
eighty tons). 

James Haydon was finally selected for her captain, 
and Cornelius Grinnell, chief mate. She sailed on her 
first voyage to Philadelphia; from thence to Liver- 
pool. The second voyage Cornelius Grinnell was 
captain, and continued to command her for six years. 

The "Rebecca" was the first American whale-ship 
that doubled Cape Horn. She was commanded by 
Capt. Kearsley, and made a successful voyage, ob- 
taining a cargo of sperm oil on the coast of Chili, and 
returning in about twelve months. 

The "Rebecca" finally made a disastrous end. 
She sailed from Liverpool for New York in the 
autumn of 1798, commanded by Capt. Gardner (the 
father of the present Capts. Gardner), and has never 
been heard of from that time to this. 2 



2 Capt. Cornelius Howland and Caleb Greene, the schoolmaster, were 
owners in the " Rebecca" when she made her Pacific voyage. Some of 
the schooners of the present day are nearly four times the size of the 
" Kebecca." She was not the first ship built in Bedford. The building 
of the "Dartmouth" has an earlier date, and our late fellow-citizen, 
Thomas Kempton, said that a ship called the "Bedford" was built on 
the west side of the Acuslmet as early as 1770. This could not have 
been the historic "Bedford." 

Frederick C. Sanford, of Nantucket, in his valuable and interesting 
article in the Nantucket Inquirer, 1852, on the " Pioneers of the Whale 
Fishery," says that " in 17'J1 our ships entered the Pacific." This is the 
year that the "Rebecca" doubled Cipe Horn. Accounts differ as to 
which took the lead in the adventure, Nantucket or New Bedford. In a 
letter dated Aug. 27, 1876, Mr. Sanford says that "in consequence of the 
great success in the Pacific of ships from London and Mr. Botch's ships 
from Dunkirk, si* ships were in 1700 fitted lor whaling in that ocean from 
Nantucket. The 'Beaver' sailed first, August, 1791." The first start 
from this country for doubling ('ape Horn was no doubt from Nantucket. 
The " Rebecca" was not fitted for the Pacific. Information obtained on 
| the voyage induced the captain to try his luck there. Which of the 
I two ships first rounded the cape does not appear, is not of much im- 
portance. 

The following extracts form a part of the conclusion of Mr. Sanford's 
interesting article. His description of the vessels and the men employed 
in this bold enterprise will apply to the New Bedford as well as to the 
Nantucket pioneers engaged in it. No one will question the truth of 
the portrait he has drawn of the hardy, bold, and enterprising men of 
Nantucket, who were the world-renowned leaders in this extraordinary 
branch of the world's industrial pursuits. The story of the whalers 
borders upon the romance of history, and deserves an abler historian 



NEW BEDFORD. 



113 



Old advertisement in Medley, 1794, — 

" Lost. — On Monday evening lust, from the house-yard of the late 
Mr. Daniel Smith, a huge Bbass Kettle, with a crack in the bottom, i 
and a patch thereon. Whoever will give information so that the kettle 
may he found will greatly assist a distressed family. 

" Bedford, April 4, 1704." 

Benevolent and other Societies.— Association for 
the Relief of Aired Women of New Bedford; Mrs. 
Matthew Howland, president; Mrs. Loum Snow, 
vice-president; Mrs. Henry T. Wood, treasurer ; Mrs. 
Oliver Prescott, secretary ; Mrs. Joseph Grinnell, 
Mrs. Abraham Russell, Mrs. George Howland, Jr., 
Mrs. William Phillips, Mrs. William G. E. Pope, 
Mrs. Joseph R. Read. Mrs. Cornelius Howland, Mrs. 
Caleb Anthony, Mrs. B. R. Almy, Mrs. William 
Thompson, Mrs. James Fisher, Mrs. William J. Rotch, 
Mrs. James Almy, Mrs. Edward D. Mandell, Miss 
Louise S. Cummings, Mrs. Frederick S. Gifford, Miss 
Susan Snow, Mrs. Edward C. Jones, Mrs. William G. 
Wood, Mrs. Horatio Hathaway, Mrs. William A. Dana, 
Miss Gertrude Baxter, Miss Anna Clifford, Miss Mary 
T. Howland, Mrs. George Hussey, Mrs. Daniel Wil- 
der, Mrs. John F. Tucker, Miss Amelia H. Jones, 
managers ; Thomas Nye, Jr., Oliver Prescott, Joseph 
Grinnell, Edward D. Mandell, Horatio Hathaway, 
advisers. 

Liberty Hall Association, organized July 15, 1841. 
Hall rebuilt in 1865. George A. Bourne, president ; 
Thomas Wilcox, clerk; Joseph Buckminster, treas- 
urer ; Thomas L. Parsons, agent ; George A. Bourne, 
Thomas Wilcox, Joseph Buckminster, directors. 

City Farm, at Clarke's Point; Peleg S. Macy, su- 
perintendent ; Mrs. C. S. Macy, matron ; Rev. Isaac 
H. Coe, chaplain. 

Union for Good Works, established Feb. 9, 1870. 
The object of the members of this society is " To do 
good and to grow better." 

Young Men's Christian Association of New Bed- 
ford; Edmund Rodmund, president ; Allen F. Wood, 
vice-president; Charles E. Hendrickson, recording 
secretary ; C. W. Knight, treasurer ; Charles W. 
Harned, general secretary. 

than any who have yet attempted to relate it. Who so well qualified as 
the writer of the article from which we have quoted ': 

"In 1791 our ships entered the Pacific in pursuit of their prey. They 
douhled Cape Horn in a class of vessels that would be considered unsafe 
at this day to perform a summer voyage across the Atlantic, small in 
size, not exceeding two hundred and fifty tons in burden, heavy, dull 
sailers, without copper on their bottoms, poorly and scantily fitted, in- 
deed, but manned with men of an iron nerve and an energy that knew 
no turning, and here again they were successful. 

"I am fully aware that New Bedford surpasses all other places en- 
gaged in the whale fishery in wealth and prosperity. Success has 
followed exertion in a ratio of one hundredfold, and there are very few 
places in our country which have arisen to such a height of prosperity 
in so short a period. It seems almost the work of an enchanter. 

"Other places have eclipsed Nantucket of late, but the well-earned 
fame of our sires knows no diminution, but brightens their laurels as 
time lessens their numbers. Nantucket may with an honest pride look 
back to a long list of worthies, men filled with interminable persever- 
ance and an energy that defied and overcame all obstacles, — a list that 
will bear no unworthy comparison with Samuel Adams and his Revo- 
lutionary companions, as deserving of her pride as the jewels of Cor- 
nelia." 

8 



Orphans' Home, organized in 1842. For orphans 
in both sexes. About thirty inmates. Miss Celia 
Brett, matron ; Mrs. Eliza A. Brett, assistant matron ; 
Mrs. William C. N. Swift, president; Mrs. William 
Crapo, secretary ; Mrs. James D. Thompson, treasurer. 

St. Joseph's Hospital, under control of the Sisters 
of Mercy. Sister De Pezzie, superior. The following 
gentlemen comprise the hospital staff: Rev. Hugh 
J. Smyth, director ; S. W. Hayes, M.D., physician in 
charge ; George Atwood, M.D. (Fairhaven), J. H. 
Mackie, M.D., E. P. Abbe, M.D., consulting physi- 
cians and surgeons ; S. W. Hayes, M.D., G. T. Hough, 
M.D., F. H. Hooper, M.D., William H. Taylor, M.D., 
visiting physicians and surgeons ; J. J. B. Vermyne, 
M.D., ophthalmic surgeon. 

Union Lodge, No. 7, F. and A. M. (Colored). 

Annawan Encampment, I. 0. of O. F. 

Acushnet Lodge, No. 41, I. 0. of O. F. 

Vesta Lodge, No. 166, I. O. of O. F. 

Potomska Lodge, No. 1511, G. U. O. of O. F. 

Odd-Fellows' Beneficial Association of Southern 
Massachusetts ; Samuel C. Hart, president. 

Potomska Stamm, No. 182, I. O. R. M. ; Martin 
Freundshu, 0. C. 

New Bedford Lodge, No. 667, K. of H. ; Joseph E. 
Higgins, P. D. 

William Logan Rodman Post, No. 1, G. A. R. ; 
Andrew J. Smith, Com. ; John W. Footman, S. V. C. ; 
Thomas E. Ward, J. V. C. ; Benjamin H. Arnold, Sur- 
geon ; Charles P. Casmire, Chaplain ; Frederick A. 
Washburn, Q.M. ; Ezra K. Bly, Adjt. 

New Bedford City Guards ; J. K. McAfee, captain ; 
Z. C. Dunham, first lieutenant ; William R. Spooner, 
second lieutenant; George N. Hall, clerk ; Abner P. 
Pope, treasurer. 

Honorary members : Edwin Dews, president ; South- 
ward Potter (2d), secretary and treasurer; Samuel C. 
Hart, William Baylies, James E. Blake,' executive 
committee. 

Mount Taber Council, No. 13. 

El Bethel Temple of Honor, No. 24. 

Orient Lodge, No. 173, G. T. 

Liberty Lodge, No. 48, G. T. 

Acushnet Division, No. 87, S. of T. ; Francis H. 
Greene, W. P. ; Frank P. P. Tuell, W. A. ; William 
O. Cross, R. S. ; Adeline Durfee, A. R. S. ; Charles 
D. Tuell, F! S. ; George S. Bowen, T. ; Isaac Barnes, 
Chap. ; Charles L. Parker, C. ; Emily B. Butman, A. 
C. ; William Robinson, I. S. ; Samuel Jones, O. S. ; 
S. T. Viall, P. W. P. 

St. Lawrence Catholic Temperance Society ; Michael 
Duggan, President. 

Incorporated Companies, etc. — Acushnet Co- 
operative. Capital stock, seven thousand five hundred 
dollars. Sylvanus Bennett, agent. 

Morse Twist-Drill and Machine Company, located 
on Bedford, corner of Fourth Street. Edward S. Taber, 
president and treasurer; Nathan Chase, Frederick S. 
Allen, Thomas M. Stetson, Gilbert Allen, Andrew G. 



114 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



Peirce, and Edward S. Taber, directors ; Gilbert Allen, 
clerk of board. 

Mount Washington Glass Company, located on 
Prospect Street. Capital stock, eighty-three thousand 
dollars. Alexander H. Seabury, treasurer. 

New Bedford Co-Operative Saving Fund and Loan 
Association, 41 William Street, incorporated July 11, 
1881. Authorized capital, one million dollars. Isaac 
W. Benjamin, president; Edward Kilburn, vice-presi- 
dent; Charles R. Price, secretary; Gideon B. Wright, 
treasurer. 

New Bedford Copper Company was incorporated in 
1860. Capital, two hundred and fifty thousand dollars. 
Gilbert Allen, president; William H. Matthews, treas- 
urer; Henry Field, Jr., superintendent; Gilbert Allen, 
Edward D. Mandell, Leander A. Plummer, William 
J. Rotch, James D. Thompson, Frederick S. Allen, 
Charles W. Clifford, directors. 

New Bedford Cordage Company was incorporated 
in 1846. Capital, seventy-five thousand dollars. Wil- 
liam J. Rotch, president; L. A. Plummer, treasurer 
and clerk. 

New Bedford Gas- Light Company, 70 South Water 
Street; incorporated in 1850. Capital, two hundred 
and twenty-five thousand dollars. William C. Taber, 
president; Gilbert Allen, treasurer; Gideon Wood, 
superintendent; William C. Taber, William J. Rotch, 
Jonathan Bourne, Jr., Edward C. Jones, Joseph C. 
Delano, Charles Almy, Abram H. Howland, Jr., Gil- 
bert Allen, Lemuel Kollock, directors. 

New Bedford Ice Company. Capital stock, twenty 
thousand dollars. M. E. Hatch, treasurer, 9 Fourth 
Street. 

New Bedford, Vineyard and Nantucket Steamboat 
Company ; incorporated March 21, 1854. Capital, 
seventy thousand dollars. Edward D. Mandell, presi- 
dent; Andrew G. Peirce, treasurer; Edward T. Peirce, 
clerk; Edward D. Mandell, Jonathan Bourne, Andrew 
G. Peirce, Samuel P. Burt, New Bedford; Charles 
Bradley, Vineyard Haven, directors. 

This company owns and runs the steamer " Martha's 
Vineyard," five hundred and twenty-five tons burden, 
also steamer " Monohansett," four hundred and sev- 
enty-five tons, between New Bedford and Edgartown, 
Oak Bluffs, Vineyard Highlands, Vineyard Haven, 
and Wood's Holl. Also steamers " Island Home" 
and "River Queen" to Nantucket. 

Botch Wharf Company; office, Botch's Square. 
William J. Botch, president; Isaac W. Benjamin, 
treasurer; Elisha Gibbs, wharfinger. 

Thayer and Judd Paraffine Company; office, Botch's 
Square. Incorporated May 1, 1872. Capital, three 
hundred thousand dollars. Edwin S. Thayer, presi- 
dent; L. S. Judd, treasurer; E. S. Thayer, general 
agent ; John B. Hussey, E. S. Thayer, L. S. Judd, J. 
B. Merriam, William Morgan, directors. 

The Southern Massachusetts Telephone Company, 
organized February, 1880. C. W. Clifford, president; 
Samuel Ivers, treasurer ; Moses E. Hatch, Samuel 



Ivers, Edward Grinnell, Morgan Botch, Walter Clif- 
ford, O. P. Brightman, directors ; M. E. Hatch, gen- 
eral manager. 

Insurance Company. — Bristol County Mutual Fire 
Insurance Company, 44 North Water Street ; incor- 
porated A.D. 1829. Jonathan Bourne, president; Geo. 
N. Alden, secretary and treasurer. 



CHAPTEB XII. 

NEW BEDFORD.— {Continued.) 

CIVIL HISTORY— MILITARY HISTORY. 

Incorporation of the Town — Setting off of Fairhaven — Part of Dart- 
month annexed to New Bedford — Part of Acushnet annexed to New 
Bedford — Incorporation of the City — List of Mayors — Representatives 
to General Court— City Debt— Military Record— War of 1812— War of 
the Rebellion — List of Soldiers — Roll of Honor — Soldiers' and Sailors' 
Monument. 

This town originally formed a part of the old town 
of Dartmouth, and was incorporated Feb. 23, 1787. 
It retained its original area until Feb. 22, 1812, when 
the town of Fairhaven was set off. A part of Dart- 
mouth was annexed March 20, 1845, and a part of 
Acushnet April 9, 1875. 

New Bedford was incorporated as a city March 9, 
1847. 

The following is a list of the mayors: 

Abraham H. Howland, 1847-51. 

William J. Botch, 1852. 

Bodney French, 1853-54. 

George Howland, Jr., 1855-56, 1863-65, and about 
three months of 1862. 

George H. Dunbar, 1857-58, 1873. The municipal 
year was changed in 1857, so that his first term was 
nine months. 

Willard Nye, 1859. 

Isaac C. Taber, 1860-61, and to Sept. 29, 1862. 

John H. Perry, 1866-67. 

Andrew G. Peirce, 1868-69. 

George B. Bichmond, 1870-72, 1874. 

Abraham H. Howland, Jr., 1875-76. 

Alanson Borden, 1877. 

George B. Bichmond, 1878. 

William T. Soule, 1879-80. 

George W. Wilson, 1881-83. 

REPRESENTATIVES TO GENERAL COURT FROM 1788 TO 1883. 



Walter Spoouer, May 13, 1788. 

" " May 15, 1789. 

May 11, 1790. 

" " Nov. 26, 1790. 

May 17, 1792. 

Seth Spooner, May 1, 179-1. 

" •' May <;, 1795. 

" May 13, 1796. 
" " May 8, 1797. 

" " May 1, 1798. 

" " May 16, 1799. 

" " May 12, 1800. 

" " May 12, 1801. 



Alden Spooner, May 12, 1801. 
Seth Spooner, May 10, 1802. 
Benjamin Church, May 9, 1803. 
Seth Spooner, May 4, 1804. 
Lemuel Williams, May 12, 1806. 
Alden Spooner, May 12, 1806. 
Seth Spooner, May 12, 1806. 
Samuel Perry, May 12, 1806. 
John Hawes, May 16, 1807. 
Seth Spooner, May 13, 1809. 
Alden Spooner, May 13, 1808. 
Samuel Perry, May 13, 1808. 
Charles Russell, May 13, 1808. 



NEW BEDFORD. 



115 



Alden Spooner, May in, 1809. 
Setli Spooner, May 19, 1809. 
Samuel Perry, May 19, 1809. 
Thomas Nye, May 19, 1809. 
Charles Russell, May 19, 1809. 
Seth Spooner, May 19, 1810. 
Samuel Perry, May 19, 1810. 
William Willis, May 19, 1810. 
Gamaliel Bryant, May 19, 1810. 
Jireh Swift, Jr., May 19, 1810. 
Jonathan Pope, May 19, 1810. 
Seth Spooner, May 18, 1811. 
Samuel Perry, May 18, 1811. 
William Willis, May 18, 1811. 
Gamaliel Bryant, May 18, 1811. 
Jireh Swift, May 18, 1811. 
Jonathan Pope, May 18, 1811. 
John M. Williams, May 15, 1812. 
James Washburn, May 15, 1812. 
Gamaliel Bryant, May 15, 1812. 
Jireh Swift, Jr., May 15, 1812. 
Gamaliel Bryant, May 10,1813. 
John M. Williams, May 10, 1S13. 
Jireh Swift, May 10, 1813. 
William Hathaway, May 10, 1813. 
John M. Williams, May 7, 1814. 
William Hathaway, May 7, 1814. 
James Washburn, May 7, 1814. 
Jireh Swift, May 7, 1814. 
Janus Washburn, May 13, 1815. 
Jireh Swift, May 13, 1815. 
John M. Williams, May 13, 1815. 
Manasseh Kempton, May 13, 1815. 
John A. Parker, May 13, 1816. 
Thus. Kempton (2d), May 13,1816. 
John Nye, May 13,1816. 
Frederic Mayliew, May 13, 1816. 
William Willis, May 10, 1817. 
John Nye. .May 2, 1818. 
John A. Parker, May 2, 1818. 
Lemuel Williams, May 15, 1819. 
John Nye, May 15, 1819. 
Benjamin Lincoln, May 15, 1819. 
Cornelius Grinnell, May 15, 1819. 
John Nye, May 6, 1820. 
Lemuel Williams, May 6, 1820. 
Thomas Rotch, May 6, 1820. 
William Hathaway, May 6, 1820. 
Thomas Rotch, May 8, 1821. 
Lemuel Williams, Jr., May 8, 1821 
William Hathaway, May 6, 1822. • 
John Nye, May 0, 1S22. 
Benjamin Lincoln, May 6, 1822. 
John A. Parker, May 6, 1822. 
Thomas Rotch, May 3, 1823. 
Lemuel Williams, May 3, 1823. 
John A. Parker, May 3, 1823. 
William Hathaway, May 3, 1823. 
Thomas Rotch, May 3, 1824. 
Thomas Rotch, May 2, 1825. 
John A Parker, May 2, 1825. 
Timothy G. Coffin, May 2, 1825. 
Charles II. Warren, May 2, 1825. 
Thomas Rotch, May 6, 1826. 
John A. Parker, May 14, 1827. 
Thomas A. Greene, May 11, ls^;. 
John A. Parker, May 10, L828. 
Thomas A. Greene, May 10, 1828. 
Cornelius Grinnell, May 10, 1828. 
Ephraim Kemplon, May 10, 1828. 
William ('. Nye, May 10, 1828. 
Charles W. Morgan, May 10, 1828. 
Thomas A. Greene, May 11, 1829. 
William C. Nye, May 11, 1829. 
James Arnold, May II, 1829. 
Russell Freeman, May 11, 1829. 
Eli Haskell, May 11, 1829. 



Charles W. Morgan, May 11, 1S29. 

Thomas Greene, May 10, 1830. 

Russell Freeman, May 10, 1830. 

Thomas A. Greene, May 11, 1831. 

William C. Nye, May 11, 1831. 

Charles W. Morgan, May 11,1831. 

Russell Freeman, .May 11, 1831. 

Thomas Mandell, May 11, 1831. 

Benjamin Lincoln, May 11, 1831. 

Thomas A. Greene, Nov. 12, 1832. 

Charles W. Morgan, Nov. 12, 1832. 

Isaac Case. Nov. 12, 1832. 

Thomas Mandell, Nov. 13, 1832. 

John Burrage, Nov. 13, 1832. 

Benjamin Lincoln, Nov. 13, 1832. 

Edmund Gardner, Nov. 13, 1832. 

Mark B. Palmer, Nov. 11, 1833. 

Jonathan R. Ward, Nov. 11, 1833. 
! Charles W. Morgan, Nov. 11, 1833. 

John Burrage, Nov. 11, 1833. 

Thomas Mandell, Nov. 11, 1833. 

Thomas A. Greene, Nov. 11, 1833. 
: Isaac Case, Nov. 11, 1833. 

Edmund Gardner, Nov. 11. 1833. 

Benjamin Lincoln, Nov. 11, 1833. 

Thomas Mandell, Nov. 14, 1834. 

Thomas A. Greene, Nov. 10, 1834. 

John Perkins, Nov. 10, 1834. 

Jireh Perry, Nov. 10, 1834. 

Obed Nye, Nov. 10, 1834. 
| Roland R. Crocker, Nov. 10, 1834. 
I David R. Greene, Nov. 10, 1834. 

Oliver Crocker, Nov. 10, 1S34. 

John H. Clifford, Nov. 10, 1834. 

Thomas Mandell, Nov. 9, 1835. 

Jonathan R. Ward, Nov. 9, 1835. 

Benjamin Coombs, Nov. 9, 1835. 

Sampson Perkins, Nov. 9, 1835. 

William H. Crocker, Nov. 9, 1835. 

James D Thompson, Nov. 9, 1835. 

Robert Hillman, Nov. 9, 1835. 

Thomas B. Bush, Nov. 9, 1835. 

Cyrus Hooper, Nov. 9, 1835. 

Thomas Mandell, Nov. 14, 1836. 

Jonathan R. Ward, Nov. 14, 1836. 
, Sampson Perkins, Nov. 14, 1836. 

William H. Crocker, Nov. 14, 1836. 

Jam -s D. Thompson, Nov. 14, 1836. 

Benjamin Coombs, Nov. 14,1836. 

Thomas B. Bush, Nov. 14, 1836. 

Cyrus Hooper, Nov. 14, 1836. 

Isaac Case, Nov. 14, 1836. 

Isaac D. Hall, Nov. 14, 1836. 

Charles W. Morgan, Nov. 13, 1837. 

Thomas A. Greene, Nov. 13, 1837. 

Pardon G. Seabnry, Nov. 13,1837. 

Ephraim Kempton, Nov. 13, 1837. 
I Samuel Tobey, Nov. 13, 1837. 

John Perkins, Nov. 13, 1837. 

William H. Allen, Nov. 13, 1837. 

Henry Taber, Nov. 13, 1837. 
; James Wady, Nov. 13, 1837. 

Thomas A. Greene, Nov. 12, 1838. 
| Pardon G. Seabnry, Nov. 12, 1838. 

El. en. N. (.'haddock, Nov. 12, 1838. 

Leonard Macomber, Nov. 12, 1838. 

Abraham Barber, Nov. 12, 1838. 

Silas Stetson, Nov. 12, 1838. 

Robert Hillman, Nov. 12, 1838. 

Thomas D. Eliot, Nov. 12, 1838. 

William H. Stowell, Nov. 12, 1838. 

Thomas A. Greene, Nov. 11, 1839. 

John Perkins, Nov. 11, 1839. 

Silas Stetson, Nov. 11, 1839. 
I George Ilowland, Nov. 11, 1839. 

John F. Emerson, Nov. 11, 1839. 

Charles V. Card, Nov. 11, 1839. 



Henry Taber, Nov. 11, 1839. 

Alfred Gibbs, Nov. 11, 1839. 

Charles W. Morgan, Nov. 11, 1839. 

Thomas A. Greene, Nov. 19, 1839. 

John Perkins, Nov. 19, 1839. 

Alfred Gibbs, Nov. 19, 1839. 

Charles V. Card, Nov. 19, 1839. 

Silas Stetson, Nov. 19, 1839. 

Thomas A. Greene, Nov. 9, 1840. 

Henry Taber, Nov. 9, 1840. 

H. G. 0. Colby, Nov. 9, 1840. 

Silas Stetson, Nov. 9, 1840. 

George Howland, Nov. 9, 1840. 
(No one appears to have been 

elected in 1841.) 

Ephraim Kempton, Nov. 28, 1842. 

II. G. 0. Colby, Nov. 28, 1842. 

Calvin Staples, Nov. 28, 1842. 

Benjamin S. Rotch, Nov. 28, 1842. 

Henry Taber, Nov. 28, 1842. 
" Nov. 13, 1843. 

Abr II. Howland, Nov. 13, 1843. 

John H. W. Page, Nov. 13, 1843. 

Benjamin S. Rotch, Nov. 13, 1843. 

Calvin Staples, Nov. 13, 1843. 

Abr. H. Howland, Nov. 11, 1844. 

John H. W. Page, Nov. 11, 1844. 

Thomas Kempton, Nov. 11, 1844. 

David R. Greene, Nov. 11, 1844. 

James A. Congdon, Nov. 11, 1844. 

John H. W. Page, Nov. 10, 1845. 

Abr. H. Howland, Nov. 10, 1845. 

Thomas Kempton, Nov. 10, 1845. 

David R. Greene, Nov. 10, 1845. 

Calvin Staples, Nov. 10, 1845. 

Abr. H. Howland, Nov. 10, 1846. 

Thomas Kempton, Nov. 9, 1846. 

Willard Nye, Nov. 9, 1846. 

Richard A. Palmer, Nov. 9, 184G. 

Luther Baker, Nov. 9, 1846. 

William J. Rotch, Nov. 8, 1847. 

Richard A. Palmer, Nov. 8, 1847. 

Luther Baker, Nov. 8, 1847. 

Calvin Staples, Nov. 8, 1847. 

Thomas Nye, Jr., Nov. 8, 1847. 
(No choice made in 1848.) 

William J. Rotch, Nov. 12, 1849. 

Obed Nye, Nov. 12, 1849. 

Thomas Kempton, Nov. 12, 1850. 

Obed Nye, Nov. 12, 1850. 

Richard Palmer, Nov. 12,1850. 

Thomas Kempton, Nov. 10, 1851. 

George Howland, Jr., Nov. 10, 1851. 

George B. Richmond, Nov. In, 1851. 

Cornelius Howland, Nov. 10, 1851. 

Abraham Garduer, Nov. 10, 1851. 
(No choice in 1852.) 

Willard Nye, Nov. 15, 1853. 

Tilson B. Deuham, Nov. 15, 1853. 

Henry F. Thomas, Nov. 15, 1S53. 

Nathaniel Gilbert, Nov. 15, 1S53. 

Asa R. Nye, Nov. 13, 1854. 

Tilson B. Denham, Nov. 13, 1854. 

Edward Milliken, Nov. 13, 1854. 
i George G. Gifford, Nov. 13, 1854. 
j Caleb L. Ellis, Nov. 13, 1854. 

Edward Milliken, Nov. 6, 1855. 
J Henry F. Thomas, Nov. 6, 1855. 
■ Daniel Homer, Nov. 6, 1855. 

John Hicks, Nov. 6, 1855. 
, Nathaniel Gilbert, Nov. 6, 1855. 
j George H. Dunbar, Nov. 5, 1856. 
I Hattel Kelley, Nov. 5, 1856. 

William H. Allen, Nov. 5, 1856. 

William W. Crapo, Nov. 5, 1856. 

Thomas II. Soule, Nov. 5, 1856. 

William H. Allen, Nov. 2, 1857. 



Hattel Kelley, Nov. 2, 1857. 
Samuel Watson, Nov. 2, 1857. 
Alanson Borden, Nov. 3, 1858. 
Sabin B. Chamberlain, Nov. 3, 1858. 
Samuel Watson, Nov. 3, 1858. 
Nathan B. Gifford, Nov. 3, 1858. 
Augustus L. West, Nov. 3, 1858. 
Sabin B. Chamberlain, Nov. 9, 1859. 
Alanson Borden, Nov. 9, 1859. 
James Rider, Nov. 9, 1S59. 
Nathan R. Gifford, Nov. 9, 1859. 
Richard A. Pierce, Nov. 9, 1859. 
Sabin B. Chamberlain, Nov. 9, 1S60. 
Richard A. Pierce, Nov. 9, 1860. 
Robert Gibbs, Nov. 9, 1860. 
Caleb L Ellis, Nov. 9, 1860. 
" Nov. 6, 1861. 
Robert Gibbs, Nov. 6, 1861. 
Charles Almy, Nov. 4, 1862. 
Horatio A. Kempton, Nov. 4, 1862. 
Nathaniel Gilbert, Nov. 4, 1862. 
Wright Brownell, Nov. 4, 1862. 
Charles T. Bonney, Nov. 4, 1862. 
Charles Almy, Nov. 3, 1863. 
Horatio A. Kempton, Nov. 3, 1863. 
Nathaniel Gilbert, Nov. 3, 1863. 
Wright Brownell, Nov. 3, 1863. 
Charles T. Bonney, Nov. 3, 1863. 
Ebenezer L. Foster, Nov. 8, 1864. 
William Bosworth, Nov. 8, 1864. 
Cornelius Howland, Nov. 8, 1864. 
Wright Brownell, Nov. 8, 1864. 
Nathaniel Gilbert, Nov. 8, 1S64. 
Ebenezer L. Foster, Nov. 7, 1865. 
William Bosworth, Nov. 7, 1865. 
Elijah H. Ohisholm, Nov. 7, 1865. 
Isaac H. Coe, Nov. 7, 1865. 
Joshua C. Stone, Nov. 7, 1865. 
Elijah H. Chisholm, Nov. 7, 1866. 
Oliver H. T. Browne, Nov. 7, 1866. 
Joshua C. Stone, Nov. 7, 1866. 
Isaac H. Coe, Nov. 7, 1866. 
Oliver H. P. Browne, Nov. 6, 1867. 
Joseph W. Cornell, Nov. 6, 1S67. 
James B. Wood, Nov. G, 1867. 
William H. Reynard, Nov. 6, 1867. 
Samuel S. Paine, Nov. 4, 1868. 
Rodney French, Nov. 4, 1868. 
John A. P. Allen, Nov. 4, 1868. 
Jethro C. Brock, Nov. 4, 1868. 
Samuel S. Paine, Nov. 8, 1869. 
Rodney Freuch, Nov. 8, 1869. 
John A. P. Allen, Nov. 8, 1869. 
Elijah H. Chisholm, Nov. 8, 1869. 
Josiah Bonney, Feb. 15, 1870. 
Joseph W. Cornell, Nov. 10, 1870. 
Ellis Perry, Nov. 10, 1870. 
Josiah Bonney, Nov. 10, 1870. 
Elijah H. Chisholm, Nov. 10,1870. 
Ellis Perry, Nov. 8, 1871. 
Joseph W. Cornell, Nov. 8, 1871. 
Thomas B. Tripp, Nov. 8, 1871. 
Isaac I>. Hall, Nov. 8, 1871. 
Elijah H. Chisholm, Nov. 5, 1872. 
Isaac D. Hall, Nov. 5, 1872. 
Isaac F. Sawtelle, Nov. 5, 1873. 
William C. Parker, Nov. 5, 1873. 
Elijah H. Chisholm, Nov. 5, 1873. 
Cyrus W. Chapman, Nov. 5, 1873. 
Charles M. Pierce, Nov. 4, 1874. 
Giles G. Barker, Nov. 4, 1874. 
Charles R. Tucker, Jr., Nov. 4, 1874. 
Joseph Buckminster, Nov. 2, 1875. 
Benj. S. Batcbelor, Nov. 2, 1875. 
Hosea M. Knowlton, Nov. 2, 1875. 
Giles G. Barker, Nov. 13, 1876. 
Joseph Buckminster, Nov. 13, 1876. 



116 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



Benjamin S. Batchelor, Nov. 13, 

1876. 
Bnfns A. Soule, Nov. 9, 1877. 
Charles A. Case, Nov. 9, 1877. 
Israel C. Cornish, Nov. 9, 1877. 
Thomas B. Hathaway, Nov. 9, 1877. 
Bufus A. Soule, Nov. 11, 1878. 
James M. Lawton, Nov. 11, 1878. 
Andrew Bullock, Nov. 11, 1878. 
William Sanders, Nov. 11, 1878. 
James M. Lawton, Nov. 7, 1879. 
Eben C. Milliken, Nov. 7, 1879. 



William Sanders, Nov. 7, 1879. 
Thomas Hathaway, Nov. 7, 1879. 
A. Edwin Clarke, Nov. 6, 1880. 
Andrew Bullock, Nov. 6, 1880. 
Eben C. Milliken, Nov. 6, 1880. 
James A. Crowell, Nov. 6, 1880. 
James C. Crowell, Nov. 12, 1881. 
Orlando G. Bobinson, Nov. 12, 1881. 
Nov. 11,1882. 
William A. Scarell, Nov. 11, 1882. 
James R. Denham, Nov. 11, 18S2. 
William Gordon, Jr., Nov. 11,1882. 



1883 $35,000 

1884 41,000 

1885 35,000 

1886 35,000 

18S7 35,000 

1888 35,000 



35,000 
35,000 
40.000 
40,000 
33,000 
30,000 
30,000 
30,000 
1897 30,000 



1889. 

1890. 
1891. 

1892., 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
1896. 



1898. 
1899. 
1900. 
1901. 
1902. 
1903. 
1904. 
1905. 
1900. 
1907. 
1908. 
1909. 
1910. 



.. $30,000 
.. 30,000 

40,000 

.. 4o,o(iu 

4o,oiiii 

40,00(1 

4o,ooo 

.. 40,000 

4o,ooo 

.. 40,000 

.. 40.000 

.. -10,000 

.. 30,000 

$1,198,000 



City Debt. — The amount of the debt of the city 
of New Bedford, and the payments to be annually 
made thereupon, are shown by the following state- 
ment : 



The following table shows the amount of taxes 
levied in this city since 1863, and the rate per thou- 
sand for State, county, and city purposes; also the 
number of polls : 



Year. 


Valuation of 
Beal Estate. 


Valuation of Per- 
sonal Property. 


State Tax. 


County Tax. 


City Tax. 


Overlay. 


No. of 
Polls. 


Bate of 
Tax. 


1863 


$8,610,200 

8,158,500 

8,161.800 

8,118,30o 

8,268,500 

8,288,100 

8,277,900 

8,774,500 

9,115,600 

10,050,800 

11,125,700 

11,665,400 

11,946,600 

12,411,200 

12,609,200 

12,808,700 

12,898,300 

13,138,400 

13,505,400 

14 138,300 


$14,496,900.1,0 
10,935,100.00 
12,171,800.00 
13,240,800.00 
13,74o,ono.oii 
13,508,100.00 
14,05^,100.00 
14,221,51-1.00 
13,844,051.67 
13,742,898 00 
14,114,364.20 
13,846,904.95 
14,428,674 00 
14,339,002.1 ii ' 
13,524,097.iiu 
13,137,011.20 
12,874,41S.ini 
13,137,519.00 
13,609,922.' hi 
11,240,900.00 


$61,632 
61,632 
92,919 
59,310 
9S,S"'0 
39,540 
49.425 
49,425 
49.425 
32,280 
36,315 
32,280 
32,280 
26, 24 4 
21,870 
14,580 
7.2011 
21,870 
21,870 
29,160 


$22,881.42 
19,358.55 
19,46185 
20,434.95 
20,434.95 
21,083.67 
19,461.85 
17,840.02 
22,705.48 
18,943.65 
23,679.57 
27,874.24 
28,415.48 
23,859.86 
23,859.86 
25,249.76 
25.666.72 
28,377.03 
26,871.30 
25,689.88 


$159,000 
2^5,000 
215,000 
252,000 
200,000 
230,000 
■.'S7.000 
200,000 
293,300 
356,000 
349,000 
354,0(1.1 

383, i 

387,000 
436,200 
371,500 
386,000 
361,250 
437,300 
434,200 


$8,861.43 

8,523.05 

7,106.35 

8,637.10 

9,136.30 

13,633.03 

9,310.15 

9,475.20 

12,599.52 

13,181.96 

11,454.46 

11 005.10 

17,136.07 

20,251.49 

17,273.46 

17,259.61 

17,497.36 

15,080.89 

16,084.49 

17,605.64 


4875 
4508 
4578 
4658 
4647 
5004 
4906 
5151 
5333 
5577 
5780 
5930 
6226 
6651 
6562 
6729 
6891 
7028 
7025 
7345 


$10.50 
16.00 
16.00 
15.50 
14.50 
13.50 
15.50 
15.00 
16.00 
17.20 
16.20 
16.20 
17.00 
16.60 
18.60 
16,00 
16.40 
15.70 
18.00 
17.50 


1864 


1805 


1866 


1867 


1868 


1869 


1870 

1871 

1872 


1873 

1874 


1875 


1S70 


1877 


1878 


1879 


1880 


1881 


1882 





War of 1812. — The sentiment of the citizens of 
New Bedford in relation to this war and its pri- 
vateering auxiliaries is best expressed by the follow- 
ing vote, passed July 21, 1814 : 

" Voted, unanimously, as expressive of the sense of the inhabitants of 
this town, that inasmuch as we have uniformly disapproved of the 
impolitic, unnecessary, and ruinous war in which the United States are 
engaged, we have considered it our duty to abstain, and have scrupu- 
lously abstained from all interest and concern in sending out private 
armed vessels to harass the commerce of the enemy, and from all volun- 
tary acts which appeared to us to have a tendency to prolong the dura- 
tion, encourage the prosecution, or increase the ravages of the 'unprof 
jtable contest;' that we have seen with disapprobation several private 
armed vessels belonging to other ports taking shelter in our peaceful 
waters, and regret that we have not the authority of law wholly to ex- 
clude them from our harbor, where they serve to increase our dangers, 
and to excite tumult, disorder, riot, and confusion. 

" Voted, unanimously, as expressive of the sense of this town, that 
private armed vessels, while cruising in various climates and visiting 
ships and vessels from every country, are extremely liable to contract 
and receive on board infectious diseases, and that in all such cases there 
is reason to suspect that such vessels and the persons, baggage, clothing, 
and goods on board may be infected with some contagious distemper. 

" Voted, unanimously, as expressive of the sense of the inhabitants of 
this town, that the safety of the inhabitants thereof requires that any 
private armed vessel of vessels which shall arrive or be bound into the 
harbor of New Bedford, from any port or place, shall be required to per- 
form quarantine during a term of not less than forty days; and that the 
selectmen and health committee of the town be requested to cause all 
such vessels to perform quarantine at such places as they shall appoint, 
under such restrictions ami regulations as they may judge expedient. 

" Voted, That the privateer called the ' Yankee,' now in this port, be 
ordered by the selectmen immediately on quarantine ground, to be des- 
ignated by them, for forty dajs. 

"Voted, That the town will indemnify the selectmen from all harm 
which may accrue to them in the execution of their duties in enforcing 



the quarantine laws, as well in regard to the ' Yankee' privateer as all 
other vessels. 

*' Voted, That the following persons be a Committee of Safety, whose 
business will be to advise and direct in measures that may best secure 
the peace and safety of the town in case of invasion by an enemy : 

" Boger Haskell, Samuel Perry, William Hathaway, Francis Botch, 
Bowlaud B. Crocker, James Washburn, Lemuel Williams, Jr., John A. 
Parker, Lewis Ludlam, Cornelius Grinnell." 

It was a sad war for this little community, for the 
commerce of the country was swept from the ocean, 
and it was upon the ocean alone that the inhabitants 
of New Bedford depended for support. 

The losses were heavy and the suffering was great, 
and there are some who will read this who still retain 
a vivid recollection of the deprivations which followed 
the closing of the ocean highways and cruising- 
grounds to the enterprise and skillful daring of our 
merchants and sailors. 

There was, in the summer of 1814. a large detach- 
ment of the militia of this part of the State ordered 
to New Bedford for its defense. There were at that 
time probably a thousand men under arms in the 
town, including our own military companies. 

We publish the names of the members of the two 
New Bedford military companies then on active duty. 
This we have been enabled to do by an examination 
of the rosters of the several companies composing the 
command of Lieut.-Col. Benjamin Lincoln, which 
were detached for service at New Bedford. The 
record is very complete. This valuable contribution 
to our local annals is in the possession of the Free 



NEW BEDFORD. 



117 



Public Library, to which institution it was presented 
by Mrs. Caroline Lincoln Whitridge, tbe daughter 
of tbe lieutenant-colonel in command, afterwards 
Maj. -Gen. Benjamin Lincoln. 

We find but little of incident in this military record. 
Several courts-martial were beld for desertion and 
other grave offenses. One poor boy-fifer, who said 
be did not mean to run away, was sentenced to close 
confinement during bis term of service, and to have 
his whiskey stopped. Lucky sentence for the boy! 
One officer deserted at the first alarm, and a private 
fled beyond the reach of a squad sent for him. 

Officers of the Regiment. — Benjamin Lincoln, lieut.-col. commanding; 
Edward Pope, maj. ; John Coggeshall, maj. of art.; Elislia Tobey, adjt.; 
William Kempton, q.m. ; Samuel Perry, snrgeon ; Elijah Wilbur, 
q.m.-aergt. ; Levi Peirce, maj.; Ebenezer Hunt, maj.; Daniel Lane, 
adjt. art. All of these were of New Bedford, excepting Tobey, Peirce, 
Hart, and Lane. 

In Capt. Reuben Swift's company, formed at the 
" Head of the River," there were the following men 
from New Bedford: 

William Swift, 1st sergt. ; Allen Bowen, 3d sergt. ; and Nathaniel 
Spooner, Lemuel Armsby, Elijah Parker, Jr., Oliver Wolcott, Peter 
Taber, Cornelius Pope, Samuel Hammond, William Tobey (3d), Samuel 
J. Tobey, James Wood, John Freeman, Stephen Wing (2d), James Davis, 
Jr., Joshua Spooner, Stillman Washburn, G. Weston, Micah Spooner, 
Jr., John Williams, Abraham Reynolds, Asa Crapo, Benjamin S. Hatha- 
way, Philip Reynolds, privates. 

This company was stationed at Clarke's Cove, in 
New Bedford, for the purpose of forming a regular 
guard around Clarke's Point, from the Cove to the 
Smoking Rocks. 

The only New Bedford men in Capt. William Nye's 
company from Fairhaven were the captain, Loum 
Snow, and James Taber. 

Infantry Company. — Roll of Capt. Nathaniel 
Nelson's company of detached troops, stationed at 
New Bedford, ordered out by Lieut.-Col. Benjamin 
Lincoln, June, 1814 : 

Officers. — Nathaniel Nelson, capt.; Job Gray, Jr. (Fairhaven, sick and 
did no duty;, lieu t.; George Clark, ensign . . .; Benjamin Warren, 1st 
sergt.; Gamaliel Hart, 2d sergt.; Nathaniel Perry, 3d sergt.; Thomas 
Biddell, 4th sergt.; Charles Hathaway, d rill -sergt. ; David Howlaud, 
James Proud, Robert Tuckerman, Charles Covel, corps. ; Alansou Cas- 
well, drummer ; Charles Pratt, fifer ; Abner Suule, captain's waiter. 

Privates. — David Allen, Joseph Wilcox, Josiah L. Bliss, William Tuck- 
erman, Edward Gardner, Willet Seabury, Joseph Merrett, Nathaniel Bas- 
sett, Charles Gilbert, Benjamin Hammond, Nye Holmes, Jonathan How- 
laud, Jr., Elisha Briggs, William W. Kempton, James Babcock, Samuel 
Proud, Josiah Winalow, Ivory C. Albert, Uriah Head, Perry Jenkins, 
Russell Wood, Thomas Kempton, William Lane, William Cudworth, 
Heman Cushman, Oliver Price, Jr., Avery Parker (2d), John Sisson, 
Thomas Durfee, Stephen Howland, Elisha Clark, Moses Washburn, 
Thomas Bun-ell, Charles Wood, Stanton Burch, Richard Hill, Stephen 
West, Jr., John Wadkins, Jonathan Haffords, Benjamin Brownell, David 
Wilber, Felix Filuel, Ezra Hathaway, . . . Warren Mosher, Noel Taber, 
John Akin, Benjamin B. Covell, William Bliss, Jr., Michael Randall, 
Elijah Knap, Tillin'ghast Tompkins, Elihu Mosher (2d), James Haffords 
(armorer), Merill Hathaway, Israel Smith, Henry Frederick, Hampton 
Peirce, Gardner Chase, Benjamin Douglas. Total, seventy ; including 
officers. 

The preceding company was stationed in New Bed- 
ford, ready for service at a moment's warning, did 
fatigue duty, etc. 

All the members of this company were of New 



Bedford excepting Lieut. Gray, who was from Fair- 
haven, Charles Wood, who was from Dartmouth, and 
the last six named on the list, who were from Free- 
town. Charles Gilbert was killed by a stupid sen- 
tinel stationed at the gun -house on Spring Street, 
near Sixth. He was going the rounds in the night 
inspecting the posts, and, not answering promptly 
the first demand for the countersign, he was shot and 
instantly killed. 

Artillery Company. — Return pay-roll of Capt. 
Samuel Stall's company of artillery of the Second 
Brigade, Fifth Division of Massachusetts militia, sta- 
tioned in New Bedford, and detached by order of 
Lieut.-Col. Benjamin Lincoln : 

Officers. — Samuel Stall, capt. ; Frederick Mayhew, 1st lieut. ; Haydon 
Coggeshall, 2d lieut.; Thomas Earl, George S.Dunham, Thomas Martin, 
Jesse Haskell, sergts. ; David Kempton, Thomas Ellis, Peleg Clarke, 
Watson Ellis, corps. ; George Caswell, drummer; Russell Booth, fifer; 
John Wrightington, matross. 

Privates. — Charles Coggeshall, Nathan Perry, Lloyd Howlaud, John 
Heath, Nash De Cost, Martin Hathaway, Sylvanus Sowle, Ira Caswell, 
Isaac Kempton, Wing Howland, Josiah Smith, Thomas Maxfield, Abra- 
ham Peirce, Warren Maxfield, James Cannon, Henry Coffin, Bryant 
Macomber, Henry Place, Jonathan Gifford, Avery Parker, Smith Stetson, 
Griffin Berney, Jr., John Reynolds, Barnabas Smith, Ezekiel Tripp, James 
Howland (3d), Allen Shearman, Edmund Jackson, Joseph L. Jenney, 
John P. West, Richard West, Isaac Smith. 

New Bedford, August, 1814. 

War of the Rebellion. — -New Bedford responded 
promptly to the country's call in 1861, and on the 
19th of April of that year five thousand dollars were 
appropriated for the benefit of the City Guards, and 
ten thousand dollars for the formation of a Home and 
Coast Guard. On the same date the American flag 
was ordered to be displayed from the City Hall until 
otherwise ordered. 

Tbe mayor, aldermen, clerks, and treasurers during 
the war were as follows: 

In 1861, Isaac C. Taber, mayor; Warren Ladd, 
James L. Humphrey, Nathan Lewis, John P. Barker, 
Matthew Howland, William H. Reynard, aldermen. 

In 1862, Isaac C. Taber, mayor; Warren Ladd, 
Bethuel Penniman, Jr., Nathan Lewis, John P. 
Barker, Matthew Howland, William H. Reynard, 
aldermen. 

In 1863, George Howland, Jr., mayor; Warren 
Ladd, George G. Gifford, Ambrose Vincent, John P. 
Barker, Matthew Howland, John H. Perry, alder- 
men. 

In 1864, George Howland, Jr., mayor; Warren 
Ladd, George G. Gifford, Ambrose Vincent, John P. 
Barker, Matthew Howland, John H. Perry, alder- 
men. 

In 1865, George Howland, Jr., mayor; Warren 
Ladd, George G. Gifford, Joseph Knowles, George 
F. Kingman, Matthew Howland, John H. Perry, 
aldermen. 

The city clerk in 1861 and 1862 was San ford S. 
Horton ; in 1863, 1864, and 1865, Henry T. Leonard. 
The city treasurer during all the years of the war was 
James B. Congdon. 



118 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



July 15th. A report was received showing that 
Fort Phoenix, in Fairhaven, and Fort Taber, in New- 
Bedford, mounting eleven guns, had been manned by 
the Home Guard, and recommendingan additional ap- 
propriation to maintain the same ; and on the 29th of 
July five thousand dollars was appropriated. 

September 5th. The mayor was authorized to or- 
ganize one or more companies " for the national 
army," the bounty to each member not to exceed fif- 
teen dollars. 

November 20th. Fifteen hundred dollars was ap- 
priated for State aid to soldiers' families. 

December 15th. Five thousand dollars was appro- 
priated for the payment of soldiers' bounties. 

1862, January 3d. A report was made that three 
companies of volunteers for three years' military ser- 
vice had been organized. 

January 4th. This being the close of the munici- 
pal year, a report and resolution complimentary of 
the outgoing mayor, Hon. Isaac C. Taber, were unani- 
mously adopted. 

July 10th. Seven thousand five hundred dollars 
was appropriated to establish a general hospital for 
sick and wounded soldiers, provided the general gov- 
ernment should " decide to locate one in this city." 

Voted, To pay a bounty of one hundred dollars to 
each volunteer who enlists for three years' military 
service, to the credit of the city. Twenty-six thou- 
sand dollars was appropriated to pay the same. The 
use of the spacious city almshouse, capable of accom- 
modating three hundred sick and wounded soldiers, 
was offered to the general government, which offer 
was respectfully declined. 

August 18th. The bounty to volunteers was in- 
creased to two hundred and fifty dollars ; and twenty 
thousand dollars was appropriated to pay the same. 

August 29th. Voted, To pay a bounty of two hun- 
dred dollars to each volunteer for nine months' ser- 
vice. Twenty-five thousand dollars was appropriated 
to pay said bounties. 

October 21st. A further appropriation of five thou- 
sand dollars was made for the Home and Coast Guard, 
and twenty thousand for military bounties, which, on 
the 13th of December, was Increased by a loan of 
twenty-six thousand dollars. 

1863, February 26th. The City Council adjourned 
" for the purpose of paying their respects to Governor 
Andrew and Gen. Wool at the City Hall." 

March 4th. State aid was directed to be paid to the 
families " of colored citizens who shall be mustered 
into the service of the United States." 

April 9th. Two hundred dollars was authorized to 
be expended on the enlistment of a company of heavy 
artillery, which, on the 21st of May, was increased to 
one thousand dollars. 

July 15th. " A watchman was discharged for using 
seditious language." 

July 30th. State aid was directed to be paid to the 
families of drafted men. " Ordered, That the bell be 



rung and a salute be fired on the day of the public 
thanksgiving on the 6th of August." 

September 21st. The treasurer was directed to pay 
the treasurer of the commonwealth $15,450.68, "under 
the laws in relation to the reimbursement of bounties." 

1864, November 17th. Voted, That the poll-taxes 
of the returned soldiers belonging to New Bedford be 
remitted. 

1865, January 7th. Appropriate resolutions were 
passed in regard to the death of Hon. Edward Ever- 
ett, and ex-Governor John H. Clifford was invited to 
deliver a eulogy on the life and character of the de- 
ceased. 

February 7th. The mayor recommended the ring- 
ing of the bells and the firing of one hundred guns 
in honor of President Lincoln signing the emancipa- 
tion proclamation. 

April 10th. A committee was appointed to make 
arrangements to celebrate the fall of Richmond and 
the surrender of Gen. Lee. 

April 15th. A message was received from the 
mayor making an official announcement of the death 
of President Lincoln, and a committee was appointed 
to consider and report upon the proper measures to be 
taken in regard to it. The committee reported a 
series of appropriate resolutions, which were adopted. 

June 22d. Alderman Gifford presented to the Coun- 
cil a Confederate flag captured at Charleston, S. C, 
Feb. 18, 1865, and sent to him by Capt. James W. 
Grace, of Company C, Fifty-fourth Regiment Massa- 
chusetts Volunteers (colored). 

New Bedford furnished about three thousand two 
hundred men for the war, which was asurplus of eleven 
hundred and ten men over and above all demands. 1 

One hundred and twenty were officers in the mili- 
tary service. We do not know the number who 
served in the navy. The whole amount of money 
appropriated and expended on account of the war, 
exclusive of State aid, was one hundred and seventy- 
seven thousand dollars. 

The amount of money appropriated and expended 
by the city during the four years of the war for State 
aid to the families of volunteers, and which was after- 
wards refunded by the commonwealth, was as follows : 
In 1861, $5091.52; in 1862, $25,257.29; in 1863, $40,- 
146.04; in 1864, $36,500; in 1865, $18,500. Total 
amount in four years, $125,495.85. 

The Ladies' Soldiers' Relief Society donated for the 
relief of the soldiers upwards of twenty thousand dol- 
lars in money ; in cotton cloth and flannel, four thou- 
sand dollars ; and in hospital stores to the value of 
six thousand dollars. The following are some of the 
articles contributed : Condensed milk, preserved fruits, 
jellies and pickles, farina, maizeua, tamarinds, lemons, 
dried apples, tea, coffee, cocoa; 1116 bottles of wine, 
consisting of sherry, currant, blackberry, and native 



1 This large surplus was mainly owing to the act of Congress passed 
Jul}', 18(34, allowing credits for men serving in the United States navy. 



NEW BEDFORD. 



119 



wines, 423 bottles of brandy, 1130 bottles of black- 
berry brandy and syrups, 345 bottles of Port wine, 
large contributions for the Thanksgiving dinner 
and Christmas-trees at Portsmouth Grove Hospital, 
besides bushels of lint and bandages. The Society 
for the Comfort and Relief of our Soldiers in Hospi- 
tals furnished, among other things, 5904 flannel 
shirts, 3887 pairs of drawers, 4573 woolen socks, 1790 
towels, 94 coats, 76 vests, 120 collars, 1000 handker- 
chiefs, 368 cravats, 314 dressing-gowns, 1836 pocket- 
handkerchiefs, 300 pants, 148 napkins, 678 pairs slip- 
pers, 265 woolen mittens, 542 blankets, 515 sheets, 
673 pillows, 750 quilts, 988 canes, 1280 woolen un- 
dershirts, etc. 

The contributions named above are certainly re- 
markable, but we have to add that the ladies of New 
Bedford began early in the war. They held a meet- 
ing on the 18th of April, 1861, and organized for the 
work. Mrs. Joseph C. Delano was chosen president ; 
Mrs. Lawrence Grinnell, vice-president; and Mrs. 
William Eddy, secretary and treasurer. In addition 
to the above contributions, five hundred dollars were 
given by a lady to pay soldiers' wives for sewing. 
They also sent contributions to the St. Louis and 
Baltimore Soldiers' Fairs, and furnished tables at the 
New York and Boston Fairs. 

List of Soldiers from New Bedford in the war of 
the Rebellion : ' 



Z. S. Bearse. 
Charles Bliss. 
James C. Bolles. 
John M. Boling. 
Joseph P. Bowman. 
David Bradley. 
B. F. Burdick. 
James N. Carroll. 
Collins Chase. 
James Clark. 
James Collins. 
James Conolly. 
James A. Davis. 
Ezra H. Dexter. 
Benjamin Dnrfee. 
John Edwards. 
John Flahaven. 
James Fleet. 
John H. French. 
Josiah Freeman. 
Charles C. Gitford. 
Samuel S. Gifford. 
William Gifford. 
William A. Masking. 
John H. Hazard. 
Frederic A. Hathaway. 
Sanford Jeuney. 
William FI. Joseph. 
William S. Keene. 
Alfred C.King. 
Isaiah King. 
Benjamin F. Lewis. 
John Linehan. 
George R. Long. 
William Lyng. 
Gilbert A. Look. 
Andrew K. Slack. 
Joseph T. Haffoid. 



David Hammond. 
William W. Harps. 
Herbert K. Haskins. 
Samuel A. Haskell. 
Irving H. Jenney. 
Daniel B. Leonard. 
Henry Lindsey. 
Lawrence Mackie. 
Joseph T. Mason. 
Eben P. Nye. 
Albert F. Peck. 
Timothy T. Peck. 
Joseph Parkinson. 
Thomas Parlow. 
Stephen R. Porter. 
William J. Richmond. 
William H.Salisbury. 
Stephen P. Sawyer. 
Thomas F. Shaw. 
Charles G. Swasey. 
Robert W. Taber. 
James H. Tallman. 
George A. Taylor. 
John M. Warren. 
Stephen R. Young. 
James Barton. 
Bethuel Pennimau, Jr. 
Joseph E. Nye. 
Theodore A. Burton. 
John H. M. Babcock. 
William E. Mason. 
James L. Sharp. 
Daniel A. Butler. 
Charles H. Tobey. 
James C. Hitch. 
William Bamer. 
William Hoffman. 
Joseph B. Holmes. 



1 Contributed by Capt. Frankly u Howland. 



Abrnm II. Howland. 

George Jenkins. 

Abram K. Luscomb. 

John Mitchell. 

Frederick P. Mosher. 

John Muspratt. 

George Orne. 

Samuel G. Peckham. 

James S. Quick. 

Edward Ryan. 

Leonard N. Sanford. 

John W. Smith. 

James Stiles. 

Sidney W. Teachman. 

Philip Tripp. 

William H. Welsh. 

Henry W. Briggs. 

James L. Wilbur. 

Charles West. 

John W. Look. 

Abel Soule, Jr. 

Simeon Webb. 

William G. Denham. 

Andrew Porter. 

John L. Flynn. 

Ira P. Tripp. 

Martin Atkinson. 

Alfred Albro. 

Luther Atwood. 

George H. Allen. 

David B. Bacon. 

Barak E. Matthews. 

Charles H. Maxfield. 

Edward McCaun. 

Barney Miner. 

Caleb P. Mosher. 

Holder R. Mosher. 
John Matteron. 

George F. Packard. 

Henry K. Paine. 
George W. Parker. 
Lewis J. Parsons. 
Charles C. Pierce. 
Charles H. Pierce. 
Lyman C. Perry. 
Henry B. Pratt. 
Silas N. Richards. 
Robert Salisbury. 
George F. Sisson. 
William Slocum. 
John S. Smith. 
Samuel B. Smith. 
Samuel K. Spooner. 
Cornelius G. Taber. 
Daniel G. Taber. 
William W. Taylor. 
James G. Tighe. 
William A. Tillinghast. 
George H. W. Tripp. 
Sylvanus Tripp. 
Thomas Whitehead. 
David Wilkie. 
Richard P. Stowell. 
William H. Ingraham. 
Jacob Parkinson. 
Sidney W. Knowles. 
William H. Caswell. 
Isaac A. Jennings. 
Henry H. Potter. 
Thomas J. Gifford. 
Sylvester C. Spooner. 
Thomas F. Wood. 
George II. Davis. 
Charles II . Briggs. 
Frederic J. Mansfield. 
William L Bly. 
Joseph H. A. Kelley. 



William T. Barker. 

Adoniram J. Rice. 

Charles F. Brayton. 

Lyman G. Taber. 

Edward G. Tallman. 

Charles C. Gifford. 

Charles G. Allen. 

Stephen P. Almy. 

Elisha D. Anthony. 

Isaac D. Baker. 

William W. Bonney. 

William B. Bosworth. 

George P. Brock. 

Charles B. Burgess. 

Benjamin P. Cassard. 

George S. Casnell. 

Edward P. Clark. 

Henry W. Clare. 

William H. Coffin. 

Thomas S. Dunham. 

George F. Durfee. 

Horace M. Ellis. 

John Flood. 

Hudson Jack. 

George W Jenkins. 

William Lawrence. 

William II. Linch. 

John E. Mann. 

William M. Mann. 

Charles W. Mendall. 

Joseph P. G. Munroe. 

John M. Mosher. 

Jacob Peiser. 

Philip B. Purrington. 

William F. Reynolds. 

Samuel Rigby. 

William G. Saddler. 

Rufus F. Soule. 
Samuel H. Spooner. 
Philip M. Topham. 
Edward C. Tripp. 
Robert Tuckerman, Jr. 
Samuel J. Watson. 
Henry P. Wilcox. 
William Wilkinson. 
George R. Hurlbert. 
William H. Allen. 
Jonathan W. Davis. 
Frederic A. Plummer. 
Joseph C. Brotherson. 
Andrew Dexter. 
Henry Kohn. 
James Weston. 
Nathaniel A. Booth. 
James Burns. 
Benjamin F. Card. 
George W. Davis. 
George L. Durfee. 
Perry G. Groves. 
Francis Herley. 
George R. Paddock. 
Alexander M. Bronnell. 
Frank H. Kempton. 
Franklin K.S.Nye. 
Thomas L. Allen. 
William N. Angell. 
William T. Barker. 
Charles F. Brayton. 
Leonard Briggs. 
Jacob Brown. 
Amasa Bullard. 
Edward J. Chapman. 
Isaac S. Chadwirk. 
Stephen E. Christian. 
George B. Coggeshall. 
Benjamin B. Covell, Jr. 
Charles F. Crane. 



120 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



Philip M. Crapo. 
Frederic E. Cushman. 
Charles M. Dedrick. 
Luke Dexter. 
Thomas D. Dexter. 
Reuben C. Folger. 
Charles H. Forbes. 
Enoch N. Grinnell. 
Gilbert N. Hall. 
Walter Hanover. 
John Hargreaves. 
Savory C. Hathaway. 
Alfred Hiller. 
Abner N. Howard. 
Nicholas E. Howland. 
William W. Howe. 
Joseph T. Haffords. 
Geo. T. Handy. 
James S. Hathaway. 
Wm. W. Hatch. 
Alfred G. Hitch. 
Charles H. Howland. 
Thos. Hussy. 
Wm. M. Jackson. 
Joseph H. Kelley. 
Amos P. Lovejoy. 
John B. Manchester. 
Fred. Mansfield. 
Chas. H. Negus. 
John W. Pierce. 
Simeon W. Potter. 
Wm. I. Richards. 
Thos. C. Bobbins. 
Chas. C. Simmons. 
Leander H. Swift. 
Lyman G. Taber. 
Thos. D. C. Tripp. 
Wm. H. Washburn. 
Benjamiu S. Wilcox. 
Thos. T. Wood. 
Philip B. Pennington. 
Patrick Canovan. 
Charles H. Walker. 
Chas. A. Gould. 
Fred. Hoffman. 
Thos. Lahey. 
John Barnett. 
Patrick Brandon 
Leander Luce. 
Leprelate King. 
Frederic S. Gilford. 
William 0. Brighain. 
Thomas L. Hart. 
John C. Brown. 
Thomson E. Gummons. 
James F. Hoyle. 
William H. Knox. 
Edward Reichman. 
George H. Howland. 
Theodore P. Cronell. 
Henry Bauinan. 
Clarence A. Bearse. 
William Blake. 
Charles M. Borden. 
Charles Brown. 
Dedrick Brown. 
Frederick W. Bronnell. 
George Brown. 
Robert S. Carroll. 
William Carter. 
Luther Dennis. 
George R. Ellenwood. 
Charles Fales. 
David Fish. 
Ralph P. Garratt. 
Thomas Gaylord. 
Abram F. Green. 



Hugo Haase. 
Ira E. P. Haskiii8. 
Samuel Haskins. 
Charles H. Hathaway. 
Judah Hanes, Jr. 
Frederic Heiden. 
Charles Hines. 
George Hoffman. 
Ebenezer Howland. 
Frank Howard. 
George Lee. 
William Burke. 
Patrick Clark. 
John Donavan. 
John Gordon. 
Henry Hammond. 
George W. Hathaway. 
Samuel B. Holmes. 
William A. Jenny. 
Humphrey S. Mason. 
Charles H. Oliver. 
Horatio G. Oliver, Jr. 
Horace N. Plummer. 
Samuel J. Rodman. 
Charles H. Shaw. 
Matthew Shea. 
Edward P. Soule. 
Columbus Stowell. 
William H. Webb. 
William S. Cobb. 
James L. Wilbur. 
William H. Chase. 
Roland W. Snow. 
Thomas H. Hammond. 
William Eld ridge. 
George W. Perry. 
Thomas H. Denham. 
Charles R. Akin. 
Charles Alger, Jr. 
Thomas W. Leonard. 
John R. Ludlow. 
James Matthews. 
Andrew J. McFaden. 
William Mondt. 
Henry Murphy. 
James Murphy. 
Jerry Murphy. 
August Nauman. 
John O'Connell. 
Horatio A. Palmer. 
Benjamin T. Peckham. 
William H. Potter. 
Walter Powers. 
Charles Read. 
Frederic Ricketsou. 
Weston G. Sabine. 
William Smith. 
David Tripp. 
Holder R. Tripp. 
James H. Tripp. 
James Harvey Tripp. 
Henry Walker. 
Horace W. Webster. 
James Webster. 
Michael Weik. 
Albinus Williams. 
Edward Champlin. 
George H. Chadwick. 
Joseph W. Clark. 
Samuel Clark. 
Henry D. Crapo. 
Joseph 0. Dickerman. 
John T. Drew. 
William H. Dunnam. 
Henry Fitzsimmons. 
Michael Flynn. 
Josiah W. Gardiner. 



William Greeley. 
Gardner Groves. 
Thomas Gunning. 
William C. Hackett. 
Joseph Hall. 
George A. Harlow. 
John C. Hart. 
Samuel A. Handy. 
John F. Hathaway. 
Joseph R. Hathaway. 
William Hathaway, Jr. 
Alhion K. P. Hayden. 
Richard Heyes. 
John H. Hodgins. 
Charles F. Jay. 
Benjamin F. Kanuse. 
Robert King. 
George F. Manchester. 
David McVey. 
Robert Miller. 
Edward Mitchell. 
Robert Moncrief. 
Alexander Moor. 
James Nield. 
Francis Oldis. 
Jacob Peacock. 
Luther Pettey. 
David B. Pierce. 
John Pilling. 
Daniel C. Morey. 
Thomas Daley. 
Charles Thomson. 
Max Eppendorff. 
John B. Hyde. 
Robert A. Dillingham. 
Henry D. Scott. 
Peleg W. Blake. 
Mason W. Page. 
Charles N. Tripp. 
Charles H. Morgridge. 
Ephraim B. Nye. 
Elisha J.Gibbs. 
Patrick Welch. 
Joseph W. Clark. 
James Kay. 

Lysander F. Remington. 
Timothy W. Terry. 
Edward T. Wilson. 
John Agen. 
Christopher C. Allen. 
Charles A. Clark. 
Anson E. Ferris. 
Benjamin Graham. 
Albert F. Miliken. 
James Winters. 
Charles D. Barnard. 
Jacob A. Gilbert. 
Michael Hewitt. 
Christopher B. Tripp. 
James A. Wood. 
James D. Allen. 
James W. Baldwin. 
Lorenzo D. Bronnell. 
Edwin J. Butler. 
John Canty. 
Daniel Carney. 
Thomas Carney. 
William W. Carsley. 
William W. Casnell. 
Joseph H. Allen. 
Daniel Besse. 
Josiah Wood. 
Edmund H. Fitzpatrick. 
Timothy Cockery. 
George Mills. 
Joseph Smith. 
Michael Bird. 



Freeman A. Taber. 
William D. James. 
David S. Keene. 
Ezra K. Bly. 
William H. H. Booth. 
Ashton H. Hicks. 
William Jackson. 
Henry B. James. 
Charles Dixon. 
John Shay. 
Oliver Warrimer. 
Lewis Hart. 
Richard A. Peirce. 
Otto Bush. 
John C. Booth. 
Walter T. Wood. 
Joseph Head. 
Henry W. Kennian. 
James N. Penniman. 
William Hawes. 
Charles Flewry. 
Max Szepett. 
John Ball. 
William Porter. 
James Boyer. 
James Morris. 
Gilbert Borden. 
Joseph Burt, Jr. 
William H. Topham. 
Samuel J. Blain. 
William A. Pinder. 
James H. Saxon. 
George Shaw. 
Benjamin F. Smith. 
Edward F. Smith. 
Henry W. Soule. 
Stephen Townsend. 
James A. Tripp. 
Lot Tynan. 
John Waddington. 
James L. Warren. 
Francis P. Washburn. 
Benjamin West. 
Charles E. Wheaton. 
William S. Wilcox. 
James Aiken. 
James Sewall. 
James L. Wilbur. 
Rowland R. Hillman. 
Theodore A. Barton. 
Frank H. Kempton. 
Albert C. Wilbur. 
Charles C. Pierce. 
Sanford Jenney, Jr. 
William H. Chase. 
Charles A. Albro. 
James Albro. 
Patrick Downing. 
Stephen C. Gifford. 
Joseph P. Oilman. 
William Jones. 
William H. Joseph. 
Gilbert A. Look. 
John E. Mann. 
Charles F. Purrington. 
Samuel H. Smith. 
Elisha C. Tripp. 
John A. P. Allen. 
T. Washburn Cook. 
Edwin Dens. 
William Cook. 
Leander A. Williston. 
William B. Allen. 
George H. Chase. 
James E. Childs. 
Daniel C. Ashley. 
George D. Davis. 



NEW BEDFORD. 



121 



John F. Rubier. 
John H. Lawrence. 
William B. Ryder. 
Clement Allen. 
Lewis Becker. 
Raven Bowie. 
Josephus Birckley. 
Edward 0. Driscoll. 
George F. Gibbs. 
Charles W. Hyde. 
Richard B. Keating. 
James Kelley. 
John Lay ton. 
Samuel J. Russel. 
Philip R. Simmons. 
William S. Tuckwell. 
Henry C. Russell. 
John W. Babbitt. 
Peter Ferrill. 
Benjamin F. Lewis. 
Jethro F. Studley. 
Gilbert D. Gammons. 
James Ainger. 
Thomas T. Allen. 
John Barker. 
Henry C. Barnard. 
Reuben C. Barnard. 
Thomas C. Barnard. 
William P. Booth. 
William Braley. 
George E. Chase. 
Charles Clement. 
William W. Cornell. 
John W. Cornell. 
Alonzo H. Cox. 
Frederic S. Dalton. 
Paidon A. Davis. 
Jason De Amoral. 
Charles Delanoe. 
Thomas Donovan. 
John Dow. 
John J. Duffy. 
Harmon Earles. 
William Eldredge. 
Franklin Ellis. 
John Fanning. 
Robert Farmer. 
Silas Fishlocke. 
Charles Fuller. 
Michael Green. 
Calvin p. Hammond. 
Joshua B. W. Hart, Jr. 
Charles Harris. 
Peter Harrington. 
William E. Harper. 
Joseph C. Haskins. 
Benjamin l\ Danes. 
Isaac B. Holmes. 
Joshua 0. Holmes. 
George H. Howard. 
James H. Hoyt. 
Charles G. .lav. 
Herbert A. Jenny. 
■•Nathan T. Johnson. 
John Relley. 
John Relley (2d). 
Michael Killion, 
George A. Wilson, Jr. 
James Wolfinden. 
Horace L. Wood. 
William Wood. 
Benjamin Yager. 
Peter Zettick. 
John Rollock. 
Henry Taylor. 
James H. Wood. 
William Darrals. 



George H. Elsber. 
William H. Welch. 
John C Lewis. 
William Maxim. 
John \V. Chalkly. 
William F. Chase. 
James Comerly. 
Herbert L. Ellis. 
Homer B. Ellis. 
Llewellyn Fredericks. 
Lewis T. Gibbs. 
Lewis L. Gifford. 
Lorenzo I). Gifford. 
Perry D. Groves, 
Ira E. P. Haskins. 
Bradford Hathaway, Jr. 
William H. Kempton. 
Henry G. Kenner. 
Joseph Lewis. 
Thomas A. Lewis. 
William Lane. 
Thomas W. Lawrence. 
John Lowrey. 
Hiram N. Macomber. 
John Martin. 
William T. Martin. 
Peter Macdonough. 
Michael McGrath. 
John T. T. McRenzie. 
Albert S. Morse, Jr. 
William Mosher. 
John B. Peckham. 
Nath. B. Peckham. 
Samuel G. Peckham. 
Thomas H. B. Peckham. 
Luther Petty. 
Charles E. Phelps. 
Eli W. Pierce. 

Lucius S. Raymond. 

William F. Raymond. 
George F. Reynolds. 
John Ricker. 

Philip Riley. 

Charles H. Simmons. 

Thomas Sutton. 

Frederic T. Spooner. 

Edward G.Taber. 

William H. Thatcher. 

William Thompson. 

James Tucker. 

Alexander Turner. 

Andrew H. Viual. 

Thomas H. Wallace. 

James H. Petty. 

James Place. 

Charles V. Potter. 

Samuel J. Rodman. 

Charles II. Shepard, 

Sydney M. Teachman. 

William M. Webb. 

Edward T. Ryder. 

Samuel E. Hart. 

Isaac H. Coe. 

Silas N. Richards. 

Rufus D. Hills. 

Lucius H. Morrell. 

Horatio Wood. 

William T. Soule. 

Leopold Bartol 

Cyrus A. Richmond. 

Charles G Baker. 

Orville Bassett. 

Edwin Bryant. 

Henry I>. Edwards. 

Smith M. Lie. 

Barney Minier. 

Joseph W. Robert-oii. 



Frank M. Rogers. 
Charles C. Roock. 
Albert F. Shaw. 
Benjamin F. Soule. 
Charles C. Swain. 
Edward Tyrell. 
Ephraim H. Pinney. 
John Hennessy. 
Edward Barrett. 
Charles C. Brown. 
Andrew Fuller. 
William Keogh. 
Augusius McMann. 
John Shannon. 
John Sheridan. 
Alexander Young. 
Charles H. Addison. 
William B. Brown. 
James McDonnell. 
James Healey. 
James Peterson. 
John Spencer. 
Frank L. Hill. 
William A. Winton. 
Anthony Ruthill. 
Charles Berger. 
Henry Brann. 
George Dean. 
John Holliday. 
Jacob L. Kuhn. 
David Morris. 
William McCaully. 
Michael Smith. 
Richard Ray. 
Alexander Brown. 
John Cassie. 
Theodore Franchia. 
Edward McGinnis. 
John Murphy. 
James Rogers. 
Henry Ellis. 
Louis Pushee. 
Francis P. Rane. 
Alexis Dubril. 
John Lombard. 
Charles Bauer. 
John Berg. 
Charles Curk. 
Jeremiah Donney. 
John Jones. 
John McCarthy. 
Henry McElroy. 
Charles Smith. 
Thomas Stapleton. 
Benjamin Weutworth. 
William Flynn. 
James Burke. 
Charles F. Dubard. 
William Hunkin. 
Otis A. Ring. 
William II. Macomber. 
Thomas Tracy. 
John D. Whitehall. 
Frederic Cassie. 
William Ford. 
Henry Roach. 
John Smitherman. 
John \V. llervey. 
Eliphalet 11. Robbins. 
Charles F. I lowland. 
John A. Bates. 
George W. Allen. 
Nathan I>. .Maxfield. 
George E. Weaver, 
('buries G. Wilson. 
Eden C. Adams. 
Francis II. Backus. 



Andrew P. Bismore. 
Charles R. Booth. 
Augustus 1). Briggs. 
Henry R. Butts. 
James N. Carroll. 
William Clymonts. 
Sylvester Awlyn. 
Michael Conway. 
George H. Coon. 
Charles B. Douglass. 
Lowell E. Edson. 
Bernard T. Garland. 
Charles F. Gifford. 
William S. Haskfns. 
William Hathaway. 
William H. Hicks. 
Michael Sally. 
Joseph N. Sanders. 
Samuel N. Leonard. 
Charles A. Line. 
Frederick Lyng. 
William Lyng. 
Francis Maxwell. 
William McCloskey. 
James Mohan. 
Timothy F. Murphy. 
Joseph E. Oliver. 
Leander Perry. 
Abncr S. Potter. 
John H. Richards. 
Michael Smith. 
William P. Soule. 
Dennis Sullivan. 
William H. Taber. 
Stephen W. Tallman. 
Daniel D. Tripp. 
Charles F. Tillinghast. 
Charles H. Tripp. 
Joseph H. Tripp. 
Paul B. Warren. 
Henry Watson. 
James Watson. 
William H. Weaver. 
John Welch. 
Thomas Welch. 
Charles D. Whittemore. 
Francis R. Young. 
Edward Johnson. 
Charles P. Casmire. 
William S. Maxfield. 
Harrison G. Nye. 
Andrew J. Sherman. 
Thomas G. Tillinghast. 
Seth A. Wilcox. 
Alphonso C. Braley. 
Andrew J. Francis. 
George W. Hood. 
Thomas 11. Nolan. 
William J. Powell. 
Almade R. Smith. 
William Almy. 
John A. Bates. 
Charles H. Bouncy. 
Abraham E. Borden. 
George C. Brlghtman 
Charles Carpenter. 
Michael Carter. 
John Cashin. 
Isaac H. Cook. 
George W. Davis. 
Lafayette Dean. 
William H. Eaton. 
Samuel E. Gabriel. 
Nathan S. Gibbs. 
William C. Gidley. 
Simon Handy. 
George L. Hathaway 



122 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



Henry Heintz. 
Stephen G. Jordan. 
John Lee. 

Stephen H. Leonard. 
Square H. Luce. 
Simeon Macomber. 
Daniel McCarter. 
Hugh McDevitt. 
Edward Murphy. 
George W. Bray. 
Charles Clarke. 
Henry W. Davis. 
William Granville. 
Henry Hester. 
Timothy Kilbragh. 
John Murphy. 
John Sheffner. 
John Sweeney. 
John Wilson. 
Edward Anson. 
John Dodge. 
Frank Green. 
John Hartwig. 
John P. Vinal. 
George W. Howland (2d). 
William H. P. Brownell. 
Job H. Gifford. 
Henry N. Coburn. 
John J. Colwell. 
Hugh McDonald. 
James K. Pritchard. 
Charles N. Wood. 
Benjamin H. Arnold. 
Patrick Carroll. 
Monroe Holcomb. 
William H. Heath. 
Robert S. Joiner. 
Michael Leonard. 
William E. Manchester. 
William F. Peckham. 
John A. Keyes. 
William J. Slocum. 
John Smith. 
Benjamin F. Soule. 
Charles B. Jones. 
Andrew W. Russel. 
Thomas D. Crocker. 
Eben P. Nye. 
George S. Palmer. 
Samuel C. Raymond. 
Edward K. Richards. 
Michael Rogers. 
William H. H. Booth. 
William H. H. Allen. 
Edward K. Bly. 
Joseph Head. 
Charles G. Macy. 
William T. Rodgers. 
William Driscoll. 
J. M. Penniman. 
Thomas Ash. 
Tisdale Atwood. 
Edward Boyd. 
William II. Coblin. 
Frank Doyer. 
John Doyer. 
John Hawkins. 
John Henry. 
Lawrence Harding. 
George W. Jennings. 
Thomas Jennings. 
Dennis Moriarity. 
William Newton. 
William Olin. 
Charles H. Phillips. 
Thomas Pittsley. 
Charles H. Nye. 



Henry A. Wilcox. 
Erastus M. Coombs. 
Frank Andrews. 
Matthew Baker. 
Luther Blake. 
George F. Booth. 
John Bryant. 
N. P. Burnham. 
William F. Oasside. 
William II Conklin. 
John E. Croacher. 
ThomaB Curran. 
Frank Davi-. 
Jacob Doremns. 
Alfred C. Dunham. 
Robert H. Dunham. 
Andrew Hall. 
Dudley C. Hathaway. 
John Henry (2d). 
Henry W. Kenyon. 
Edward F. Knowles. 
Albert F. Manly. 
John McGowen. 
Bernard McKenna. 
Samuel Morrill. 
John Mulligan. 
Francis H. Noons. 
Isaac Raids. 
Thomas M. Read. 
James T. Shepherd. 
Daniel B. Smith. 
Francis Spooner. 
Andrew B. Turner. 
Henry J. Williams. 
Ashton Hicks. 
Joseph Whalen. 
James Bennett. 
Josiah W. Coggeshall. 
James Sullivan. 
Christopher C. Gifford. 
Benjamin H. Arnold. 
Henry L. Bosworth. 
Thomas Huges. 
John Hoffer. 
John Kelley. 
Dennis Lourney. 
George P. Macomber. 
Albert Negus. 
Alexander Negus. 
Franklyn Nye. 
William C. Taylor. 
John Turner. 
William Wise. 
James May. 
John McDonald. 
Frank Miller. 
Edward Pryor. 
Edward T. Ryder. 
Richard P. Stowell. 
Francis L. Gilman. 
Samuel Spencer. 
John F. Beckdon. 
Charles A. Dudley. 
Isaiah King. 
William Leva. 
Henry Power. 
George Young. 
Thomas Clymonts. 
Patrick Burke. 
Timothy Ingraham. 
Sanford Almy. 
William Ingraham. 
Cyrus M. Vaugn. 
John W. Footman. 
James H. Leaverns. 
William S. Norton. 
Louis N. Phillips. 



Charles F. Remington. 
Isaac W. Sekell. 
William W. Sekell. 
George W. Thurston. 
Ambrose H. Tripp. 
Edmund G. Welch. 
Horatio C. Wheaton. 
Frederic J. Wilcox. 
Zeno K. Wood. 
Zachariah Booth. 
John C. Bean. 
Samuel W. Dow. 
William T. Gifford. 
Wilhelm Hewer. 
Edward Keffe. 
Daniel F. Leary. 
Lewis P. Luce. 
John Neville. 
Thomas Norton. 
George Thomas. 
Berand Van Hamingen. 
Luscomb Sisson. 
Edward Stewart. 
William C. Sullivan. 
Luther Nelson. 
Samson Pew. 
Miles Carter, Jr. 
William S. Jackson. 
Edward Gallagher. 
Michael Coffee. 
John D. Denison. 
Jeremiah Murphy. 
Thomas Murphy. 
Thomas Roach. 
George Mahan. 
Charles Marcy. 
William S. Sherman. 
Eugene Sullivan. 
James F. Aton. 
Charles Cook. 
Frederic Karcher. 
Henuon 0. Schieferdecker. 
George Vogel. 
Henry Urban. 
William N. Booth. 
Lot Tripp. 
David Brown. 
Alexander Aiken. 
Daniel W. Borden. 
James R. Brown. 
John B. G. Haskins. 
Hiram V. Howard. 
Joseph J. Jennings. 
George Lucas. 
Michael Megee. 
Edward Murphy. 
John E. Murphy. 
William D. Perry. 
Henry Place, Jr. 
Albert Shuman. 
Matthew Smith. 
James Smith. 
James Sullivan. 
James G. Warren. 
Francis A. Wheeler. 
Levi Whitcomb. 
Herbert Handley. 
Reuben H. Waite. 
Joseph Yeager. 
Frank A. Bemenher. 
Ezra D. Chase. 
Edward G. Gilman. 
Charles H. Hunt. 
George Simpson. 
William Breslcn. 
Albert C. Maggi. 
Charles L. Thompson. 



Joshua B. Bowman. 
Frederick W. McCleare. 
Charles R. Atkins. 
Joseph Jager. 
Timothy Corkery. 
Dennis Donovan. 
William Bepuhs. 
Patrick Gary. 
James Condon. 
Patrick Flynn. 
John Hogan. 
Keron McAvoy. 
William Roxburg. 
John A. Stewart. 
Charles E. Robertson. 
George A. Alexander. 
Charles E. Bosworth. 
Peter Harrington. 
John Clark. 
Thomas Clifford. 
Josiah W. Coggeshall. 
William H. Concklin. 
John Mahall. 
Nathan P. Pike. 
Luke Miller. 
Felix Owens. 
John White. 
Charles (j. Pierce. 
Atien Duprey. 
Charles Fleurry. 
Joseph S. Howland. 
Preston 0. Smith. 
John Q. Alley. 
Edward C. Pew. 
John Murray. 
Cornelius Howland, Jr. 
Samuel P. Hart. 
William G. Davis. 
Anthony Lang. 
Isaac C. Hart. 
Walter D. Keith. 
William D. Adler. 
Elishup P. Allen. 
Thomas Wilson. 
John Brown. 
George F. Lincoln. 
Albert F. Bullanl. 
Benjamin Hillman. 
Henry Hillman. 
David B. Angell. 
Edward J. Anthony. 
John P. Brenning. 
Sylvanus A. Gifford. 
George E. Hawes. 
Gilbert M. Jennings. 
Silas C. Kenney. 
Otis B. Phinney. 
James H. Albro. 
William Bentley. 
Joseph H. Bly. 
William Bosthoff. 
George Crabtree. 
Henry K. Wing. 
John A. Wing. 
Elisha Doane. 
James F. Chipman. 
Peter C. Sears. 
Charles B. Walker. 
Charles H. Nye. 
Israel Smith. 
Samuel Kerchew. 
George Oerhlein. 
Henry Hill. 
Thomas A. Cushman. 
Octavius C. Smith. 
James H. Wrightington. 
Jacob Almy. 



NEW BEDFORD. 



123 



Robert Black. 
William A. Sweeney. 
William A. B. Wilson. 
William S. Rceny. 
Benjamin F. Caswell. 
William R Clark. 
James H. Cox. 
Thomas B. Cowing. 
Allen B. Dunbar. 
William A. Dunbar. 
Isaac Gifford. 
George B. Hathaway. 
George Head. 
Henry S. Hines. 
John P. Wood. 
Lathrop R. Howland. 
Charles F. Jennings. 
Edward Kelley. 
Patrick Riley. 
Samuel R. Luscomb. 
James McGowan. 
William Oesting. 
John O'Neil. 
Harrison A. Rogers. 
William G. Saddler. 
Samuel H. Taber. 
William G. Tripp. 
Charles P. Wardell. 
Martin Waters. 
James Y. Williams. 
George R. Hnrbert. 
Preserved Bullock. 
Thomas S Potter. 
Henry J. Rumville 
Christian M. Schultz. 
George Smith. 
George K. Smith. 
Ellery Bassett. 
Timothy Ingraham. 
William L. Rodman. 
Thomas R. Rodman. 
Albei t F. Bullard. 
Timothy W. Terry. 
Charles F. Shaw. 
John F. Vinal. 
Timothy Ingraham, Jr. 
George D. Bisbee. 
William C. Thomas. 
Warton A. Williams. 
William H. Gray. 
William H. Carney. 
Wesley Furlong. 
George H. Lee. 
James H. Buchanan. 
George Delavan. 
David S. Fletcher. 
James H. Gording. 
William D. Kelley. 
Alexander H. Johnson. 
Henry A. Munroe. 
John Blackburn. 
Joseph R. Campbell. 
Noah Craig. 
Francis Demong. 
James Downing. 
Lewis A. Teachwood. 
Joseph Lee Hall. 
Charles H. Harrison. 
Cornelius Heneon. 
John H. Harrison. 
Robert Lawrence. 
Samuel Lav ton. 
Joshua B. Bowman. 
William G. Davis. 
Isaac C. Hart. 
William D. Alder. 
Allen Almy. 



Joseph A. Bullard. 
Edward P. Cowing. 
Walter D. Keith. 
Rowland L. Hillman. 
Freeman C. Luce. 
Alvin 0. Smith. 
Charles L. Thompson. 
Henry K. Wing. 
Theodore S. Besse. 
Obed. N. Briggs. 
Frederick P. Clark. 
Charles A. Davis. 
George S. Doten. 
William H. Fisher. 
William G. Howard. 
Peleg Macomber. 
Henry F. Sherman. 
Norbert V. Weaver. 
George G. Coffin, Jr. 
David B. Bacon. 
John Battles. 
James C. Bolles. 
William D. Budlong. 
John Cambridge. 
Wright Carpenter. 
Charles Cavanaugh. 
Phineas K. Clark. 
Lewis H. Coble. 
Judson W. Daniels. 
Thomas S. Dean. 
Isaac C. Fisher. 
John II. Fiench. 
Charles H. Gibson. 
Joseph L. Glines. 
Nathaniel H. Green. 
Daniel L. Hathaway. 
Philip S. Hatch. 
Alexander H. Hillman. 
Charles Holland. 
Calvin Howard. 
William G. Hazard. 
Albert P. Jenney. 
Ezra T. Jenney. 
Edward F. Jennings. 
W. H. H. Jeunings. 
Samuel Johnson. 
Henry G. Kingman. 
Patrick Lacy. 
Noah J. Lake. 
Henry B. Leach. 
George P. Macomber. 
John N.Mitchell. 
Artemas Morse. 
Patrick Ormond. 
Isaac S. Peckham. 
Samuel Pierce. 
Charles H. Pohle. 
Walter A. Potter. 
James Ramsdell. 
Wilson Reynolds. 
Joseph F. Roberts. 
Melvin Sawyer. 
Charles H. Sears. 
Henry F. Sherman. 
John S. Southwick. 
Byron Spencer. 
William B. Spooner. 
Benjamin Sprague. 
George W. Tophum. 
Jireh is. Tripp. 
William H. Tripp. 
Charles V Tucknell. 
James D. Vaughn. 
Albert C. Vincent. 
Leander Washburn. 
Joseph Watkina. 
Isaiah H. Wilcox. 



Emery Phelps. 
Robert Stevens. 
Abrani P. Torrence. 
Joseph T. Wilson. 
John Wright. 
Nathaniel Wright. 
William Cebolt. 
Thomas H. W. Dadford. 
William E. Mason. 
Charles H. Tobey. 
George M. Jenkins. 
James Z. Warren. 
Stephen J. Griffith. 
Allen Almy. 
Samuel J. Watson. 
Robert S. Carrol. 
Edward J. Chapman. 
William N. Angel. 
Charles H. Negus. 
Nathaniel Bearse. 
Stephen C. Christian. 
Thomas D. Crocker. 
Stephen E. Crapo. 
Frederic E. Cushman. 
Amos J. Dunham. 
Henry M. Durfee. 
William F. Gifford. 
William H. Gifford. 
Franklin S. Gray. 
Lorenzo Gross. 
Simeon Handy. 
William W. Hatch. 
John II. Hazard. 
Nicholas E. Howland. 
Robert B. Hnssy. 
Charles W. Kempton. 
Charles F. Knights. 
Andrew N. Mack. 
George H. Rogers. 
Patrick Cannavan. 
Samuel H. Wilkinson. 
Daniel 0. Foster. 



Alden B. Hathaway. 
Charles H. Oliver. 
Horatio G. Oliver. 
John H. Ricketson. 
Josiah F. Bailey. 
Joseph B. Holmes. 
John W. Taber. 
Charles R. Akin. 
Martin Atchison. 
John Duffey. 
('haiies H. Benton. 
George Duffey. 
Thomas J. Eagleton. 
John Forsyth. 
John Gallaghan. 
Franklin L. Hull. 
Benjamin K. Jenney. 
William A. Jenny. 
John T. Kennedy. 
George F. Manduster. 
William H. Maxery. 
John Moor. 
George T. Parnell. 
John Watkins. 
Nathaniel B. Whipple. 
Thomas Wright. 
James Egerton. 
James Holmes. 
George S. Howard. 
Nathan H. Johnson. 
Nathan J. Knight. 
Thomas Lapham. 
James M. Law ton. 
Albert H. Nj e. 
James Ryan. 
Charles F. Shaw. 
William C. Thomas. 
Leander A. Tripp. 
Robert Willis. 
Isaac J. Watts. 
George M. Jenkins. 
Augustus L. Marshall. 



Roll of Honor.— The following is a list of the 
names of the volunteers in the army and navy who 
died in the service of their country during the Re- 
bellion of 1861-65 : 

Akin, Charles R., musician, 4th Regt. Cav., Co. B. ; died of disease Feb. 
10, 1865, at Fortress Monroe. 

Akin, James F., 13th Bat.; died in Chesapeake Hospital, Hampton, Va., 
Nov. 12, 18G3. 

Albro, James H., 2d Regt. Heavy Art.. Co. E; died of fever in Newberne, 
N. C, Oct. 8, 1864. 

Aldrich, Albert J., Corp., 30th Regt., Co. D; died in camp opposite Vicks- 
burg July 19, 1862. 

Allen, Frederick S., corp., 20th Regt., Co. G ; died Oct. 25, 1862. of 
wounds received at Antietam ; grave at Linden Grove Cemetery, 
Westport. 

Andrews, Frank, 18th Regt., Co. A ; died at United States General Hos- 
pital at Windmill Point, Va., Feb. 10, 1863. 

Baker, Charles G., 1st Regt. Cav., Co. K ; died at home Sept. 4, 1862, 
two months after being discharged ; grave in Rural Cemetery. 

Barry, William (of Rochester?), 18th Regt., Co. C; killed at Rappahan- 
nock Station, Nov. 7, 1863. 

Bartlett, John E , 1st Rhode Island Regt., Co. F; died at Beaufort, N.C., 
June 29, 1862. 

Bean, John C, 3d Regt. Cav., Co. C; died at Baton Rouge, La., July 5, 
1863. 

Bearse, Zaehariah T , 3d Regt. Cav., Co. I; died at home Aug. 9, 1864; 
grave in Oak Grove Cemetery. 

Bentley, William, 38th Regt., Co H. ; died at New Orleans, La., June 
4, l>sr,:;. 

Blain, Samuel J., 1st lieut., — Regt. U. S. Colored Troops; died at Flor- 
ence, S. ('., about Nov. 1, 1864. 

Blake, Luthan, 18th Regt., Co. A; killed at battle of Fredericksburg, 
Dec. 13, 1862; monument in West Cemetery. 



124 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



Blake, Peleg W., 1st lieut., 5th Batt. ; killed near Petersburg June 18, 
1864; grave in West Cemetery. 

Blood, Thompson B. (of Chelsea?), 18th Regt., Co A; died in rebel 
prison at Andersonville, March 24, 1864. 

Bly, Joseph H., 38th Regt., Co. H ; died at Satterlee Hospital, Phila- 
delphia, Nov. 10, 1864, of wounds received at Cedar Creek, Oct. 19, 
1864; buried in Oak Grove Cemetery. 

Booth, Charles R. , 3d Regt. Cav., Co. A ; died at Port Hudson, La , of 
wounds Dec. 2, 1863; grave in Oak Grove Cemetery. 

Booth, George F., 18th Regt., Co. A; died at Hall's Hill, near Washing- 
ton, Jan. 4, 1862. 

Booth, John O, 32d Regt., Co. C; died in prison at Richmond, Va., Dec. 
4, 1863. 

Borden, Abraham E., U. S. Signal Corps; died on board gunboat " Sa- 
chem," Sept. 8, 1803; grave in Rural Cemetery. 

Borden, Daniel W., 20th Regt., Co. D; killed Dec. 13, 1862, at Freder- 
icksburg, Va. 

Bosworth, Henry L., Jr., 3d Regt. Cav., Co. C ; killed near Winchester, 
Va, Sept. 19, 1864; grave in Riverside Cemetery, Fairhaven. 

Boyd, Edward, 18th Regt., Co. A; died at Andersonville Nov. 14, 1864. 

Briggs, Augustus D., 3d Regt. Cav , Co. A ; died in Camden Street Hos- 
pital, Baltimore, Nov. 14, 18G4, of wounds received at Cedar Creek. 

Briggs, Obed N., corp., 23d Regt., Co. D; killed at Cold Harbor June 3, 
1864. 

Brockdon (Beckdon on official list), John F., 5th Regt. Cav., Co. D; died 
on board transport "J. K. Barnes" Sept. 22, 1865. 

Brown, Charles A., alias Charles Besse (of Truro ?), 20th Regt., Co. A; 
died at Danville prison Dec. 7, 1864. 

Brown, George H., 32d Regt., Co. H ; died at Richmond, Va., Feb. 13, 
1864. 

Brown, John C, capt., 73d Regt. U. S. Colored Inf., Co. G; died on bat- 
tle-field at Blakely, Ala., of wounds received while assaulting the 
enemy's works, April 10, 1865. 

Bryant, John, 18th Regt., Co. A ; killed at battle of Fredericksburg Dec. 
13, 1862. 

Bryant, William F. (of Rochester?), 38th Regt., Co. II; died at Baton 
Rouge Sept. 30, 1863. 

Buchanan, James H., corp., 54th Regt., Co. C; killed at Olustee, Fla., 
Feb. 20, 1864. 

Burke, Thomas, 3d Regt. Cav., Co. L; died at Baton Rouge, La., July 2, 
1863. 

Campbell, Joseph R., corp., 54th Regt., Co. C ; killed at Fort Wagner 
July 18, 1863. 

Canty, John M., 5th Batt.; died July 8, 1863, of wounds received at Get- 
tysburg ; buried July 29, 1863, in Catholic Cemetery. 

Carroll, Patrick, corp., 3d Regt. Cav., Co. A ; died at Washington Aug. 
6, 1864; grave in Catholic Cemetery. 

Caveuaugh, Charles, 23d Regt , Co. D; died March 26, 1862, of wounds 
received at Newberne. 

Chapman, Thomas W. (of Acushnet?), 29th Regt., Co. D; died in Ken- 
tucky Sept. 22, 1862. 

Chase, Ezra D., 20th Regt., Co. G; killed at Cold Harbor, Va., June 9, 
1864. 

Chase, William T., 3d Regt. H. Art., Co. F; died at Fort Wagner, D. C, 
Dec. 10, 1864; grave in Rural Cemeterj'. 

Christian, Stephen C, corp., 58th Regt, Co. E; killed before Petersburg 
June 17, 1864; buried Nov. 27, 1864, in Oak Grove Cemetery. 

Clark, Johnson, asst. surg., 99th N. Y. Regt.; died Dec. 9, 1861. 

Clough, James, corp., 7th Regt., Co. A ; died in Armory Hospital, Wash- 
ington, June 18, 1863, of wounds received at Fredericksburg May 3, 
1863. 

Coble, Lewis H., 23d Regt , Co. D ; died at Newberne, N.C., April 14, 1862. 

Cobum, Harry N., hosp. steward, 3d Regt. Cav.; died Nov. 4, 1863, at 
Port Hudson. 

Cole, Charles B., mils., 55th Regt., Co. B; died Dec. 20, 1863, at Folly 
Island, S. C. 

Conly. Timothy, 28th Regt., Co. B; killed at Antietam Sept. 17, 1862. 

Coombs, Erastus M., corp., 18th Regt., Co. A; died at Harrison's Land- 
ing July 19, 1862. 

Corcoran (Corkery in official list), Timothy, sergt., 28th Regt, Co. B; 
killed in battle of Chantilly Sept. 1, 1862. 

Crane, Charles F., 3d Regt., Co. E ; died at Newberne Jan. 29, 1863. 

Crapo, Henry D., 5th Batt.; killed at Bottom Bridge, Va., June 8, 1864. 

Crapo, Stephen E., Corp., 58th Regt, Co. E; killed near Spottsylvania 
Court-House May 12, 1864 ; grave in Rural Cemetery. 

Davis, William F. (quota of Lawrence) ; died at Andersonville, Ga., Oct. 
28, 1864. 



Dennison, John, 9th Regt., Co. C; died at Mount Pleasant, Washington, 
D. O, Nov. 7, 1863. 

Devoll, Charles F., 13th 111. Regt.; died at Nashville, Tenn., June 2, 
1864; grave in Rural Cemetery. 

Dixon, Charles, 55th Regt, Co. D ; died at Beaufort, S. 0., June 16, 1865. 

Douglass, Charles B., 3d Regt. Cav., Co. A ; wounded in action, Plane's 
Store, La , Nov. 29, 1863; died next day. 

Downing, Patrick, 2d Regt. II. Art, Co. E; died at Newberne, N. C, June 
6, 1864. 

Dunham, Amos J., 58th Regt., Co. E; died at Annapolis Oct. 28, 1864; 
grave in Oak Grove Cemetery. 

Dwyer, Timothy, 28th Regt., Co. H.; killed at Fredericksburg Dec. 13, 
1862. 

Eagan (Akin in official list), Alexander, 20th Regt, Co. D; killed at Get- 
tysburg July 3, 1863; grave in Rural Cemetery. 

Edson, Lowell M., 3d Regt. Cav., Co. A; died at Baton Rouge July 28, 
1863; grave in Oak Grove Cemetery. 

Elliott, Joseph, 3d Regt. Cav., Co. C; killed near Alexandria, La., May 
1, 1864. 

Fitzsimmons, Henry (quota of Middleborough), 58th Regt., Co. K; died 
in Baltic, Conn., August, 1867, of wounds received at Petersburg, 
Va., April 2, 1865 ; grave in Catholic Cemetery. 

Flaherty, John, 2d Regt. Cav., Co. B; died at Fort Ethan Allen, Aug. 30, 
1863. 

Fleetwood, Lewis A., 54th Regt., Co. C; wounded at Fort Wagner July 
18, 1863; foot amputated; died in New Bedford after discharge; 
grave in Oak Grove Cemetery. 

Foster, Daniel O., q.m.-sergt, 4th Regt. Cav., Co. B; died at Deer 
Island April 20, 1864. 

Garlick, Reuben A. (of Dartmouth?), 3d Regt. Cav., Co. H; killed Sept. 
19, 1864, at battle of Winchester. 

Gibson. Charles II , musician, 23d Regt., Co. D; killed on board steamer 
" Fawn," Sept. 13, 1864, on Roanoke River. 

Gifford, William H., 58th Regt, Co. E; died in Danville prison, Aug. 14, 
1864 ; grave at South Dartmouth. 

Oilman, Edward G., 1st Regt. Maine H. Art. ; died before Petersburg, Va., 
Dec. 15, 1865. 

Gooding, James H., sergt, 54th Regt, Co. C; wounded and taken pris- 
oner at Olustee, Fla., Feb. 20, 1864 ; died at Andersonville, July 19, 
1864. 

Gordon, Thomas (quota of Cambridge), 28th Regt., Co. D; reported miss- 
ing in action May 18, 1864. 

Graham, Edward ; died at Andersonville Oct. 5, 1864. 

Gray, Franklin S., 58th Regt, Co. E; killed at Cold Harbor June 3, 1864. 

Gray, John H., 99th New "York Regt., Co. A ; died at Yorktown, Va., 
Oct. 2, 1863. 

Hall, Joseph L., 54th Regt, Co. C ; missing at the assault on Fort Wag- 
ner July 18,1863. 

Hall, Levi, 4th Regt. Cav, Co. C; killed at St. John's Island July 17, 
1864. 

Handley, Herbert, sergt, 20th Regt., Co. G; killed by a horse in Provi- 
dence Sept. 8, 1861. 

Hart, J. B. W., Jr., 6th Co. H. Art.; died at Fort Baker, D. C, Sept. 4, 
1864. 

Harvey, George W., Corp., 33d Regt, Co. I; died at Andersonville prison, 
Ga., Aug. 30, 1864. 

Hathaway, John F., 5th Batt. ; died July 14, 1863, of wounds received at 
Gettysburg; buried in West Cemetery Aug. 5, 1863. 

Hawes, George E., Corp., 38th Regt., Co. H ; died Dec. 14, 1862, at Hamp- 
ton, Va. ; grave in Rural Cemetery. 

Heilman, George, 16th Regt, Co. H; died at Andersonville, Nov. 3, 1864. 

Heintz, John H., 3d Regt. Cav., Co. A ; died at Port Hudson Oct. 1, 1863. 

Herron, William H., 3d New Hampshire Regt., Co. K ; died at Nash- 
ville May 24, 1865. 

Hill, Henry, 1st sergt., 33d Regt, Co. I; killed at Dallas, Ga., May 25, 
1864. 

Hogan, John, 28th Regt., Co. B ; killed at Antietam Sept. 17, 1862. 

Holmes, James, 58th Regt, Co. H ; died at Baton Rouge Oct. 21, 1863. 

Howard, George H., 6th Co. H. Art; died in hospital at New Bedford 
Oct. 24, 1863. 

Howard, Hiram B., 20th Regt., Co. D ; killed at Gettysburg July 3, 1863. 

Howland, Charles F., 1st sergt., 41st Regt, Co. A ; died at Baton Rouge, 
La., Feb. 19, 1863 ; buried in Oak Grove Cemetery. 

Howland, George W., capt, 3d Regt. Cav., Co. A ; died at home June 6, 
1865; disch. April 11, 1865; grave in Rural Cemetery. 

Howland, Lothrop P., 33d Regt, Co. I; killed at battle of Wauhatchie 
Oct. 29, 1863. 



NEW BEDFORD. 



125 



Hussey, Robert B., 58th Regt., Co. E ; died nt Nantucket while on fur- 
lough, Nov. 27, 1864. 
Jackson, William S., 5th Regt. Cav., Co. F; died at Clarksville, Texas, 

July 15, 1865. 
Jenney, Sanford, Jr., sergt., 2d Regt. II. Art., Co. E; died at Newberne, 

N. C, May 4, 1864; buried in Oak Grove Cemetery. 
Johnson, Edward, sergt., 3d Regt. Cav., Co. C ; killed in action at Alex- 
andria, La., May 1, 1864. 
Jones, Charles, Corp., 18th Regt., Co. II ; died in New Bedford March 

31, 1864. 
Joyuer, Robert S., 18th Regt., Co. F; taken prisoner at battle of the 

Wilderness, May, 1S04; died in rebel prison at Millen, Ga. 
Kauuse, Benjamin S., 5th Batt. ; killed before Petersburg June 18,1864; 

buried in West Cemetery. 
Keen, David S., 29th Regt., Co. D; died at Crab Orchard, Ky., Oct. 19, 

1863 ; grave in Oak Grove Cemetery. 
Kempton, Charles G., 38th Regt., Co. H ; died at University Hospital, 

New Orleans, April 25,1863. 
Eenney, Silas C, corp., 38th Regt., Co. H; killed at Port Hudson June 

14, 1S63. 
Killian, Michael, 6th Co. H. Art. ; died at Fort Baker, Washington, Aug. 

22, 1864. 
King, Leprelate, 4th Regt., Co. K ; died at Brashear City June 11, 1863. 
Kingman, Homy ('. (quota of Rochester), 23d Regt., Co. D; died in 

Libby Prison Aug. 6, 1864, of wounds received at Drury's Bluff. 
Kubler, John F., sergt., 3d Regt. H. Art., Co. B ; died at Sanitary Com- 
mission Hospital, Washington, Nov. 13,1864; grave in Rural Ceme- 
tery. 
Lally, Michael, 3d Regt. Cav., Co. A ; died of wounds at Winchester, Va., 

Nov. 7, 1864. 
Landers, Joseph N., 41st Regt., Co. A ; died at Baton Rouge, La., March 

20, 1863. 
Lawrence. George II., 3d New Hampshire Regt., Co. E ; killed at Morris 

Island July 27, 1863. 
Lawtou, David, 2d Regt. H. Art., Co. F ; died Nov. 15, 1864, at Newberne, 

N. C. 
Leavens, James H., sergt., 18th Regt., Co. A; killed at Gettysburg, Pa., 

July 2, 1863. 
Lee, John, 41st Regt., Co. A ; died at home June 11, 1863 ; buried in Oak 

Grove Cemetery. 
Lemunyon, Luther W. ,26th Regt., Co. G ; died at New Orleans Oct. 25, 

1863. 
Leonard, Stephen H., 3d Regt. Cav., Co. A ; died Sept. 24, 1864, at Win- 
chester, Va., of wounds received September 19th. 
Leonard, Thomas W., 47th Regt., Co. D ; died at at Camp Parapet, Car- 

rollton, La., July 15, 1863. 
Lines, Samuel, 24th Regt., Co. F ; killed at Newberne, N. C, March 14, 

1802. 
Look, Gilbert A., 2d Regt. H. Art., Co. E; died in Newark, N. J., June 

8, 1864. 
Louden, Edward (quota of Westport), 22d Regt., Co. G; died at Ander- 
sonville, Ga., Oct. 11, 1864. 
Low, Robert A., 55th Regt., Co. B ; died at Boston Jan. 5, 1864. 
Lucas, Charles A., sergt., 3d Regt. Cav., Co. A ; died at Port Hudson, La., 

Nov. 30, 1863; grave in Oak Grove Cemetery. 
Lucas, George F., 20tb Regt., Co. D ; killed at Gettysburg, Pa., July 3, 

1S63. 
Luce, Lewis P., 3d Regt. Cav., Co. C ; died at Baton Rouge, La., Aug. 20, 

1863. 
Luce, Nathaniel R., musician, 6th Co. H. Art.; died at New Bedford Feb. 

2'.'. 1864. 
McDevitt, Hugh, 3d Regt. Cav., Co. A ; killed at Winchester, Va., Sept. 

19, 1864. 
M I iowau, John, 2d Regt. H. Art., Co. H ; died at Andersonville prison 

June 2"., 1864. 
Mark, Andrew N., 58th Regt., Co. E; killed at Cold Harbor June 3, 

1864; grave in Rural Cemetery. 
Macy, Charles G., 18th Regt., Co. I ; died at Andersonville, Ga., Sept. 1, 

1864. 
Manchester, William E., 18th Regt., Co. F; killed at Bull Run Aug. 30, 

1862. 
Marcy, Charles, 11th Regt., Co. K ; killed May 6, 1864, in the battle of 

the Wilderness. 
Marshall, Augustus L., 4th Regt. Cav., Co. E; died Aug. 21, 1864, at 

Fortress Monroe. 
Martin, Thomas (<>f California?), 1st sergt., 2d Regt. Cav., Co. K ; killed 

in action Aug. 27, 1864. 



Maxim, David, Jr. (quota of Worcester), 3d Regt. H. Art., Co. B; died 

in Washington March 18, 1865; grave in Oak Grove Cemetery. 
Maxwell, Luther, 8th Maine Kegt., Co. E; died at Point of Rocks, Md., 

Oct. 11, 1864. 
Miller, Luke, 20th Regt., Co. G ; wounded at Gettysburg; died at An- 
dersonville Oct. 1, 1864. 
Milliken, Albert F., corp., 5th Batt.; killed at Gaines' Mills, Va., June27, 

1862. 
Morris, William IL, 54th Regt., Co. K ; missing since action of Olustee, 

Fla., Feb. 20, 1864. 
Mosher, Philip (of Raynham ?), 4th Regt. Cav., Co. B; prisoner at 

Gainesville, Fla.; died iu hands of the enemy. 
Noland, Joseph, 25th Regt. U. S. Colored Troops, Co. H; died at Fort 

Barrancas, Fla., June 16, 1865. 
Norton, William S., 3d Regt. Cav., Co. A ; died at New Orleans Jan. 29, 

1864. 
Nye, Ephraim B., 2d lieut, 14th Batt. ; killed at Petersburg, Va., March 

25, I860 ; buried at Pocasset. 
Nye, Franklin, 3d Regt. Cav., Co. C ; killed at Port Hudson Nov. 30, 1863. 
O'Brien, Daniel (of Boston?), 20th Regt., Co. D; killed at Ball's Bluff 

Oct. 21,1861. 
Oliver, Charles H., q.m. -sergt., 4th Regt. Cav., Co. B ; died a prisoner at 

Albany, Fla., Jan. 6, 1865. 
Oliver, Horatio G., Jr., sergt., 4th Regt. Cav., Co. B; died in hands of 

enemy at Wilmington, N. C, March 4, 1865. 
O'Malley, Owen, 7th Regt., Co. H ; died at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, 

1863. 
Ormond, Patrick, 22d Regt., Co. D ; supposed to have died at Anderson- 
ville December, 1864. 
Orne, George, 3d Regt., Co. F; died Jan. 30, 1863, at Boston. 
Palmer, George S., 18th Regt., Co. H; died in Farley Hospital, Wash- 
ington, Nov. 14, 1863, of wounds received at Rappahannock Station ; 

buried in Oak Grove Cemetery. 
Pearson, William, 3d Regt. Cav., Co. B; killed at Jackson, La., Aug. 3, 

1863. 
Penniman, James M., 32d Regt., Co. G ; died at Annapolis Feb. 26, 

1865. 
Perry, Oliver H., 157th Penn. Regt. ; died June 20, 1865. 
Place, Henry, Vet. Res. Corps; died at. Harwood Hospital, Washington, 

D. C, Jan. 18, 1S64. 
Potter, Walter A., 32d Regt., Co. D ; killed at Newberne March 14, 

1862. 
Pugh, Sampson, 5th Regt. Cav., Co. D ; died at David's Island, N. Y., 

Oct. 26, 1865. 
Records, Lemuel S., 33d Regt., Co. I ; died in hospital at Lookout Valley, 

Teun., April 1, 1864. 
Reed, Isaac, 18th Regt., Co. A; died at Florence, S. C, September, 

1864. 
Reichmann, Edward, Corp., 47th Regt., Co. D ; died Sept. 24, 1863. 
Richmond, Cyrus A., Corp., 1st Regt. Cav., Co. K ; died at home Nov. 

1, 1862; grave in Rural Cemetery. 
Rodgers, William T., 18th Regt., Co. I ; died Sept. 16, 1863, at Newark, 

N.J. 
Rodman, William L., lieut.-col., 38th Regt. ; killed at Port Hudson May 

27, 1863; buried in Oak Grove Cemetery. 
Ryan, James P., 38th Regt., Co. H ; died at University Hospital, New- 
Orleans, June 4, 1863. 
Sargent, Joseph A., sergt., 3d Regt. Cav., Co. A ; died at Annapolis March 

12, 1865. 
Scannell, John, 9th Regt., Co. K; died of wounds July 1, 1862. 
Sears, Charles IL, 23d Regt., Co. D ; died at Newberne Jan. 1, 1863, of 

wounds received in the battle of Whitehall Dec. 16, 1862 ; grave at 

South Dartmouth. 
Sekell, Isaac W., 3d Regt. Cav., Co. A ; died at Chestnut Street Hospital, 

Philadelphia, Jan. 12, 1865. . 
Shepherd, Eugene (quota of Chelsea) ; died at Nashville, Ten n., January, 

1865. 
Shepherd, James P., 18th Regt., Co. A ; died at West Philadelphia July 

18, 1863, of wounds received at Gettysburg; buried in Rural Ceme- 
tery. 
Sherman, William F., 31st Maine Regt., Co. C ; died at Millen, Ga., Oct. 

30, 1864. 
Simmons, Charles II., 6th Co. H. Art. ; died in hospital at Clarke's Point, 

New Bedford, Oct. 19, 1863. 
Simpson, George, 20th Regt., Co. G; killed at Ball's Bluff Oct. 21, 1861. 
Smith, James, 20th Regt., Co. D; died Dec. 20, 1862. 
Smith, Matthew, 20th Regt., Co. D ; died Dec. 11, 1862, at Falmouth, Va. 



126 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



Smith, Michael, 3d Kegt. Cav., Co. A ; died at Fort Kearney Aug. 24, 

1865. 
Smith, Octavius C, sergt., 33d Regt., Co. I ; killed at battle of Wau- 

hatchie, Tenn., Oct. 29, 1863. 
Soule, Henry W., 5th Batt. ; killed at Gettysburg July 2, 1863; grave in 

Oak Grove Cemetery. 
Spooner, Francis, 18th Regiment, Co. A; died at Andersonville, Ga., 

Aug. 3, 1864. 
Stowell, Columbus, 4th Regt. Cav., Co. B ; died in prison at Charleston, 

S. C, Oct. 15, 1864. 
Swain, Charles B., 1st Regt. Cav., Co. K ; died at Beaufort, S. C, Nov. 4, 

1862. 
Sweeney, William A., Corp., 33d Regt., Co. I ; killed at battle of Resaca, 

Ga., May 15, 1864. 
Taber, Samuel H., 58th Regt., Co. E ; died in Danville Prison Hospital 

Aug. 31,1864. 
Thatcher, William H., 6th Co. H. Art. ; died at Fort Davis, D. C, June 

27, 1864. 
Thompson, James, 13th Batt. ; drowned at Hampton Roads, Va., Feb. 1, 

1863. 
Tillinghast, Charles F., 3d Regt. Cav., Co. A ; prisoner at battle of Cedar 

Creek ; died in prison at Salisbury, N. C, June 9, 1864 ; monument 

in Rural Cemetery ; it is not known where his body is laid. 
Tillinghast, Thomas G., sergt., 3d Regt. Cav., Co. A; died at Winchester, 

Va., Oct. 20, 1864, of wounds received at Cedar Creek; monument 

in Rural Cemetery; it is not known where his remains were laid. 
Tin-ell, Charles F., 7th Regt., Co. I ; killed at Fredericksburg Dec. 13, 

1862. 
Torrence, Abraham P., Corp., 54th Regt., Co. C; killed at Fort Wagner 

July 18, 1863. 
Tripp, Ebenezer, 20th Regt., Co. G; killed at Ball's Bluff Oct. 21, 1861. 
Tripp, James H. ,47th Regt., Co. D; died June 4, 1863, at Carrollton, 

La. 
Tripp, Jireh B., 23d Regt., Co. D; died in Libby Prison, Richmond, Va., 

Oct. 14,1864. 
Tripp, Leander A., sergt., 38th Regt., Co. H; died June 30, 1864, at Mor- 
gan za, La. 
Tripp, William H., 23d Regt., Co. D; killed before Petersburg Aug. 16, 

1864; grave in Rural Cemetery. 
Truckwell, Charles F., 23d Regt., Co. D ; died at Newberne May 9, 1862 ; 

grave in West Cemetery. 
Turner, Treadwell, 54th Kegt., Co. C; killed at Fort Wagner July 18, 

1863. 
Urban, Henry, 20th Regt., Co. C; died Jan. 7, 1865. 
Viall, George M. (of Providence?), 41st Regt., Co. A; died at Baton 

Rouge May 15, 1863. 
Watson, Samuel J., 2d lieut., 58th Regt., Co. E; died at home Dec. 11, 

1864, from want and exposure in Danville prison, Va.; grave in 

Rural Cemetery. 
Weaver, Norbert V., 33d Regt., Co. D ; mortally wounded at Cold Harbor 

June 3, 1864; monument in Rural Cemetery. 
Welsh, Edmund G., 3d Regt. Cav., Co. A ; killed at battle of Cedar Creek, 

Va., Oct. 19, 1864. 
Welsh, William H., 3d Regt. H. Art., Co. D; died at Gallop's Island, 

Boston Haibor, Sept. 15, 1865; grave in Catholic Cemetery. 
Whalon, Joseph, 18th Regt., Co. B; died May 6, 1862, at York town, Va. 
Whitehall, John D., 2d Regt. Cav., Co. I; died at Gloucester Point, Va., 

March 31,1863. 
Whitman, Onley A., 7th R. I. Regt., Co. I; died at Baltimore March 30, 

1863; grave in West Cemetery. 
Wilcox, Seth A., sergt., 3d Regt. Cav., Co. A ; died at home May 30, 1864 ; 

grave in Oak Grove Cemetery. 
Wilcox, William S., 5th Batt.; died Nov. 28, 1S62, at Falmouth, Va. 
Williams, Henry J., 18th Regt., Co. A ; died at Sharpsburg, Md., Oct. 17, 

1862. 
Williams, William (quota of Belmont), 55th Regt., Co. K ; died at regi- 
mental hospital, Folly Island, S. C, Aug. 19, 1S64. 
Williston, William H., 21st Regt., Co. C; killed at Newberne, N. C, 

March 14, 1862. 
Wing, John A., 33d Regt., Co. D ; missing in action May 16, 1864. 
Winn, Hugh (of Fall River?), 4th Regt. Cav., Co. B ; died at Florence, 

S. C. 
Wood, Horatio, q.m.-sergt., 1st Regt. Cav.; died on board steamer "Er- 
icsson" June 25, 1862. 
Wordell, Charles P., 58th Regt., Co. E; died in Douglas Hospital, Wash- 
ington, Aug. 'Al, 1864, of wounds received at the assault upon Peters- 
burg July 30, 1864. 



Young, Angus W., 18th Regt., Co. D ; killed at Fredericksburg Dec. 13, 

1862. 
Young, Nathan L., 54th Regt., Co. C ; wounded at Fort Wagner July 18, 

1863; died at Beaufort, S. C, next day. 

Seamen. 

Almy, Thomas, acting master's mate, steamer " Wachusett ;" killed at 

City Point, Va., May 20, 1862. 
Andrews, Manuel, died in Marine Hospital, Chelsea, Sept. 11, 1861. 
Avila, Elisha N. (quota of Boston), steamer "Benton;" killed at Fort 

Douelson Feb. 14, 1862 
Bly, Horatio T., steamer "St. Louis ;" died of wounds Oct. 17, 1862. 
Boakim, Emanuel, steward ; killed Aug. 5, 1864. 
Cornell, John M., steamer " Mound City ;" died March 16, 1864. 
Coxen, Edward M., died of wounds July 24, 1863. 
Dandridge, Andrew, cook ; died of disease March 19, 1862. 
Francis, Isaac, Jr., acting ensign, schooner "Matthew Vassar;" died 

May 18, 1863. 
Frates, Antone, killed June 2, 1862. 

Fuller, James, frigate "Congress;" drowned in Hampton Roads. 
Gifford, Charles R., killed at Brooklyn Navy-Yard June 20, 1862. 
Gifford, David S., died of disease Feb. 14, 1862. 
i lould, John, steamer " Herald ;" killed Oct. 25, 1863. 
Handy, Joshua J., steamer "Augusta;" died 1862. 
Harrington, Jeremiah, steamer " Rattler ;" died of gunshot-wounds 

March 19, 1863. 
Howes, Alphouso S., gunboat " Sagamore ;" died of disease Sept. 22, 1865, 

at Marine Hospital, Baltimore. 
Hullahan, Thomas (quota of Chelsea), died of disease at New Orleans 

July 24, 1862. 
Jenney, James T., steamer " Twilight ;" died of disease March 20, 1863, 

at Beaufort, N. C; grave in West Cemetery. 
Kemp ton, Silas W., acting master's mate, steamer "Santiago de Cuba;" 

lost overboard in Chesapeake Bay March 23, 1865. 
Louis, John, died June 12, 1863. 
Lucius, Juan, died at Brooklyn May 19, 1865. 
McCarty, John, died of disease Dec. 8, 1862. 
Milan, Michael, frigate" Congress;" killed in Hampton Roads March 17, 

1862. 
Milliken, Charles E., first-class boy, killed in Mobile Bay Aug. 25, 1864. 
Mullany, Philip, died from casualty Jan. 26, 1864. 
Nugent, Robert N., died at < lharleston, S. C, Dec. 6, 1863. 
O'Neil, Cornelius, lost in steamer "Cincinnati" March 27, 1863. 
Ottiwell, Nathaniel D, acting master's mate, steamer "Cambridge;" 

died off Cape Lookout Sept. 27, 1861; buried at sea; monument in 

Rural Cemetery. 
Parnell, James E., steamer " Romeo;" died Aug 13, 1863, on board hos- 
pital-ship " Red Rover." 
Peirce, John A., perished on board the " Cumberland" in Hampton 

Roads, March 8, 1862; grave in Kural Cemetery. 
Phillips, Edward, died in Marine Hospital, Chelsea, Dec. 19, 1861. 
Rogers, Reuben G., died of disease Sept. 20, 1862. 
Scott, John, died of disease Nov. 20, 1861. 
Standish, William D., steamer " Meteor,"' died Oct. 1, 1864. 
Taber, Daniel G., blown up in the " Tecumseh," in Mobile Bay, Aug. 5, 

1864. 
Taber, John O, first-class boy ship " Ohio ;" died of disease May 8, 1864 ; 

grave in Rural Cemetery. 
Thompson, William, died May 27, 1863. 
Warren, Alvern S., steamer "Santiago de Cuba;" died of wounds at 

Norfolk, Va., June 18, 1865. 
West, William A., died April 15, 1863. 
Wordell, Gardner R., steamer " Southfield ;'' drowned April 19, 1864. 

Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument.— The monu- 
ment erected by the city of New Bedford in memory 
of her citizens who perished in the Rebellion occupies 
a prominent situation upon the common. 

It is a beautiful and appropriate structure. Of the 
many erections of this character that the gratitude of 
the living has raised to commemorate the patriotism 
of the dead, few can be found more tasteful and ap- 
propriate in design or more perfect in execution. 

The monument was designed and contracted for by 
George F. Meacham, of Boston. 



# 




yls. 



c 





NEW BEDFORD. 



127 



The inscriptions upon the base are as follows : 

North Side. 
" Navy." 

East Side. 
" Erected by tin- i 'ity nf New Bedford, as a tribute of gratitude to lier 
6ons who fell defending their Country in its struggle with 
Slavery aud Treason." 

South Side. 
" Army." 

West Side. 
" Dedicated July 4, 1866." 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



JOHN AVERY PARKER. 

John Avery Parker was born in the town of Plymp- 
ton, Plymouth Co., Mass., Sept. 25, 1769, and died at 
his residence in New Bedford, Mass., Dec. 30, 1853. 
He was a lineal descendant in the sixth generation 
from William Parker, who came from England and 
was one of the first settlers of Scitnate, Mass. In 
September, 1640, a grant was obtained for the settle- 
ment of 3Iattakeese, Mass., and in October of that 
year William Parker, in company with many others 
from Scituate, settled there. He finally located at 
Falmouth, Mass., where he continued to reside until 
his death. He married Mary, daughter of Humphrey 
Turner, Nov. 13, 1651, and left several sons, of whom 
Robert Parker was one, and one or more daughters. 

Robert Parker married Patience Cobb in 1667, and 
had children, viz.: (1) Thomas, born Aug. 24, 1669; 
Daniel, born April 18, 1670; Joseph, born 1671 (see 
biography of Ward M. Parker, of New Bedford); 
Benjamin, born March 15, 1673-74; Hannah, born 
1676; Elisha, April, 1680; and Alice, Sept. 15, 1681. 

Daniel Parker, of Barnstable, married Mary Loin- 
bard, Dec. 11, 1689. Their children were Daniel, 
Nehemiah, Samuel, Jonathan, David, Temperance, 
Rebecca, and Mary. Daniel Parker was a prominent 
man in Barnstable, and was known as Judge Parker. 
He died Dec. 23, 1728. 

Rev. Jonathan Parker, fourth son of Judge Daniel 
Parker, was born in Barnstable in 1706, and died at 
Plympton, April 24, 1776. He was graduated from 
Cambridge College, aud was ordained in the ministry 
Dec. 22, 1731. He continued to preach with great 
acceptance until his death. 

He was the second minister at Plympton, Mass., a 
man of more than ordinary ability, and was particu- 
larly gifted in prayer. He married Ruth, daughter 
of the Rev. John Avery, of Truro, Mass., in 1732-33. 

Mrs. Ruth Parker died in Plympton, May 17, 1745, 
aged thirty years. Of this anion were born Ruth, 
Jonathan, John Avery, Elizabeth, and Avery. 

Rev. Jonathan Parker married for his second wife 
Lydia, daughter of Joseph Bartlett, of Plymouth. 
She was born Dec. 30, 1722. Their children were 
Daniel, Lydia, Joseph, Betty, Molly, Thaddeus, Jer- 



usha, and Harmony. Mrs. Lydia Parker died Aug. 
31, 1796. 

Jonathan Parker, Jr., son of Rev. Jonathan and 
Ruth Parker, was born in Plympton, Mass., Aug. 16. 
1736. Married, Dec. 5, 1765, Abigail, daughter of 
Dr. Pollycarpus and Mary Loring. She was born 
Feb. 16, 1742-43. Their children were Oliver, Polly- 
carpus, John Avery (the immediate subject of this 
sketch), Ruth, Jonathan, Jacob, and Abigail. Mr. 
Parker, while playing with his brother Avery, had a 
knife accidentally thrust into one of his eyes when 
twelve years of age, and in due time lost the use of 
his other eye and was totally blind for many years 
before his death. 

He continued a resident of Plympton, Mass., where 
he died Sept. 1, 1822. He was a member of the 
church at Plympton, and was universally respected. 
His wife, Abigail, died at Plympton, March 23, 1840, 
in the ninety-eighth year of her age. At the time of 
her death she was the oldest person in Plympton, and 
next to the oldest that ever lived there, Mrs. Abigail 
Bryant being older. 

John Avery Parker 6 (Jonathan, Jr. 5 , Jonathan 4 , 
Daniel 3 , Robert 2 , William 1 ) had very limited advan- 
tages for an education, but what he had he improved, 
and by reading and. reflection was well informed in 
the current events of his day. At an early age he 
showed signs of financial ability, and manifested a 
strong desire to engage in some active business, hence 
began merchandising. In 1795 he formed a copart- 
nership with Lemuel Milke, of Westport, Mass., who 
was engaged in building vessels for the merchant 
service. The firm was known as Milke & Parker. 
About 1803 they dissolved partnership, when Mr. 
Parker moved to New Bedford, and located on Middle 
or Bridge Streets, at the head of North Water, where 
he continued to reside until he built his own resi- 
dence, which was in 1841 refitted and enlarged for a 
hotel, and has since been known as the Parker 
House. In 1834 he built his palatial residence on 
County Street, where he passed the remainder of his 
life. While living in New Bedford Mr. Parker con- 
tinued to build merchant vessels, at Hick's Bridge, 
some three or four miles from Westport, under the 
supervision of his brother-in-law, Levi Standish. 
Among the vessels built there were the " Phoanix " 
" W. L. Packet," and " Victory." At and near New 
Bedford he built the "Young Phcenix," for his son- 
in-law, Joseph Dunbar; the " Averick," "Parker," 
"Lalla Rookh," "Alexander Barclay," "Averick 
Heineken," and many others. These ships were used 
in the merchant service until they were fitted for the 
whaling business. About 1823 he purchased a half 
interest, with Messrs. Seth and Charles Russell, in the 
property now known as Parker's wharf, and subse- 
quently bought their interest. In 1833 he built his 
brick block, now known as Parker's block. Durino- 
the war of 1812-15 he organized a company for the 
defense of New Bedford, and was its captain. 



128 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



The Merchants' Bank, now the Merchants' National 
Bank, was established in 1825, and he was its first 
president, which position he held until his death. 
He owned and personally superintended a cotton- 
mill in his native town (Plympton), beside having 
an interest in other cotton-mills at home and abroad. 

Mr. Parker was president and owner of the Lionet 
Iron Mills at Wareham, Mass., which were subse- 
quently known as the " Parker Mills." 

In politics he was a Whig, and as such represented 
his senatorial district in the Legislature in 1826-27, 
and was instrumental in getting the county divided, 
and having a court-house and jail located here. He 
was a liberal supporter of the North Congregational 
Church of New Bedford. 

From the pen of another we quote the following, 
with a few changes : Mr. Parker accumulated a large 
fortune, which was variously invested, as there was 
hardly any branch of commerce or of manufacture in 
which he was not interested. As a shrewd and ener- 
getic business man, Mr. Parker had few equals, and 
was among the first merchants in New Bedford to set 
the wise example of engaging in other enterprises 
than the principal one of this city at that time. The 
large operations in which he engaged required excel- 
lent judgment and foresight, and that he possessed 
those qualities in no slight degree is proved by the 
almost uniform success which attended his transac- 
tions. 

At the time of his death he was president of the 
Merchants' Bank in this city, having served gratui- 
tously from the commencement of the corporation, a 
period of twenty-eight years. 

Possessed of such ample means, it was in the power 
of Mr. Parker very often to assist those who were 
just starting in business, or who had met with disap- 
pointment in their affairs. We believe it is within 
the personal knowledge of many that this assistance 
was often and cheerfully rendered, and that too, some- 
times, when the relief thus extended was not, per- 
haps, strictly within the limits of an over-cautious 
prudence. 

Mr. Parker was one of the earliest supporters of 
common schools, and, though under the district sys- 
tem he was heavily taxed for their support, he 
always met the obligation thus imposed upon him 
with cheerfulness. Mr. Parker was one of the most 
prominent representatives of our wealth, and most 
intimately connected with the prosperity of the city. 

Samuel Rodman, Isaac and Gideon Howland, Wil- 
liam Rotch, Jr., George Howland, and John Avery 
Parker will long be remembered as men whose energy, 
enterprise, and success rendered them conspicuous in 
the commercial affairs of New Bedford, and whose 
industry and skill accumulated fortunes of no ordi- 
nary magnitude. 

John Avery Parker married Averick, daughter of 
Shadrach and Mary Standish, of Plympton, Feb. 28, 
1788. She was born May 2, 1772, and died May 11, 



1847. Their children were (1) Ruth, who married 
William H. Allen, of New Bedford. She died Feb- 
ruary, 1837, and left children. (2) Avery, lost at sea 
January, 1815, left no children. (3) Mary, who mar- 
ried Francis Howland, of New Bedford. She died 
Aug. 18, 1856, and left children. (4) Sarah, who 
married Capt. Joseph Dunbar. She died Jan. 12, 
1847, and left children. (5) Jonathan, died July 18, 
1806, in his fourth year. (6) Betsey, married Timothy 
G. Coffin, died Nov. 24, 1858, and left children. 
(7) Frederick, married Abbie Coggeshall. He was 
accidentally poisoned, and died from its effects Oct. 
21, 1861, aged fifty-five years. (8) Averick Standish, 
married Christian A. Heineken, and now resides in 
Bremen, Germany, and has children. (9) Jane Stan- 
dish, married, first, Harrison G. O. Colby (deceased), 
by whom she had children. She married, second, 
Rev. Thomas R. Lambert, and had one son. (10) Ann 
Avery, married, first, Thomas C. Lothrop (deceased), 
by whom she had three children, two of whom are 
living. She married, second, William F. Dow, by 
whom she had one daughter (deceased). (11) John, 
who died Jan. 18, 1836. There were two other chil- 
dren who died young. 

Mrs. John Avery Parker was a direct descendant 
from the historic and ever to be remembered Miles 
Standish, who was born in Lancashire, England, in 
1584. He was of a family of note, among which were 
a number of knights and bishops, and, it is said, was 
an heir to a large estate, which he himself says "was 
surreptitiously detained from him." He served in 
the Low Countries as an officer in the armies of Queen 
Elizabeth when commanded by her favorite, the Earl 
of Leicester. What induced him to connect himself 
with the Pilgrims does not appear. He took up his 
residence among them at Leyden, but never joined 
their church. 

He arrived in the "Mayflower," and lost his wife 
soon after ; he, however, married again in 1621. He 
was elected the first military commander of the 
colony. He went out as agent of the colony (1625) 
to England, and resided in London at the very period 
when -the pride of the Queen of Cities was laid in the 
dust and naught was heard in the streets but wailing 
and lamentation, — it was at the time of the last and 
most deadly plague. Being an accurate surveyor, he 
was generally on the committees for laying out new 
towns. He was always the military commander, and 
always of the council of war, generally an assistant, 
sometimes first assistant or Deputy Governor and 
treasurer. 

Standish was a man of small stature, of a fiery and 
quick temper, and never did a human form inclose a 
more intrepid spirit. Dangers from which all other 
men would have shrunk were with him only an in- 
centive to enterprise. He asked only eight men to 
subdue all the Indians of Massachusetts. Alone he 
took from the trembling hand of the profligate and 
turbulent Morton his loaded musket, and compelled 



NEW BEDFORD. 



129 



him to yield when he was surrounded by his whole 
company, and had boasted that he never would be 
taken alive. He did not stand aside to command 
others to do the work of death, but engaged in deadly 
conflicts, the fate of which rested upon the powers of 
the contending individuals. 

Standi sh was the father and founder of Duxbury, 
which he named from the seat of his family in Lan- 
cashire, which, as late as 1707, was the residence of 
Sir Thomas Standish. 



HON. HENRY HOWLAND CRAPO. 

Prominent among the sons of this old common- 
wealth who without inherited aid have risen from 
the humble ranks of life to distinguished positions 
stands Henry Howland Crapo, Governor of Michigan 
from 1865 to 1869. He was born in Dartmouth, 
Mass.. May 24, 1804, and was the eldest son of Jesse 
and Phrebe (Howland) Crapo. His father was of 
French descent, and was very poor, sustaining his 
family by the cultivation of a farm which yielded 
nothing beyond a mere livelihood. His early life 
was consequently one of toil, and devoid of advan- 
tages for intellectual culture, but his desire for an 
education seemed to know no bounds. The incessant 
toil for a mere subsistence upon a comparatively 
sterile farm had no charms for him, and longing for 
greater usefulness and better things, he looked for 
them in an education. His struggles to secure this 
end necessitated sacrifices and hardships that would 
have discouraged any but the most courageous and 
persevering. He became an ardent student and 
worker from boyhood, though the means of carrying 
on his studies was exceedingly limited. 

He sorely felt the need of a dictionary, and neither 
having money wherewith to purchase it nor being 
able to procure one in his neighborhood, he set to 
work to compile one for himself. In order to acquire 
a knowledge of the English language he copied into 
a book every word whose meaning he did not com- 
prehend, and upon meeting the same word again in 
the newspapers and books which came into his hands 
would study out its meaning from the context, and 
then record the definition. When unable otherwise 
to obtain the signification for a word in which he had 
become interested, he would walk from Dartmouth to 
New Bedford for that purpose alone, and after referring 
to the books at the library and satisfying thoroughly 
as to its definition, would walk back, a distance of 
about seven miles, the same night. This was no 
unusual occurrence. 

Under such difficulties, and in this manner, he com- 
piled quite an extensive dictionary in manuscript. 
Ever in the pursuit of knowledge, he obtained a book 
upon surveying, and applying himself diligently to its 
study, became familiar with the theory of this art, 
which he soon had an opportunity to practice. The 
services of a land surveyor were wanted, and he was 
9 



called upon, but had no compass and no money to 
purchase one. A compass, however, he must and 
would have, and going to a blacksmith's shop near 
at hand, upon the forge, with such tools as he could 
find there, while the smith was at dinner, he con- 
structed the compass and commenced as a surveyor. 
Still continuing his studies, he fitted himself for teach- 
ing, and took charge of the village school at Dart- 
mouth. When, in the course of time, and under the 
pressure of law, a High School was to be opened, he 
passed a successful examination for its principalship 
and received the appointment. To do this was no 
small task ; the law required a rigid examination in 
various subjects, which necessitated days and nights 
of study. 

One evening, after concluding his day's labor of 
teaching, he traveled on foot to New Bedford, some 
seven or eight miles, called upon the preceptor of the 
Friends' Academy, and passed a severe examination. 
Receiving a certificate that he was well qualified, he 
walked back to his home the same night, highly elated 
at being possessed of the acquirements and require- 
ments of a master of the High School. In 1832, at 
the age of twenty-eight, he left his native town to 
reside in New Bedford, where he was a land surveyor, 
and sometimes acted as an auctioneer. Soon after his 
removal he was elected town clerk, treasurer, and 
collector of taxes of New Bedford, which positions 
he held about fifteen years, and until the form of the 
municipal government was changed, when under the 
new form he was elected treasurer and collector of 
taxes, which he held for two years. He was also 
police justice many years. He was elected alderman, 
was chairman of the Council Committee on Education, 
and as such prepared the report on which was based 
the order for the establishment of the Free Public 
Library of New Bedford. On its organization he was 
chosen a member of its first board of trustees. This 
was the first free public library in Massachusetts, if 
not in the world; the Boston Public Library being, 
however, soon after established. While a resident of 
this city he was much interested in horticulture, and 
to obtain the land necessary for carrying out his ideas 
he drained and reclaimed several acres of rocky and 
swampy land adjoining his garden. Having properly 
prepared the soil, he started a nursery, which he filled 
with almost every description of fruit and ornamental 
trees, shrubs, flowers, etc. He was very successful in 
their propagation and growth, and took much pride 
in the result of his experiment. At horticultural 
fairs in Boston and elsewhere he exhibited from his 
grounds one hundred and fifty varieties of pears of his 
own propagation, and one hundred and twenty varie- 
ties of roses. 

In this, as in everything he undertook, he always 
worked intelligently and for the best results, seeking 
the best methods and looking for information to the 
highest authorities. The interest he took in the sub- 
ject brought him into communication with the most 



130 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



eminent horticulturists in the country, and the desire 
to impart as well as to acquire knowledge soon led 
him to become a regular contributor to the New Eng- 
land Horticultural Journal, a position he filled as long 
as he lived in Massachusetts. After his removal to 
Michigan his love for horticulture and agriculture 
was still further stimulated. He had an especial 
fondness for landscape and ornamental gardening, 
and possessed a farm of eleven hundred acres, most 
of which he redeemed from swamps by a system of 
drainage which he planned, and which developed into 
one of the finest farms in the State. He became here 
a breeder and importer of fine breeds of cattle and 
sheep, and was elected in 1863 president of the Gen- 
esee County Agricultural Society. During his last 
years he was a regular contributor on agricultural 
topics to the Country Gentleman. As an indication of 
the wide reputation he enjoyed in horticulture, it 
may be said that after his death an affecting eulogy 
of him was pronounced by the president of the Na- 
tional Horticultural Society at its meeting in Phila- 
delphia in 1869. 

During his residence in New Bedford, Mr. Crapo 
was also engaged in the whaling business, then the 
great specialty of local enterprise. A fine bark, 
built at Dartmouth, of which he was part owner, was 
named the " H. H. Crapo," in compliment to him. 
He also took an active interest in the State militia, 
and for several years held a commission as colonel of 
one of the regiments. In speaking of the intimate 
relations of Mr. Crapo with the interests of New Bed- 
ford, the Standard says, — 

"No man connected with our municipal concerns 
ever had to a greater extent than Mr. Crapo the con- 
fidence of the people. He was exact and methodical 
in all matters of record ; conscientious and labori- 
ously persistent in the discharge of every duty ; clear 
in his methods and statements in all that appertained 
to his official transactions. He left, at the end of his 
long period of service, all that belonged to his depart- 
ment as a financial or recording officer so lucid and 
complete that no error has ever been detected or any 
improvement made upon his plans." 

He was president of the Bristol County Mutual In- 
surance and secretary of the Bedford Commercial In- 
surance Companies of New Bedford, and while an 
officer of the municipal government he compiled and 
published, between the years of 1836 and 1845, five 
numbers of the New Bedford Directory, the first work 
of the kind ever issued there. Mr. Crapo removed to 
Michigan in 1856, having been induced to do so by in- 
vestments, made principally in pine lands, and took up 
his residence in the city of Flint. He engaged largely 
in the manufacture of lumber, and became one of the 
largest and most successful business men of the State. 
He was mainly instrumental in constructing the Flint 
and Holly Railroad, and was president of its corpora- 
tion until its consolidation with the Flint and Pere 
Marquette Railroad Company. He showed a lively 



interest in the municipal affairs of Flint, gave his 
hearty support to the cause of popular education, 
and was elected mayor after residing in Flint only 
five or six years. 

In the early part of his life Mr. Crapo affiliated 
with the Whig party in politics, but became an active 
member of the Republican party on its organization. 

In 1862 he was elected State senator to represent 
Genesee County, and took rank with the leading men 
of the Michigan Senate. He was chairman of the 
Committee on Banks and Incorporations, and a mem- 
ber of the Committee on Bounties to Soldiers. He at 
once became conspicuous as a legislator, his pre- 
viously acquired experience and knowledge of State 
and municipal affairs admirably fitting him for legis- 
lative duties. In 1864 he received the Republican 
nomination for Governor of the State, and was elected 
by a large majority. He was re-elected in 1866, holding 
the office two terms, retiring in January, 1869. During 
the four years of this office he served the State with 
unflagging zeal, energy, and industry. The features 
which especially characterized his administration 
were his vetoing of railway aid legislation and his 
firm refusal to pardon convicts imprisoned in the 
penitentiary unless given the clearest proof of their 
innocence or of extreme sentence. Subsequent events 
and experience have proven conclusively that his 
action in vetoing railway aid bills was of great ben- 
efit to the State financially, and his judgment in the 
matter has been generally approved. While serving 
his last term as Governor he was attacked by the dis- 
ease which terminated his life within one year. 
During much of this time he was an intense sufferer, 
yet often while in great pain gave his attention to 
public matters. He died July 23, 1869. The Detroit 
Tribune closes an obituary notice with this tribute to 
his worth, — 

" In all the public positions he held Governor Crapo 
showed himself a capable, discreet, vigilant, and in- 
dustrious officer. He evinced wonderful vigor in 
mastering details, and always wrote and spoke intel- 
ligently on any subject to which he gave his atten- 
tion. Michigan never before had a Governor who 
devoted so much personal attention and painstaking 
labor to her public duties as he did. His industry 
was literally amazing. He was not a man of brilliant 
or showy qualities, but he possessed sharp and re- 
markably well developed business talents, a clear and 
practical understanding, sound judgment, and unfail- 
ing integrity. In all the walks of life there was not 
a purer man in the State. So faithful, so laborious, 
so unselfish, so conscientious a man in official life is a 
blessing beyond computation in the healthful influ- 
ence which he exerts in the midst of the too preva- 
lent corruptions that so lamentably abound in the 
public service. We have often thought that, in his 
plainness, his honesty, his fidelity to duty, and in his 
broad and sterling good sense, Governor Crapo closely 
resembled the lamented Lincoln. He was a man of 







•^V^ 




^/ 





fZrz^_ 



NEW BEDFORD. 



131 



the people, and most worthily represented them. His 
decease is an occasion for public mourning. The 
State has very few men like him, and can ill afford to 
spare such an eminently useful citizen. His death 
Avill be profoundly deplored throughout our common- 
wealth, and a general sympathy will be sincerely ex- 
tended to the bereaved family." 

Mr. Crapo was a member of the Christian (some- 
times called the Disciples') Church, and took great 
interest in its welfare and prosperity. He married 
June 9, 1825, Mary Ann Slocum, of Dartmouth. 
This was soon after he had attained his majority, and 
before his struggles for fortune had been rewarded by 
any great measure of success. His wife was a woman 
of great strength of character, and possessed courage, 
hopefulness, and devotion, qualities which sustained 
and encouraged her husband in the various pursuits 
of his early manhood. For several years after his 
marriage he was engaged in teaching, his wife living 
with her parents at the time, at whose house their 
two older children were born. While thus situated he 
was accustomed to walk home on Saturdays to see 
his family, returning on Sunday in order to be ready 
for school Monday morning. As the walk for a great 
part of the time was twenty miles each way, it is evi- 
dent that at this period of his life no common obsta- 
cles deterred him from the performance of what he 
regarded as a duty. His wife was none the less con- 
scientious in her sphere, and with added responsibili- 
ties and increasing requirements, she labored faith- 
fully in the performance of all her duties. They had 
ten children, one son and nine daughters. 



CAPT. CHARLES L. WOOD. 

Capt. Charles L. Wood, of New Bedford, was born 
in Dartmouth, March 17, 1813. He was educated in 
the public schools of that town and at the academy 
in Sandwich. At an early age he went to sea, making 
his first voyage to New Orleans in a merchant-ship 
commanded by Capt. James Byder. He then went 
as boat-steerer in the whale-ship " Braganza," of which 
his father, Capt. Daniel Wood, was master. His next 
voyage he took as mate with his brother, Capt. James 
B. Wood, master, in a whale-ship sailing from St- 
John, New Brunswick. At the age of twenty-four he 
took command of ship " Elizabeth," of Dartmouth, a 
whaler, the youngest member of the crew, and upon 
his return in 1842 abandoned the sea, formed a part- 
nership with his brother, under the style of J. B. Wood 
& Co., and became largely interested as an owner and 
agent of whale-ships. For more than thirty years 
they continued in active business, and no firm ever 
stood higher in the confidence of the business com- 
munity, or gave more unvarying and entire satisfac- 
tion to their co-owners, and few were more uniformly 
successful. He died in New Bedford, July 13, 1881. 

For many years Capt. Wood was a director in the 
insurance offices of the city, in the Bank of Com- 



merce, and in the Wamsutta Mills, one of the Board 
of Investment of the New Bedford Institution for Sav- 
ings, and for three terms was a director on the part of 
the State of the Boston and Albany Railroad. In all 
these positions he rendered efficient and valuable 
service. 

He was possessed of practical good sense, of cool, 
deliberate, and rarely erring judgment, and while 
cautions and prudent, was tenacious of a purpose 
thoughtfully formed. He was a wise and safe coun- 
selor, and many men greatly his seniors were glad 
to avail themselves of his judicious advice. That he 
filled no political positions was not due to any lack 
of the public's appreciation of his worth or of desire 
to honor him, but to his own modest estimate of his 
abilities and his utter aversion to anything like dis- 
play. No man was more respected- and beloved, for 
he was one of nature's noblemen, — a man of large and 
tender heart, quick to sympathize, and as quick to aid. 
Frank, sincere, and true, he had troops of attached 
friends, and not a single enemy. 



THOMAS MANDELL.i 



Mr. Thomas Mandell died at his residence in this 
city, at three o'clock yesterday morning, after a com- 
paratively brief illness. He was born in Fairhaven, 
then a part of the town of New Bedford, Aug. 9, 
1792 ; was for a time a clerk in a store at the Head of 
the River, and before reaching his majority com- 
menced business here as partner with the late Caleb 
Congdon. Soon after he took the entire management 
of a mechanics' store, developing there the business 
traits which attracted the notice of the firm of Isaac 
Howland, Jr., & Co., and induced them to offer him 
an interest in their house. He became a member of 
that firm in 1819, and it is exact justice to say that to 
him more than to any other partner is due the high 
credit which the house for half a century maintained, 
and the colossal fortunes it built up. The late Edward 
Mott Robinson entered the firm about 1833, which 
soon after consisted of that gentleman, Mr. Mandell, 
and the late Sylvia Ann Howland. The new partner 
brought to the firm an eagerness and boldness in en- 
terprise which greatly extended its operations, but 
which never disregarded the sound judgment of Mr. 
Mandell ; and the two, although widely differing in 
almost everything else, perfectly agreed in their no- 
tions of mercantile integrity, and each entertained 
the highest regard for the honor of the other. Besides 
his responsibility as a partner, Mr. Mandell, for more 
than a quarter of a century, had the entire care and 
management of the estate of the late Sylvia Ann 
Howland, and her appointment of him as sole exec- 
utor of her will was a just recognition of his integrity, 
while her bequest to him of two hundred thousand 



1 From the New Bedford Daily Mercury of Momlaj-, Feb. 14, 1870. 



132 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



dollars was nothing more than a fair remuneration 
for the valuable service he had rendered. 

Mr. Mandell was many years ago one of the select- 
men of New Bedford, and was the first to com- 
mence the keeping of the records by the board, but 
with this exception he held no public office. 1 He 
sought no such honors ; but he was never without 
proofs of the confidence reposed in his probity and 
discretion, as the responsible positions he held in 
various corporations showed. He was not a great 
man ; but he was better than that, — a good man. A 
merchant of the old school, he knew no road to success 
but that of upright and honorable dealing. Modest 
and unobtrusive, no man was ever more tenacious of 
an opinion when satisfied of its correctness. His name 
here was the synonym of rectitude. 

He was a benevolent man. He was the almoner of 
his own bounty, a bounty which did not break out at 
long intervals in noisy and startling displays of be- 
neficence, but flowed quietly, steadily, refreshingly. 
We need not speak of the objects of his charity, or 
the extent of his benefactions. He never spoke of 
them, and shrunk from any mention of them by 
others. He may be forgotten as the honorable and 
successful merchant, but his memory will live in the 
hearts of those who have been sustained and cheered 
by his unostentatious and gentle charities. 

SONNET.i 

Thomas Mandell. 

Feb. 14, 1870. 

" Few are the words which in the morn's gazette 
Tell us of thee, thou noble-hearted man, — 
The birth, the death, of life the general plan, 
Allegiance lifelong to the right ; and yet 
There is close mingled with the deep regret 
That from our darkened, erring world has fled 
The light that never dazzled or misled, 
In which with winning potency there met 
A soul's stern feality to truth and God 

And manners gentle as the evening's close, 
Another phase of feeling, — death's repose 
Has hushed to them who nearest thee have trod 
Life's pathway many a gentle utterance sweet, 
Fresh from the fount where song and music meet." 

At a meeting of the trustees of New Bedford Insti- 
tution for Savings, April 8, 1870, William H. Taylor, 
on behalf of a committee appointed at our last meet- 
ing to present resolutions expressive of the sense of 
the loss sustained by this institution in the removal 
of its late president, Thomas Mandell, now presented 
the following, which were read, and, on motion of 
Charles R. Tucker, were adopted, and the secretary 
was directed to place the same on our records and also 
to present a copy thereof to the family of the de- 
ceased : 



1 Mr. Mandell was a few years in public life as a representative to the 
General Court from the town of New Bedford. He was elected for seven 
consecutive years, from 1830 to 1836, inclusive. 

2 From the New Bedford Mercury, Saturday, Feb. 19, 1870. 



RESOLUTIONS. 

"Whereas, In the providence of God, death has again visited us, re- 
moving our esteemed associate Thomas Mandell from our midst, who 
for forty years was actively engaged in the management of the affairs of 
this institution, and acceptably tilled the office of president for the last 
fourteen years, we deem it proper to place upon our records a memorial 
of bis active virtues and of the loss we have sustained by bis removal. 

"Resolved, That in his decease we recognize the loss of a valued 
friend, a faithful officer, a useful citizen, a Christian merchant and gen- 
tleman, whose deeds of charity and benevolence will embalm his mem- 
ory and lead many to ' rise up and call him blessed.' Identified with 
our institution almost from its origin, he has manifested an untiring de- 
votion to its interests, and in the management of its affairs bis financial 
skill, combined with bis uucompromising integrity, have largely con- 
tributed to its success. 

" Resolved, That the secretary be requested to spread these proceedings 
upon the record, and to transmit to the bereaved family of our departed 
friend a copy thereof, duly attested by his signature." 

The Memory of Thomas Mandell. — At the 
regular meeting of the directors of the Mechanics' 
National Bank, held at its banking-rooms, on Wed- 
nesday morning, February 16th, the death of their 
president, Thomas Mandell, was appropriately re- 
ferred to by Jireh Swift, Jr., who presented the fol- 
lowing resolutions : 

"Resolved, That in the death of our beloved and honored president 
we mourn the loss of a faithful officer, whose connection with this in- 
stitution from its inception to its maturity has been eminently charac- 
terized by discriminating judgment and ability, and the mast scrupu- 
lous fidelity to the welfare and prosperity of this corporation. 

"Resolved, That we cherish his memory as a friend endeared to us by 
many fond recollections and pleasant associations, ever evincing as he 
did kindness and nobleness of heart and purity of purpose. The stream 
of benevolence that flowed so silently from bis good heart has warmed 
many hearthstones, and the recipients of his bounty will now rise up to 
call him blessed. 

" Resolvd, That we tender to the family of our deceased friend our 
heartfelt sympathies in their affliction, and the assurance of our earnest 
hope that the Giver of all good may vouchsafe to them that consolation 
which alone reconciles humanity to such bereavements." 

William W. Crapo, in seconding the resolutions, 
said, "It is not necessary on this occasion, with us 
who have known Mr. Mandell intimately for years, 
and whose daily duties have brought us in close per- 
sonal contact with him, to give a sketch of his life. 
The simple reading of the resolutions expresses the 
tribute of admiration and love which we pay to our 
departed associate and friend. 

" But he was possessed of personal traits of char- 
acter which it may be proper for us, who have been 
on terms of such familiar intercourse with him, to al- 
lude to and remember. It is to his sound, discrimi- 
nating judgment, his fearless and impartial discharge 
of official duty, acting as president or director during 
its history of nearly forty years, that this institution 
owes much of its prosperity and success. 

" He was a man of spotless integrity, of quick ap- 
prehension, of accuracy, method, and faithfulness in 
business, and these qualities made him an acknowl- 
edged leader in the mercantile community. 

"He was gentle in manners, true in principle, earn- 
est in his convictions, steadfast in his opinions, char- 
itable, benevolent, and kindly without ostentation. 
He was beloved by his fellow-citizens, for he took an 
active interest in whatever concerned the welfare of 





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NEW BEDFORD. 



133 



the community, always doing his part cheerfully and 
generously. His sympathies were genuine. His love 
for his neighbor joined so closely with sincerity and 



ment of the West, and early turned his attention to 
Chicago, and continued his business interests there as 
long as he lived. Mr. Greene was a man of strong 



earnestness in the performance of duty that during convictions, of great energy and unyielding will, and 
his long life he was constantly doing good and making was, as such men often are, somewhat rugged in speech 



others happy. 

" The death of such a man is a public calamity, and 
to us, who have known him so intimately, it is a per- 
sonal affliction." 

The resolutions were adopted, and votes passed in- 
structing the secretary of the board to forward a copy 
to the family of the deceased, and directing the whole 
proceedings to be placed upon the records of the board. 



DAVID R. GREENE. 

David R. Greene was born in New Bedford in 
March, 1794, and lived there continuously to the 
time of his death in 1879. His father was Robert 
Greene, a native of Liverpool, England, and his 
mother was Deborah Russell, a native of New Bed- 
ford. His father, who was a master-mariner, died 
while on a foreign voyage, when his son was about 
three years old, leaving his widow in straitened 
circumstances. After receiving a limited common 
school education young Greene began to go to sea, 
and after a number of coasting voyages became su- 
percargo, an officer indispensable to the trading voy- 
ages of the period. Having formed a distaste for 
the sea, he left it and went into the grocery business, 
at first as clerk, but was admitted a partner before he 
reached his majority. In 1820 he began to fit vessels 
for whaling voyages, and he gradually increased his 
interest in the whale fishery until he became one of 
the largest ship-owners of New Bedford. For many 
years he was in partnership with the late Willard 
Nye and the late Dennis Wood, under the firm of 
D. R. Greene & Co., and was engaged in fitting ships 
and dealing in the products of the whale fishery. In 
1825 he was one of the projectors of the Merchants' 
Bank, now one of the principal banking corporations 
of New Bedford, and he continued a member of its 
board of directors for more than fifty years. He was 
an ardent Whig, and a firm believer in the protection 
of American industries, and was very active in found- 
ing the manufacturing enterprises which the protec- 
tive system has fostered. In 1847, he with others 
started the Wamsutta Mills, now one of the largest 
cotton-maimfacturing corporations of New England, 
and was for thirty years one of the directors. 

He took an active interest in the early develop- 
ment of railroads, and was one of the builders of the 
railroad between New Bedford and Taunton, and one 
of its directors from the time of its incorporation 
until it was sold for the purposes of consolidation. 
He was at the time of his death one of the oldest 
stockholders in the Illinois Central Railroad, which 
now owns a continuous line from Chicago to New 
Orleans. He took a great interest in the develop- 



and brusque in action, but he had a kind heart and 
quick sympathies. He not only gave liberally to 
charitable objects when solicited, but sought oppor- 
tunities of giving, and of such acts he never spoke. 
His long life was one of commendable industry, 
honorable labor, of enterprise, and of sturdy devo- 
tion to what he conceived to be right. If, as has been 
sometimes said, there is an immortality of good work, 
his influence will survive him. 



THE PARKER FAMILY. 

Ward M. Parker, of New Bedford, Mass., was a 
lineal descendant on his paternal side from William 
Parker, who came from England and settled with 
many others, among whom were the ancestors of 
Samuel J. Tilden, in the town of Scituate, Mass., at 
what date is not known, but probably at its earliest 
settlement. In September, 1640, a grant was ob- 
tained for a settlement at " Mattakese," situated be- 
tween Sandwich and Yarmouth, and in October of 
the same year a settlement was commenced from the 
town of Scituate, Mass., and among the many who 
settled at " Mattakese" was William Parker. From 
this grant Sandwich, Barnstable, and probably Yar- 
mouth- became invested with the right of township, 
and these people commenced the settlement of Fal- 
mouth. 

William Parker finally settled in Falmouth, where 
he remained during life. He left several sons, of 
whom Robert Parker was one, and one or more 
daughters. We know but little about Robert Parker. 
He had several sons, among whom were Thomas, born 
Aug. 24, 1669; Daniel, April 18, 1670, ancestor of 
John A. Parker; and Joseph, born 1671. 

Joseph Parker, son of Robert, was one of the 
original church members in Falmouth, Mass. He 
married Mercy Whiston, June 30, 1698, and died in 
1732. Their children were Joseph, born April 23, 
1699; John, born Sept. 11, 1700; Benjamin, born 
Feb. 16, 1702 ; Timothy, born Nov. 27, 1703 ; Seth, 
born Sept. 20, 1705; Sylvanus, born Sept. 11, 1707; 
and Mercy, born May 21, 1709. She married Rev. 
Samuel Palmer. Joseph Parker was buried in the 
old burying-ground at Falmouth, and a stone resem- 
bling Connecticut red granite lies horizontally over 
his grave and marks his final resting-place. 

Sylvanus Parker, son of Joseph, married Martha 
Mayhew, of Chihnark, in 1748. They had two chilr 
dren, — Seth, born Oct. 12, 1750, and Lydia, who was 
twice married, first to Josiah Cotton, of Plymouth, 
and second to Dr. Thomas Smith. 

Seth Parker, only son of Sylvanus, married Sophia 
Cotton, of Plvmouth, about 1775 or 1776. Their 



134 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



children were Sylvanus, born 1777, who died single 
in 1811 ; Rossiter C, born 1779, and died 1804; Seth, 
born 1781, and died 1811; Ward M., the immediate 
subject of our sketch ; Lydia, born 1787, died 1848 ; 
John C, born 1793, died July 2, 1881. Mr. Parker 
died in 1813, leaving a widow and two sons, Ward 
M. and John, and one daughter, Lydia. Mrs. Sophia 
(Cotton) Parker was a lineal descendant from Rev. 
John Cotton, who was an Episcopalian minister in 
Lincolnshire and London, England. 

There was but one family of Cottons originally in 
England, and they came from Normandy, in France, 
with William the Conqueror, in the year 1060, and 
from this family descended the Rev. John Cotton, who 
was a popular preacher in and about London until 
he was suspected of favoring the Dissenters, who had 
the audacity to doubt the infallibility of the Episco- 
pal Church. Being advised by friends that he was in 
danger of being arrested, he very quietly arranged 
to come to America with his family, in company 
with the Rev. Mr. Hooker, afterwards of Connecticut. 
They arrived in Boston in 1633, when Mr. Hooker 
went to Connecticut, and Mr. Cotton was settled as a 
minister in the King's Chapel, Boston, now called 
Stone Chapel, and there continued to preach with 
great acceptance till the close of his life, Dec. 23, 
1652, aged sixty-seven. His name may be seen in- 
scribed with others on a monument adjoining the 
chapel in Boston. Mr. Cotton left several children, 
and from them descended the Cottons of New Eng- 
land. One of his sons, John, educated at Cambridge, 
studied for the ministry, and settled at Charleston, 
S. C, where he died. One of his (Rev. John Cot- 
ton's) daughters married the Rev. Dr. Mather, presi- 
dent of Harvard College, and they had a son, the 
well-known Cotton Mather. There were other chil- 
dren of the Rev. John Cotton, but their names are 
not known to the writer. Some of them settled at 
Plymouth, and were influential citizens in their day. 
From Thacher's " History of Plymouth" we find that 
the first Cotton he mentions is Josiah, a son of the 
Rev. John Cotton, and grandson of the original Rev. 
John Cotton, who was the first settled minister in 
Boston. Josiah Cotton was born 1679, graduated 
from Harvard College in 1698, taught school in sev- 
eral places, and finally settled in Plymouth, Mass. 
He was elected clerk of the court, register of deeds, 
etc. He wrote a supplement to the New England 
Memorial, now in the hands of the Massachusetts 
Historical Society. He died in 1756, aged seventy- 
six. He left a family of children, among whom was 
John Cotton, born in Plymouth in 1712, graduated 
from Cambridge College in 1730, and ordained in 
Halifax in 1736, but losing his voice by a severe fit of 
sickness, he was obliged to give up his chosen profes- 
sion, consequently he returned to his native town 
(Plymouth) and took his father's place as register 
of deeds, etc., which position he retained till his I 
death, Nov. 4, 1789. John Cotton, the maternal i 



grandfather of Ward M. Parker, married Hannah 
Sturtevant, and left eleven children, four sons and 
seven daughters, of whom Sophia, who married Seth 
Parker, was one, hence the line of descent has been 
Sophia 5 , John 4 , Josiah', John 2 , and John 1 . The line 
of descent in the Parker family has been Ward M. 6 , 
Seth*, Sylvanus*, Joseph 3 , Robert 2 , William 1 . 

Ward M. Parker was born in Falmouth, Mass., 
June 18, 1784, and died in New Bedford, Aug. 6, 1881. 
In early life he was engaged in the coasting trade, 
commanding a vessel running to Charleston, S. C. 
He secured the confidence of the leading merchants 
and business men at that port, and his operations were 
uniformly successful. The war of 1812, with the 
embargo, broke up his coasting business at the South, 
but this did not dishearten him. For several years he 
was engaged in procuring live-oak timber in Florida 
under contracts with the government, and soon after 
embarked in the whaling business at Wood's Holl, 
where he built the ship " Bartholomew Gosnold." 
On the 12th of June, 1838, Mr. Parker removed to 
this city, though for a few years he continued his 
agency of the " Gosnold," which was fitted at Wood's 
Holl. He then retired from active business, devo- 
ting himself to the care of the handsome property 
which he had acquired, and which under his shrewd 
and judicious management grew to a large estate. 
For nearly forty years he was a director in the Marine 
(now the First National) Bank, and for many years 
was in the direction of the New Bedford and Taun- 
ton Railroad, the Gas-Light Company (also its vice- 
president), the Commercial Insurance Company, the 
Taunton Copper Company, and its president for many 
years, and the Taunton Locomotive- Works. 

The architect of his own fortune, with full faith in 
" Poor Richard's" maxims, and with habits of rigid 
economy, he was not a close nor a hard man. No 
director of a bank was ever more liberal in affording 
accommodation to men of small means needing 
assistance, and many who failed of relief in tight 
times from the banks have been supplied from his 
private means. Cautious in his investments, he was 
not lacking in enterprise, and rarely hesitated to 
aid in starting manufacturing projects here which 
promised advantage to the city. Exact in all his 
transactions, he was always fair, honorable, and 
scrupulously just. He was genial, kind-hearted, and 
unostentatiously benevolent, — a man thoroughly re- 
spected and highly esteemed in all the relations of 
life. Up to the close of that life so long protracted, 
he exhibited remarkable physical vigor, remarkable 
brightness and clearness of intellect, and a lively 
interest in affairs. In politics he was a Whig and 
Republican, and was a representative to the General 
Assembly from 1834 to 1838. He was a soldier in the 
war of 1812. He was twice married, first to Hepzibah, 
daughter of Deacon John Davis, July 27, 1815. She 
was born Oct. 4, 1793, and died Feb. 26, 1833. Their 
children are Abby S. (deceased), Hannah C. (de- 





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^SWe^' 




NEW BEDFORD. 



135 



ceased), wife of J. A. Beauvais ; Abby S. (2d), wife of 
J. L. Ferguson, of New York City; and Ward R., of 
New York City. Mr. Parker married for his second 
wife Marcia F., daughter of David W. and Cynthia 
Lewis, May 25, 1836. She was born in Falmouth, 
May 11, 1813, and belongs to an old and honorable 
family of that town. They have had ten children, 
five of whom are living, — Arabella, Lawrence H., 
Henry W., David L., and Lydia P., wife of C. W. 
Mitchell, of Baltimore, Md. 



JAMES BUNKER CONGDON. 

The death of James Bunker Congdon, which oc- 
curred on the 10th of June, 1880, demands more than 
a passing notice. Well may his name and worth 
have honorable mention in the archives of the Free 
Public Library, for to him perhaps more than to all 
others is it indebted not only for its existence, but 
for its continued prosperity, and for the measure of 
usefulness to which it has attained. 

Mr. Congdon prepared and headed the petition to 
the City Council which resulted in 1852 in the perma- 
nent establishment of the library, and to his energy 
and untiring devotion it is due that the few thousand 
volumes of the old Social Library became the founda- 
tion of an institution of great public benefit, and of 
which the city has so much reason to be proud. 

Elected a member of the first board of trustees, a 
position which he held, except during a brief interval, 
for more than twenty years, he watched with untiring 
zeal over its struggling infancy. As its hold on the 
community grew firmer and its usefulness broader, 
his watchful interest kept even pace with its benefi- 
cent development; he was constantly suggesting, and, 
when authority had been secured, instituting meas- 
ures for its progressive advantage. 

Secretary of the board of trustees from its organi- 
zation in 1852 until near the close of his life, the 
annual reports of the board to the city government, 
always scholarly and often ardent and glowing in 
their style, and which tended largely to invite and to 
hold the good will of the city government, and the 
public itself, were invariably from his pen. When 
the corner-stone of the beautiful library building was 
laid i which fully symbolized the permanence of the 
institution, while it opened the way to increased use- 
fulness) Mr. Congdon led in the ceremonies of the 
occasion, and delivered an address, in which he gave 
in detail the history of the enterprise, and foretold its 
Buccess. He lived long enough to see its prosperity 
well assured, and to enjoy not only by himself, but 
through the public generally, its great and continually 
increasing benefits. He gave not only his services to 
the cause, but in 1876, having received from the city 
five hundred dollars for revising the charter and or- 
dinances, he gave it as a donation to the trust funds 
of the library. 



Thus did he prove his interest by deeds of unselfish 
devotion. Yet, though his life was one of varied 
usefulness, while, as has been truly said of him, "No 
one ever wrought more continuously, ungrudgingly, 
and unselfishly for the public weal," it is certain that 
no fruits of his labor were so grateful to himself as 
those richly garnered in connection with the Free 
Public Library. 

The history of his private life was not eventful, 
and is briefly told. He was born Dec. 19, 1802, and 
was the son of Caleb Congdon, a native of Rhode 
Island, who came here and was married to the 
daughter of Benjamin Taber. Mr. Taber was an 
early settler, whose house was burned by the British 
in the Revolutionary war. Mr. Congdon received 
his early education in our public schools. At the age 
of eighteen he became book-keeper for Messrs. Wil- 
liam H. and Gideon Allen, in whose employ he re- 
mained five years. When the Merchants' Bank was 
chartered and went into operation he became its 
cashier, which position he filled with superior ability, 
securing prosperity and credit for that institution, 
honor and confidence for himself, until 1858, a period 
of nearly thirty years, when severe illness caused by 
overwork compelled him to resign. 

On his recovery, in the spring of the same year, he 
was elected city treasurer and collector of taxes. He 
was annually re-elected until, in 1879, advancing years 
warned him to relieve himself of the burden of his 
public responsibilities, when he resigned his post. He 
had been a signally faithful and competent officer. 
Throughout the civil war, when the labors of the 
city treasurer were greatly complicated and aug- 
mented, he proved himself equal to every emergency. 
To his other duties — from the time of the establish- 
ment of the Acushnet Water Board to his resigna- 
tion of his office a few months before his death — he 
added those of registrar of the board. 

The public is always ready to place responsibility 
on competent, trusted, and willing shoulders. Mr. 
Congdon did not know himself when he thought to 
favor his increasing infirmities, and pass the remain- 
ing years in repose. The post of member of the 
Board of Health, then newly created, was offered to 
him, and he accepted it. He was elected chairman of 
the board. He entered upon his duties with enthu- 
siastic appreciation of responsibility and opportunity, 
and that spirit of conscientious fidelity which char- 
acterized all his exertions through life, and labored 
in his new field with intense earnestness and corre- 
sponding efficiency. The elaborate report of the 
board at the close of its first year was from his pen. 
It was the last monument of his public service. 

These efforts were too much for his enfeebled frame. 
He made them only by force of a will that triumphed 
over physical suffering. On March 24, 1880, he was 
compelled to resign, and on the 10th of June he died. 
He wrought diligently in his unselfish and benevolent 
work until the evening shadows fell and the night 



136 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



came, when no man can work. It was fitting that at 
the funeral of such an officer the public offices should 
be closed, and the city government should attend the 
services in a body, and that highly complimentary 
resolutions, unanimously adopted, should have a per- 
manent place in the records of the City Council. 

Mr. Congdon's philanthropy was as conspicuous as 
his fidelity. The kindness of his heart was never ap- 
pealed to in vain. The leisure which most other men 
would have devoted to relaxation he crowded with 
beneficent labor. He was a warm friend to the New 
Bedford Lyceum, giving it at all times the support of 
his voice and pen. He was one of the most active 
and efficient members of the Port Society, which has 
accomplished admirable results in behalf of the sea- 
men sailing from this port. He was a trustee of the 
institution for deaf mutes in Northampton. For 
eleven years he was a member of the school commit- 
tee, and then and ever after a champion of the public 
schools, a zealous friend of all measures tending to 
their improvement, and to the cause of education. 
From 1834 to 1841, and from 1842 until the acceptance 
of the city charter in 1847, Mr. Congdon was one of 
the selectmen of the town, and for many years chair- 
man of the board. Indeed, there was no philan- 
thropic movement in the community during his life 
that he was not its pronounced and active supporter, 
and for him to support a cause was to mortgage to its 
furtherance his time and his powers. He readily re- 
sponded to every demand made upon his facile pen. 
He wrote most of the annual reports, historical 
sketches, and other publications of the institutions 
with which he was permanently identified. His ad- 
dresses, essays, and reports would of themselves fill 
a volume. 

His ready pen was busy at times in other important 
work. He drew up the charter for the city govern- 
ment which was enacted by the Legislature in 1847. 
He wrote most of the ordinances which from time to 
time have been adopted by the City Council. The 
historical details in the appendix to the " Centennial 
History of New Bedford," which was published in 
1876, were edited by him. He was a frequent con- 
tributor to the press in both prose and poetry, and his 
productions were often admirable, always creditable. 

He was a dear lover of books, which he read with 
avidity, appropriating what was best in them with 
acute discrimination. It was the valuable service 
which books had rendered to him in the moulding of 
his thought and the enlargement of his culture which 
intensified his interest in the Free Public Library. 
It was the wish of his loving heart that every soul in 
the community should have, "without money and 
without price," the same intellectual advantages 
which he himself had received and so much enjoyed. 

His portrait, the gift of grateful friends, hangs in 
the main hall of the library. It is in the most fitting 
place. He seems to be looking approvingly down (as 
if in realization of his fondest hopes) upon the library 



itself, so much the work of his hands, and the vol- 
umes so much the delight of his heart. As those 
who avail themselves of the advantages of an institu- 
tion which he did so much to establish and foster 
pass and repass that silent image may they sometimes 
remember his example, and be inspired to lead lives 
of faithful citizenship and disinterested philanthropy. 
G. H. D. 

JOSEPH KNOWLES. 

Joseph Knowles, son of James H. and Ruth (Doane) 
Knowles, was born in Eastham, Mass., Sept. 23, 1819. 
He was a lineal descendant of Richard Knowles, the 
emigrant, who came from England prior to 1638, and 
who was stanch in defense of his convictions. Mr. 
Knowles received a liberal education and completed 
his studies at Phillips' Andover Academy, but choos- 
ing a mercantile life, he came to New Bedford, and 
engaged as clerk for his cousin, Thomas Knowles, 
when about seventeen years old. After five years' 
service he was admitted partner. The new firm 
was Thomas Knowles & Co., and its members were 
Thomas, John P., and Joseph Knowles. For thirty- 
four years, until his death, May 27, 1876, he was ac- 
tively engaged in trade, and was for a long time one 
of New Bedford's prominent merchants. He married, 
Nov. 14, 1844, Jedidah, daughter of Beriah and Eliz- 
abeth (Cole) Doane, of Orleans, Mass. Their chil- 
dren are Helen D. (Mrs. Charles D. Milliken), Eliza- 
beth, Joseph F., and Arthur. 

He was fully in accord with the principles of the 
Republican party, worked for its interests, and sup- 
ported its candidates. He was largely interested in 
all things tending towards the enlightenment and up- 
ward progress of society, and was active and promi- 
nent in connection with the New Bedford Public 
Library, of which he was a trustee. 

We give, as expressing the character of Mr. Knowles 
more completely than words of ours, the following 
from those who knew him intimately: 

" Mr. Knowles was a member of the board of 
aldermen for two years under the mayoralty of Hon. 
John N. Perry, and for the same period while Mr. 
Richmond was mayor, discharging the duties with 
rare good judgment and singular fidelity. He was 
repeatedly urged to accept a nomination for mayor, 
but he had no taste for municipal honors, though 
willing to give his full share of time and effort in the 
service of the city. He was devoted to his business, 
and had earned the reputation of sterling integrity 
and probity in his transactions. Quiet and unassum- 
ing in his manners, he was firm of principle and 
courageous in his convictions, and no man was held 
in higher respect or more fully enjoyed the confidence 
of his fellow-citizens." l 

James B. Congdon, in the twenty-sixth annual re- 
port of the trustees of New Bedford Free Public 



i From the Mercury of May 29, 1876. 



m 




0/7 




64/t>y 




H 






rfr ^?z^z:^^z 



NEW BEDFORD. 



131 



Library, gives this testimonial to his virtues : " Joseph 
Knowles claims a prominent place in our necrology 
of the year. As a merchant, he was enlightened, en- 
terprising, and the soul of fidelity ; as an alderman 
of the city, he was sagacious in council, faithful to 
every conviction of duty, firm and un movable when 
not to be firm was to be false to the convictions of his 
understanding, kind and courteous to all who had 
claims upon his attention ; as a trustee of the library, 
he had clear apprehensions as to the methods to be 
pursued, and an abiding conscientiousness in the dis- 
charge of every trust. Those who have known him 
as a leading merchant of our city, and those who were 
his associates in the City Council and upon the board 
of trustees of the library, all bear testimony to his j 
gentlemanly bearing in his business and official inter- 
course, and all unite in assigning to him an elevated 
position among the active and public men of our city. 
In his daily walk and conversation he was an exam- 
ple of those virtues which are lovely and of good 
report. ' There was a daily beauty in his life' which 
won and retained the affection and respect of all with 
whom he came in contact. There was in his char- 
acter and conduct those evidences of fidelity to the 
right and an affectionate interest in the welfare of 
others which inspired confidence and esteem." 



OLIVER CROCKER. 



Mr. Oliver Crocker, whose death occurred May 23, 
1878, at his residence on William Street, in New Bed- 
ford, was born on the 3d day of August, 1788, in the 
pleasant little village of Cotuit, in the town of Barn- 
stable. He was educated at the then celebrated Sand- 
wich Academy, under the tuition of Rev. Jonathan 
Burr. At the age of sixteen he was put to apprentice 
in Boston, and served his term in a dry -goods store in 
that city. After reaching his majority he engaged in 
business in Boston, and in 1812 removed to this place, 
where he continuously resided till his death. Until 
1832 he was in the dry -goods and grocery trade, and in 
this year commenced the manufacture of oil and be- 
came interested in shipping. In 1837 he was associated 
in the oil manufacture tfith his son, George 0. Crocker, 
and the late George T. Baker, and this firm continued 
till 1843, when it failed. Mr. Crocker and his son at 
once formed a new partnership, took the assets and 
assumed the liabilities of the old firm, and in a few 
years paid all its debts, principal and interest. In 
1852 he retired from active business, having secured 
an ample fortune. In 1835, Mr. Crocker was one of 
the nine members who represented New Bedford in 
the popular branch of the Legislature, an honor to 
which he did not aspire a second time. 

No New Bedford merchant ever enjoyed a higher 
reputation for strict integity in all his dealings than 
Oliver Crocker, and none better deserved it. He was 
largely and systematically benevolent. He was keenly 



alive to the wants and necessities of the people, 
watchful of their interest, and ever ready to aid and 
assist them by any method or manner tending to 
promote their comfort and happiness, and highly ap- 
preciating the influence for good which intellectual 
culture exerts upon the habits and character of the 
people, with wise generosity gave liberally to the 
Free Public Library. Of every public charity he 
was a generous patron ; many were the regular pen- 
sioners upon his bounty ; no poor person was ever 
turned away empty from his door, and we know that 
in his old age he asked of not a few, in whose judg- 
ment he could confide, that they would bring to his 
notice any cases requiring aid. To the last he keenly 
enjoyed life, always looking upon its bright side, and 
retaining his interest in the current of events. 



GEORGE 0. CROCKER. 

George O. Crocker, son of Oliver Crocker, born in 
New Bedford, Mass., Jan. 17, 1814. He received his 
education at the public schools of his native place. 
In his sixteenth year he was clerk for his father in 
the grocery and provision business, where he re- 
mained three years, and then was clerk two years in 
the counting-room ; after that went into partnership 
with his father, and for many years the firm-name 
was Oliver & George O. Crocker, manufacturers of 
sperm oil, and were large owners in the whaling busi- 
ness. Mr. Crocker has been a director in various 
corporations in his native city. 



IVORY HOVEY BARTLETT. 

Ivory Hovey Bartlett, son of Abner Bartlett, was 
born at South Plymouth (formerly called Manomet 
Ponds), Mass., Sept. 21, 1794. He was a descendant 
in the seventh generation from Robert Bartlett, who 
was born in England in 1606, and in 1637 came from 
London to America in the ship "Ann," the third 
ship which landed Pilgrims at Plymouth. After his 
arrival in America he was united in marriage with 
Mary Warren. The line of descent from Robert to 
Ivory H. has been as follows : Robert 1 , died 1676 ; 
Joseph 2 , died in 1711 ; Joseph 3 , died in 1750 ; Joseph 4 , 
died in 1756 ; Sylvanus 5 , died in 1811 ; Abner 1 ', died 
Oct. 28, 1813 ; and Ivory H. 7 Abner 6 Bartlett was a 
deacon of the Congregational Church at South Plym- 
outh, and held office in the town as one of the 
selectmen, justice of the peace, and as representative 
to the General Court. 

The maternal grandfather of Ivory H. Bartlett was 
Rev. Ivory Hovey. He was graduated from Harvard 
College in 1735, and became a settled minister at 
Rochester, Mass., where he preached for a period of 
more than thirty years, and afterwards at South Plym- 
outh until his death in 1803, in his ninetieth year. 
He was ;i man of culture and wide influence in his 
denomination, a fine example of the honored and 



138 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



beloved pastors of the olden time. Three of Mr. 
Bartlett's uncles served in the Continental army at 
Boston and New York in 1776. 

Mr. Bartlett married, in 1814, Betsey, daughter of 
John Clark, of South Plymouth, and with his family 
removed to New Bedford in 1819. During the first 
years of his life in New Bedford he was engaged in 
teaming, stabling, and staging, and for a time had 
charge of most of the principal stage routes leading 
from New Bedford, including contracts for carrying 
mails, which business often called him to Washing- 
ton. Later, he engaged in the grain and provision 
trade, and finally whaling and the commission busi- 
ness. He received his sons, Ivory Hovey Bartlett, 
Jr., and George Fearing Bartlett, into partnership in 
1847 and 1854, respectively, thus establishing the firm 
of I. H. Bartlett & Sons, which still continues. I. H. 
Bartlett, Jr., died Oct. 25, 1880, in his fifty-eighth 
year. His oldest son, Abner Bartlett, went to Boston 
in the employ of Chandler, Howard & Co., and then 
to New York in 1836, where he was several years 
with Grinnell, Minturn & Co. He still resides there, 
being connected with the " Astor estate ;" and his 
younger sons, William Henry and Robert Warren 
Bartlett, 1 have always been connected with his firm. 

In 1861, Mr. Bartlett's firm, with the late Richard 
H. Chapell, of New London, Conn., entered into a 
contract with the United States government to fit the 
stone fleet of forty-five vessels with which the har- 
bors of Charleston and Savannah were blockaded, and 
twenty-four out of the forty-five vessels were fitted by 
his firm. 

Mr. Bartlett's life was thoroughly active and earnest, 
both in his business and in the line of benevolence. 
The only public office he ever held was that of alder- 
man, under Abraham H. Howland's administration. 
He came to this city with a heart of sympathy and 
kindness, nourished by the example of Christian and 
benevolent parents. During the first winter of his 
residence here he collected upwards of six hundred 
dollars for distribution among the poor, and from 
season to season, for more than forty years, or as long 
as his health permitted, he continued this work. 
From a careful record kept by him we find that in 
1858 sixty-four persons contributed six hundred and 
fifty-three dollars, which he distributed among three 
hundred and sixty families in provisions, and in 1859 
seventy-four persons contributed seven hundred and 
thirty-five dollars, which he also distributed among 
five hundred and eighteen families in like manner. 

It is just to the business men of New Bedford to 
say that these subscription-lists are highly creditable 
to their liberality. While Mr. Bartlett gave liberally 
himself, it was the personal attention and time em- 
ployed in this business which cost him most, for it 
was his invariable rule, regardless of personal com- 



1 Robert Warren Bartlett was named after Robert Bartlett and his 
wife, Mary Warren, 



fort, to investigate every case where charity was ad- 
ministered by him. In the winter of 1856 he estab- 
lished a soup-house for the poor, which had his 
personal supervision in all its details. 

Nor did he simply feed the hungry, but he visited 
the sick and afflicted, and administered to their needs 
by many acts of kindness and sympathy. His in- 
terest in and sympathy for the homeless and friend- 
less were unbounded. He was identified from the 
first with the religious progress of the growing town 
of his adoption, having been active in the building of 
the Stone Church, and with no narrow sectarian 
spirit giving of his means and influence to promote 
the moral and spiritual good of the people. 

June 9, 1864, Mr. Bartlett celebrated his golden 
wedding, which was a very happy and memorable oc- 
casion. In the summer of 1861, with his characteris- 
tic kindness, he was on his way to the residence of 
his sick friend, James B. Congdon, to try to induce 
him to drive out with him to take the air, when by 
collision with a runaway team he was thrown to the 
pavement, an accident which at the time nearly cost 
him his life, and from which he never wholly re- 
covered. 

After ten years of weakness and yet continued use- 
fulness in his work of benevolence, he died peace- 
fully Feb. 6, 1871, lamented not alone by his kindred 
and friends, but by none more deeply than the poor 
of the city. 



CHARLES H. LEONARD. 

Charles H. Leonard, son of George and Cynthia 
Leonard, was born in Middleborough, Plymouth Co., 
Mass., Sept. 23, 1814. When he was seven years of 
age his parents removed to the neighboring town of 
Rochester. After attending the public schools during 
the winters, he entered the academy at Middleborough, 
a school of excellent repute, the advantages of which 
he enjoyed and improved for three years. Like most 
New England boys, ambitious and self-reliant, he was 
eager to make his way in life, and took the usual step 
of engaging as a clerk in a country store. After a 
year's experience there he spent the three or four 
years following in the counting-room of Mr. Alfred 
Gibbs, a commission merchant in New Bedford, where 
his abilities had a better test and freer scope. 

At that time was developed what was not inaptly 
termed the " Western fever," an eager and impetuous 
rush of emigration to the great West as a new El 
Dorado. Young Leonard took the disease, but in so 
mild a form that a year's experience cured him, and 
left him all the better fitted for his life-work. Re- 
turning to New Bedford, his career as a merchant at 
once began. Intrusted by an uncle with a shipment 
of oil for sale in New York, he visited that city and 
addressed himself to the discharge of his commission. 
After a succession of disappointments and discourage- 
ments, and when he had concluded to give up his en- 




■.v- s HV : ■'."■■'■ =V3S 








'-^ > y K ' ' >> I J s r 



NEW BEDFORD. 



139 



terprise as a failure, a fortunate turn of events en- 
abled him to compass success. A change of wind, 
which for two days prevented the sailing of the vessel 
in which the oil was to be taken back to New Bed- 
lord, not only secured a prosperous issue of the ven- 
ture, but, as he was fond of saving in after-life, de- 
cided his fortune as a business man. 

What he had learned in that brief sojourn of New 
York and its business methods fixed his resolve to 
try his fortune in that city, and in 1838 he took a 
store on Front Street, near Roosevelt Street, and 
started in the oil trade. Two years later he took as 
partner Mr. Horatio Leonard, a cousin, removing to 
140 Front Street, and also establishing an oil manu- 
factory in Brooklyn. The manufactory was unsuc- 
cessful, and in three years the firm failed and was 
dissolved. Having effected a settlement with the 
creditors of the firm, Mr. Leonard soon embarked 
anew and alone at the old stand in the manufacture 
and sale of sperm and whale oil and candles, building 
up an extensive and prosperous business, and build- 
ing, too, what is rarer and better, a character of spot- 
less integrity. 

At this time he commenced the manufacture of oil 
and candles in New Bedford, where his purchases of 
crude oil were mostly made, having leased what were 
known as the old Marsh Works in that city. There 
he continued the manufacture until 1853, when he 
removed to the works purchased by him of O. & 
G. 0. Crocker, on the corner of South Second and 
South Streets. These he at once enlarged to double 
their former capacity, fitted them with new and im- 
proved machinery, made them superior in every re- 
spect to any other establishment of the kind, managed 
them to the close of his life, and made such wise pro- 
vision in regard to them in his will that their reputa- 
tion has since been fully maintained. 

Though Mr. Leonard never entirely withdrew from 
active business, the excellent assistants whom he had 
trained, and whose affectionate regard and devotion 
to his interests he had won by years of considerate 
kindness, relieved him of attention to details, and 
enabled him to spend most of his summers at the old 
homestead in Rochester. This he transformed into a 
most attractive country residence, making improve- 
ment- in every direction, and by his lavish outlay of 
money giving needed employment to hundreds of his 
townsmen. It was there, in his pleasant home, sur- 
rounded by those who best knew and most loved him, 
in the midst of a people who idolized him as a bene- 
factor and a cherished friend, that on the 24th of 
October, 1868, he died. 

As a merchant, Mr. Leonard exhibited sagacity, 
breadth of view, a watchful regard to details, a deli- 
cate sense of honor in all his transactions, and un- 
swerving fidelity to every engagement. His word 
was as good as his bond, and that was equal to gold. 
Bold in his operations, he was at the same time cau- 
tious and conservative; and these operations were al- 



ways within the limits of his legitimate business. 
He yielded to no temptations of profits from outside 
ventures and speculations, but confined himself to 
the path in which he was winning fortune and repu- 
tation. He was exact, but not exacting, claiming his 
just dues to a penny, but always liberal and indulgent 
to an unfortunate debtor. He never ignored the sa- 
credness of pecuniary obligations, or rested in the easy 
faith that a compromise with a creditor or a discharge 
by a court of insolvency is tantamount to payment. 
When years of patient and prosperous endeavor 
brought him the means, he paid to his early credi- 
tors every mill that was due to them, principal and 
interest. 

In social life Mr. Leonard was a great favorite. 
Of fine person, winning manners, and pleasing ad- 
dress, equable in temperament and kindly in dispo- 
sition, unselfish and generous, he could not but make 
friends. He did good as he had opportunity, and he 
made the opportunity. It was not alone in the exer- 
cise of an enlightened public spirit, in aiding religious, 
educational, and charitable institutions, or in the be- 
stowment of alms that his benevolence showed itself. 
"The cause which he knew not he searched out;" 
he anticipated needs almost before their pressure was 
felt by the sufferer, and sweetened his gifts by a price- 
less sympathy. He was fortunate in his domestic rela- 
tions. Of his marriage one competent to judge says 
it was " a union which proved uncommonly felicitous, 
and to which, by reason of its sympathies, its happy 
influence, and encouragement, must be attributed no 
small part of the noble results of his life." 

Religion added to the native graces of the man. 
" His religious character," says Rev. George L. Pren- 
tiss, with whose church in New York he united, and 
who, both in New Bedford and New York, knew him 
intimately, " as it unfolded, was marked by the same 
attractive and solid traits which distinguished the 
man. His piety was not demonstrative, it was rather 
of a shrinking and reticent temper; but it gave 
ample proof of its sincerity and power by the benign 
and excellent fruits that adorned its path." 



HON. JOSEPH GRINNELL. 

Hon. Joseph Grinnell, our venerable citizen, pro- 
foundly respected in the community, brings to the 
discharge of his daily duties that clearness of mind 
and great practical judgment for which he has been 
so distinguished. He was born in New Bedford on 
, the 17th of November, 1788. His father was Capt. 
Cornelius Grinnell, who had in the Revolution served 
his country on land and on the sea. After several 
years spent as commander in the merchant service he 
established himself in business in New Bedford, where 
he died in 1850, in the ninety-third year of his age, 
honored and respected. His mother was Silvia How- 
land, to whose lovely character and steady discharge 
of duty her children were largely indebted for the 



140 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



success and honors to which they have arrived. She 
deceased Aug. 1, 1837, in the seventy-second year of 
her age. 

Mr. Grinnell commenced his mercantile life as 
clerk to his father and uncle on Central wharf in 
this city. At twenty years of age he was appointed 
deputy collector and surveyor of this port. In 1810 
he commenced business in New York, in company 
with his uncle John H. Howland, under the firm of 
Howland & Grinnell. Their business was very suc- 
cessful until the war of 1812, when nearly all of their 
vessels were captured and condemned. In 1814 this 
firm was dissolved. 

In 1815 he formed a copartnership with his cousin, 
Capt. Preserved Fish. The firm-name was Fish & 
Grinnell. Capt. Fish continued as partner until 
1825. Upon his retiring Mr. Grinnell admitted his 
brothers, Henry and Moses H., as copartners under 
the style of Fish, Grinnell & Co. 

At the close of 1828, his health becoming impaired, 
he withdrew from the firm. 

Mr. Robert B. Minturn, a brother-in-law of Mr. 
Henry Grinnell, was admitted as a partner, under the 
style of Grinnell, Minturn & Co., now world-wide in 
reputation. 

Early in 1829, with his wife and adopted daughter, 
he sailed for Europe, and returned in the latter part 
of 1830, when he concluded to settle in his native 
town. He built the elegant mansion in which he 
resides in 1831-32. At the same time he contracted 
with Messrs. Benjamin Barstow & Sons, of Matta- 
poisett, to build the ship " Oneida," and with Messrs. 
Jethro & Zachariah Hillman to build the ship 
" George Washington." The former was employed 
in the China trade, and the latter in the New York 
and Liverpool line of packets, both vessels by their 
good qualities adding to the high reputation of the 
builders. 

In 1832 the Marine Bank, now the First National, 
was chartered, and unexpectedly to Mr. Grinnell he 
was elected president. Under his administration it 
proved very successful. He continued in office until 
1878, when he insisted upon being relieved. He still 
continues as a director, and is regular at the meetings 
of the board. 

In 1838 a movement was made towards building a 
railroad from this city to Taunton, to form a through 
connection to Boston and Providence, and a charter 
obtained. At the organization of the company, Mr. 
Grinnell was urged to accept the presidency, and 
finally accepted and continued at its head as long as 
it remained a separate corporation. The same year he 
was chosen a councilor of Massachusetts, and re-elected 
in 1839 and 1840, when he declined serving longer. 

In 1840 he was chosen one of the directors of the 
Boston and Providence Railroad, and in 1841 its 
president, in which office he continued until 1846, 
when he declined serving longer, but continued as 
director until 1863, when he retired from the board. 



In 1843, Mr. Grinnell was elected to Congress from 
this district to serve the unexpired term of Hon. 
Barker Burnell, who had deceased, and was re-elected 
for the three succeeding terms, making a service of 
eight years in the House of Representatives. He 
declined serving longer. 

It would fill too large a space to follow him in his 
Congressional career. His eminent practical ability 
and large knowledge of mercantile affairs made his 
services very valuable. He was on the Committees 
of Post-Offices and Post Roads, Manufactures and 
Commerce. He had the respect of the whole House, 
and every bill introduced by him was passed, notwith- 
standing a strong opposition to some of the measures 
he advocated. 

To him we are indebted for the first reduction on 
postage to five cents upon a single letter to any place 
in the United States ; for the ventilation of ships, and 
hence the disappearance of ship fever; for the estab- 
lishment of life-boats at various stations upon the 
coast, and for various other matters of national bene- 
fit. During his service upon the Committee of Manu- 
factures his mind was strongly impressed of the neces- 
sity of some other business than that of the whale 
fisheries being introduced into his native town. He 
saw clearly that the time was fast approaching when 
that pursuit would become precarious and unprofit- 
able, and if there were no other calling offered, that 
the town would gradually decay and be deserted by 
the rising generation. 

He took occasion to refer to it in conversation with 
the leading merchants here, and in the course of a 
year or two a strong feeling grew up in favor of 
investing some of the surplus wealth in manufac- 
tures. 

A charter was obtained in 1856 for a cotton-factory, 
but Mr. Grinnell at that time declined embarking in 
the enterprise on account of the high price of every- 
thing connected with the business. In 1848 a reaction 
took place, material and machinery became cheap, 
and he then came forward and urged the erection of 
a factory. A charter was obtained, and a capital of 
one hundred and sixty thousand dollars subscribed, 
with the understanding that he should be the presi- 
dent, although reluctant to accept the position, as he 
had no practical knowledge of the business. Having 
accepted, however, he gave his whole mind to the 
work. The kind and quality of goods to be manu- 
factured was mainly the decision of its president, and 
to that decision probably is owing the great success 
that has attended the enterprise. A more detailed 
description is given in the history of the Wamsutta 
Mills. He still remains president, and daily gives 
his attention to the general supervision of its affairs. 

Mr. Grinnell has been twice married. His first 
wife was Sarah, the daughter of Mr. Abraham Rus- 
sell of this town, to whom he was married May 14, 
1812. For fifty years she was his' helpmate, filling 
her place with a dignity and kindness that endeared 



\ 



NEW BEDFORD. 



141 



her to every one that approached her. She deceased 
July 27, 1862. 

His second wife was Mrs. Rebecca Kinsman, daugh- 
ter of Mr. Abijah Chace, of Salem, a lady of superior 
mental ability, greatly beloved by all her friends, and 
admired by a large circle of acquaintances. With 
her he again visited Europe in 1869, partly in the in- 
terests of the Wamsutta Mills, and partly to gratify 
the strong desire of his wife and himself to attend the 
yearly meeting of Friends in Dublin and London. 
They returned in the fall after a six months' absence. 

Mrs. Rebecca Grinnell deceased July 6, 1882. His 
great age sits lightly upon him. His long life is al- 
most coeval with his native town, and he has seen it 
grow from a small village to its present proportions. 
Its industries, business and wealth have all been 
created within his knowledge, and many of its enter- 
prises have received his fostering care and assistance. 
He has mingled freely with the leading men of the 
nation, and is widely known and honored. 

Strict integrity, a prompt discharge of duty, a clear 
head, and strong common sense have made him our 
foremost citizen clarum et venerabile nomen. 



THE ROTCH FAMILY OF NANTUCKET AND NEW 
BEDFORD. 

The ancestors of this family, which has been so 
prominently connected with the early history of 
Nantucket and New Bedford, came from Salisbury, 
England, and settled first in Provincetown, Scituate, 
and other places in Eastern Massachusetts. The first 
of the name who is mentioned among the genealogi- 
cal records of New England was William Rotch, who 
was bo'rn in Salisbury in 1670, and came to America 
about the year 1700 or soon after, settling in Prov- 
incetown. The records show that early in the 
eighteenth century he was a prominent citizen and 
took an active part in town matters. His name often 
appears in subscriptions for valuable publications, 
and among the archives of Massachusetts is a petition 
presented in 1741 to the Legislature by citizens of 
Provincetown, in which William Rotch signs first. 

William Rotch, of Provincetown, had two sons, 
Joseph and Benjamin. The former lived in Brain- 
tree and Falmouth, and afterwards went to Nan- 
tucket, where he married Love Macy, a descendant 
of Thomas Macy, the first immigrant to Nantucket, 
in 1659. From Joseph Rotch and Love Macy are 
descended the Rotches of Nantucket and New Bed- 
ford, while Benjamin, the second son of William, 
was the ancestor of the Provincetown branch, whose 
descendants now live at Easton, Mass., Mount Ver- 
non, N. H., Martha's Vineyard, and other places. 

Joseph Rotch (1704-84) was an enterprising mer- 
chant of Nantucket, and was held in high estimation 
by his fellow-citizens. In 1765 he removed to New 
Bedford, whose beautiful harbor he selected as being 
especially eligible and advantageous for the prosecu- 



tion of the whale-fishery. " This event," as stated 
by one of the historians of New Bedford, " was of 
the utmost importance, and this acquisition of capi- 
tal, accompanied with the ripe experience, clear- 
headed sagacity, and skilled methods of this accom- 
plished merchant, gave an impetus to the infant 
industry of New Bedford, which insured its perma- 
nence and success." New Bedford was originally a 
part of Dartmouth, but as a little village had already 
begun to appear, it was thought necessary to give it 
a particular designation from the rest of the old 
township; and upon a public occasion Joseph Rotch 
suggested that the name should be " Bedford," in 
honor of Joseph Russell, who bore the family name 
of the Duke of Bedford, which was readily adopted 
by the rest of the inhabitants. 

Mr. Rotch purchased from Joseph Russell, besides 
several smaller lots, ten acres of land in one tract in 
the centre of what is now the business portion of the 
city of New Bedford, and was identified in many 
ways with the early history of the town. His house, 
situated on what was formerly known as Rotch's Hill, 
Water Street, was burned by the British troops during 
the Revolutionary war. 

His family consisted of three sons, William, Joseph, 
and Francis. 

William Rotch (1734-1828) was born in Nantucket, 
where he lived until the close of the war. His com- 
parative wealth, integrity, and heroic devotion to 
what he believed was right, rendered him a conspicu- 
ous man in the community, and enabled him to 
render important services to his fellow-citizens, 
whether he pleaded the cause of the helpless and 
destitute upon the quarter-deck of a British man-of- 
war, or before the Provincial Council at Boston. 

In a sketch of his personal recollections during the 
war he said, " From the year 1775 to the end of the 
war we were in continual embarrassments. Our ves- 
sels were captured by the English, and we were some- 
times in danger of being starved. The exposed situ- 
ation of the island made it extremely difficult to elude 
the numerous cruisers that were always in the vicinity, 
and months would frequently elapse before any sup- 
plies could be obtained from the main land." 

The troubles of Nantucket did not end with the 
war, the whale fishery being ruined by the heavy 
" alien duty" of eighteen pounds sterling per ton im- 
posed upon American oil for the protection of British 
subjects, Great Britain being then the " only market 
of any consequence for sperm oil." Sperm oil was 
sold at Nantucket after the peace at seventeen pounds 
per ton, which before the war was worth thirty pounds. 
Mr. Rotch estimates the losses he had sustained by 
captures during the Revolutionary war at sixty thou- 
sand dollars, and for two years after the war the 
business was continued at a certain loss. In this des- 
perate state of things Mr. Rotch saw no alternative 
for the prosecution of his business but to proceed to 
England and endeavor to establish the whale fishery 



142 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



there. He had several interviews with William Pitt, 
the chancellor of the Exchequer, and with Lord 
Hawkshury, but they would not consent to the intro- 
duction into England of any American-built ships. 
Mr. Rotch proceeded to France and laid his proposi- 
tions before the comptroller of finance, the minister 
of foreign affairs, and other officials, who extended a 
cordial welcome, and the business was finally estab- 
lished at Dunkirk. 

" Full of most interesting incident is the story of 
William Rotch's residence in France. The striking 
and instructive aspect of his life while there is that 
perfect harmony and consistency of character main- 
tained by him in all the circumstances in which he 
was placed. The French revolution brought suffer- 
ing and danger to him and his family, but there was 
no wavering in the firmness with which he maintained 
the principles of his faith, — as true to him when the 
mob howled about his dwelling at Dunkirk as when 
he plead the cause of Christian liberty before the 
National Assembly at Paris, with Mirabeau as its 
president." 

True to his Quaker principles, when he appeared 
before the National Assembly he refused to take off 
his hat or to wear one. of the cockades which were 
considered necessary for every one in order to avert 
suspicion on the part of the lower classes. 

" In the course of the year 1792," he writes, "fresh 
trials awaited us. A great insurrection took place in 
Dunkirk, founded upon a rumor of the exportation 
of corn. Several houses were attacked, their furni- 
ture totally destroyed, and many of our friends but 
just escaped with their lives. Martial law was pro- 
claimed, and whenever five men were seen together in 
the evening or night orders were given to fire upon 
them. Upon the announcement of a victory of the 
French over the Austrians a general illumination 
was ordered, but as we could take no part in war, we 
refused to join in rejoicings for victory. 'Well,' 
said the mayor, ' keep to your principles. Your 
houses are your own, but the streets are ours, and we 
shall pursue such measures as we think proper for the 
t peace of this town.' We retired, though not without 
some fear that they would send an armed force. How- 
ever, they took another method, and sent men to erect 
a frame before our house and hang a dozen lamps 
upon it. The mayor had also the great kindness to 
have a similar frame with lamps placed before his 
own house, in addition to the usual full illumination, 
and he placed a man in front of our house to assure 
the people that we were not opposed to the govern- 
ment." 

In 1793, when war was imminent between England 
and France, it became necessary to leave Dunkirk to 
prevent the capture of the ships by the English. Mr. 
Rotch writes as follows: "Two of our ships were cap- 
tured full of oil and condemned, but we recovered 
both by my being in England, where I arrived two 
weeks before the war took place. 



"Louis XVI. was guillotined two days after I left 
France, an event solemnly anticipated and deeply 
deplored by many who dared not manifest what they 
felt." 

He finally left Europe, July 24, 1794, with his 
family in the ship " Barclay," and after a long passage 
of sixty-one days once more reached America. After 
a year's residence in Nantucket, he removed to New 
Bedford in 1795, where he remained till his death, in 
1828, in his ninety-fifth year. His residence was the 
"Mansion House," at the corner of Union and North 
Second Streets. 

The author of "The History of New Bedford" 
speaks of him as follows: "His venerable and patri- 
archal appearance during the latter part of his life is 
well remembered by the writer. Tall and dignified 
in his person, his face expressive of benevolence, with 
his long silvery locks and the drab-colored suit of the 
style of the Society of Friends, combined with his 
noble and philanthropic character, rendered him an 
object of profound respect to his fellow-citizens, as 
well as to his numerous friends among the distin- 
guished merchants and men in public life at home 
and abroad. He was a fine specimen of a merchant, 
a man of the strictest integrity, frank, generous, high- 
minded in its truest sense, of broad and liberal views, 
a friend of the oppressed and down-trodden, in fine, a 
more perfect character it has never fallen to our lot to 
know, and is probably rarely to be met with in any 
community." 

William Rotch was the owner of the famous ship 
" Bedford," which first displayed the American flag 
in British waters, an event which is thus described in 
Barnard's "History of England:" 

"The ship 'Bedford,' Capt. Moores, belonging to 
the Massachusetts, arrived in the Downs on the 3d of 
February, 1783, and was reported at the custom-house 
on the 6th instant. She was not allowed regular en- 
try until some consultation had taken place between 
the commissioners of the customs and the Lords of 
Council, on account of the many acts of Parliament 
in force against the rebels of America. She was 
loaded with four hundred and eighty-seven butts of 
whale-oil, is American built, manned wholly by 
American seamen, and belongs to the island of Nan- 
tucket, in Massachusetts. This is the first vessel 
which has displayed the thirteen rebellious stripes of 
America in any British port." 

Francis Rotch (1750-1822), the younger brother of 
William, was also a successful merchant and the 
owner of several ships, among which was the " Dart- 
mouth," from which the tea was thrown overboard in 
Boston harbor Dec. 16, 1773. 

It is a remarkable coincidence that, by two occur- 
rences associated with the beginning and close of the 
war, the two ships, " Dartmouth" and " Bedford," 
owned by the two brothers, Francis and William 
Rotch, should have thus made memorable the names 
of the mother town and the infant village. 



NEW BEDFORD. 



143 



Nancy Rotch, the widow of Francis, lived during 
the latter years of her life on the corner of Walnut 
and Sixth Streets in New Bedford. 

William Rotch, Jr. (1759-1850), was born at Nan- 
tucket, and moved to New Bedford soon after the 
Revolutionary war, where he spent the remainder of 
his life. He is well remembered by many persons 
now living as one of the prominent merchants of 
New Bedford during the first half of the present cen- 
tury. He was one of the incorporators and the first 
president of the New Bedford Institution for Savings 
in 1825. He subscribed nearly half of the money 
raised for the erection of the Friends' Academy, 
which was built in 1811, upon land given for the pur- 
pose by his father, and was the first treasurer of the 
board of trustees, his father being the first president. 

His residence for many years was the building now 
occupied by the Bethel Boarding-House, then situ- 
ated at the corner of William and Water Streets, 
nearly opposite the Merchants' National Bank. He 
lived afterwards on County Street, his house and 
grounds being purchased after his death by the late 
Edward C. Jones. 

One of his especial characteristics was his hospi- 
tality towards strangers coming to New Bedford, 
whether rich or poor, whom he entertained with sim- 
plicity and courtliness. 

He, as well as his father, was an earnest advocate 
of the anti-slavery cause, and assisted many a bond- 
man to obtain his freedom. 

Benjamin Rotch, the second son of William Rotch, 
Sr., was born at Nantucket, and accompanied his 
father to England and France in 1785. After the 
outbreak of the French revolution, when his father 
returned to America, Benjamin went to England, and 
soon after to Milford Haven, where he established the 
whale-fishery under the auspices of the British gov- 
ernment. He afterwards went to London, where he 
and his wife lived during the remainder of their 
lives. 

Two of the children of Benjamin — Francis and 
Eliza — came to America, where they married and re- 
mained until their death. Francis married Ann 
Morgan, sister of Charles W. Morgan, of New Bed- 
iord, and Eliza married Professor John Farrar, a cele- 
brated mathematician of Cambridge. 

Mrs. Farrar (1792-1870) was an authoress of some 
note. Among her earliest publications are " The 
Children's Robinson Crusoe," " Life of Lafayette," 
" Howard," and " Youth's Letter Writer." Her most 
popular work, " Young Lady's Friend" (1837), passed 
through many editions in the United States and Eng- 
land. Her " Recollections of Seventy Years," pub- 
lished in 1865, contains many interesting anecdotes 
of the distinguished persons whom she met during 
her eventful life, and she was considered one of the 
most accomplished and refined women of her time. 

The second son of Benjamin Rotch, named also 
Benjamin, was a barrister in London, a member of 



Parliament, and chairman for several years of the 
board of Middlesex magistrates in London. 

The youngest son, Thomas Dickason, was brought 
up as a civil engineer, and was noted for his inven- 
tive ability. His son, William D., is a distinguished 
barrister, formerly of London, now of Liverpool, and 
is a great admirer of American institutions and re- 
publican principles. 

William Rotch, Jr. (1759-1850), married Elizabeth 
Rodman, of Newport, R. L, and had five children, — 
Sarah, who married James Arnold, of New Bedford; 
William R., who married Caroline Stockton, of 
Princeton, N. J. ; Joseph, who married Ann Smith, 
of Philadelphia ; Thomas, who married Susan Ridge- 
way, of Philadelphia ; and Mary, who married Charles 
Fleming and afterwards George B. Emerson. Wil- 
liam R. Rotch had two children, Horatio and Mary 
(who married Capt. Charles Hunter, of Newport). 

Joseph Rotch (1790-1839) had five children- 
Elizabeth (who married Joseph Angier), Benjamin 
S., William J., Rodman, and Joanna. 

Benjamin S. Rotch (1817-82) graduated at Har- 
vard in 1838, he and his brother William being the 
two marshals of the class which numbered among its 
members Lowell, Eustis, Devens, Story, and many 
other well-known men. In 1846 he married the eldest 
daughter of the Hon. Abbott Lawrence, and accom- 
panied the latter to England when he was appointed 
our minister at the court of St. James. It was dur- 
ing this and subsequent visits to Europe that he had 
the opportunity to improve and cultivate that interest 
in the fine arts which rendered his influence in artis- 
tic matters most valuable. His careful study of for- 
eign collections, supplemented by practical work, 
made him a competent and fastidious critic, as well 
as a painter whose landscapes have shown to advan- 
tage in many local exhibitions. He was a trustee of 
the Boston Athenamm and of the Museum of Fine 
Arts, and chairman of its committee. He also filled 
most successfully many other public and private offices 
which were confided to him. 

He had seven children, — Edith, Arthur, Aimee 
(who married Winthrop Sargent), Catharine (de- 
ceased), Annie L., William (deceased), and Abbott 
Lawrence. 

Arthur Rotch graduated at Harvard in 1871, and 
then pursued a thorough course of architecture at the 
Ecole des Beaux Arts" at Paris. On his return 
from abroad he settled in Boston, where he has been 
very successful in the practice of his profession, and 
has paid considerable attention to matters pertaining 
to art and music. 

Abbott Lawrence Rotch at an early age exhibited 
a decided taste for mechanical engineering, and is now 
a student in the Institute of Technology in Boston. 

William J. Rotch graduated at Harvard in 1838, in 
the same class with his brother Benjamin, with whom 
he was afterwards associated in many business enter- 
prises. Together with L. A. Plummer, of New Bed- 



144 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



ford, they founded the New Bedford Cordage Com- 
pany, which has always heen one of the most success- 
ful corporations of that city. In later years the two 
brothers were among the first to discover and develop 
the value of the McKay sewing-machine, which has 
since won a world-wide reputation. 

William J. Rotch has been prominently connected 
with nearly all the important business enterprises of 
New Bedford for many years, and has held numerous 
offices, both public and private, of honor and trust. 
In 1852, at the early age of thirty-three, he was elected 
mayor of the city. He has been treasurer of the 
board of trustees of the Friends' Academy since 1850, 
and has been a director in many manufacturing 
companies, railroad corporations, and banks in New 
Bedford and Boston. 

In 1842 he married Emily Morgan, daughter of 
Charles W. Morgan, of New Bedford, who died in 
1861. They had eight children, Charles M. (de- 
ceased), William, Helen, Morgan, Isabel M. (who 
married Pierre Severance), Sarah B. (who married 
Frederick Swift), Emily M., and Anna S. In 1866 he 
married Clara Morgan, and they had one daughter, 
Mary R. 

After 1876 Mr. Botch lived in Boston during the 
winter, and in 1881 he went abroad with his wife and 
four daughters, returning in the fall of 1882. His 
residence on County Street, in New Bedford, sur- 
rounded by extensive lawns and gardens, which cover 
several acres near the centre of the city, has for many 
years been considered one of the finest in Southern 
Massachusetts, and when occupied by its former 
owner, James Arnold, its spacious grounds and green- 
houses, filled with rare exotic plants, were among the 
principal objects of interest to all strangers who visited 
the city. 

William Botch graduated at Harvard in 1865, and 
after a three-years' course at the " Ecole Impe- 
riale Centrale des Arts et Manufactures" at Paris, re- 
ceived the diploma of " Ingenieur civil" in 1869. In 
1871 he was appointed assistant engineer of the Fall 
River Water-Works, the construction of which was 
begun a few months later; and in 1874 he was ap- 
pointed chief engineer and superintendent, retaining 
the position until the completion of the works. He 
resigned this office in 1880, and removed to Boston, 
where he was appointed consulting engineer and pur- 
chasing agent of the Mexican Central Railway Com- 
pany. He has been consulting engineer and treasurer 
of several other railroad corporations during the last 
three years. 

In 1873 he married Mary Botch Eliot, daughter of 
Hon. Thomas D. Eliot, M. C, and has had five chil- 
dren, — Edith Eliot, William, Jr., Charles Morgan, 
Mary Eliot (deceased), and Clara Morgan. 

Morgan Botch graduated at Harvard in 1871, and 
has since been engaged in business in New Bedford 
as a cotton-broker. He has been a member of the 
Common Council, is a director of the National Bank of 



Commerce of New Bedford, and of several other cor- 
porations. In 1879 he married Josephine G., daugh- 
ter of Joseph G. Grinnell, of New Bedford, and has 
had two children, Arthur Grinnell and Emily Mor- 
gan. 

Rodman Rotch (1821-54) left New Bedford at an 
early age, and settled in Philadelphia, where he 
died at the age of thirty-three. He married Helen 
Morgan, daughter of Thomas W. Morgan, of Phila- 
delphia, and had two children, Anna S. and Thomas 
Morgan. 

Thomas Morgan Rotch graduated at Harvard in 
1870, and, after studying three years at the Harvard 
Medical School, and holding the position of house 
physician at the Massachusetts General Hospital for 
one year, took the degree of Doctor of Medicine. He 
next studied for two years in the hospitals of Ger- 
many and France, and then returned to Boston, 
where he began to practice in 1876. He was ap- 
pointed Instructor in Diseases of Children in the 
Harvard Medical School, and has since held positions 
in the Boston Dispensary, the Boston City Hospital, 
and the Children's Hospital. In 1874 he married 
Helen, daughter of William J. Botch, of New Bed- 
ford, and has one son, Thomas Morgan Rotch, Jr. 

Seven generations of this family have lived upon 
the soil of New Bedford from the time when Joseph 
Botch purchased the " ten-acre lot" in 1765, and sug- 
gested the name of the town, and probably no one 
family has had a greater influence in developing its 
character and shaping its history. 



JONATHAN BOURNE. 
Jonathan Bourne, son of Jonathan and Hannah 
Tobey Bourne, was born in the village of Monument, 
town of Sandwich, Mass., March 25, 1811, and was 
the tenth of a family of eleven children. His father 
a man of inflexible will, strong good sense, and ster- 
ling integrity, was a farmer, and his sons were trained 
to habits of industry and learned the lessons of self- 
reliance. At the age of seventeen Mr. Bourne came 
to this city and entered the store of John B. Taylor, 
remaining there nine months, and then spent the win- 
ter months at home in attendance at the village school. 
The next spring he again came to New Bedford, where 
he attended for a few months the school of B. F. Fry, 
and after a brief visit to his home, found employment 
in the grocery-store of John Webster, under the Man- 
sion House, with whom, after a short time, he entered 
into partnership. Soon afterwards he purchased Mr. 
Webster's interest, and managed the business alone 
until 1838, when he sold out to the late George W. 
Howland, as his whaling investments were becoming 
important enough to demand his full attention. He 
retained, however, an office at his old stand, and being 
engaged largely both as owner and agent in the whale 
fishery, he carried on his business there until 1848, 
when he moved into the counting-room on Merrill's 





^Z^T^^-^- 








^-^^g 




NEW BEDFORD. 



U5 



wharf which he has since continuously occupied. 
Devoted to his business, lie rapidly increased it, until 
he became at one time the owner, probably, of more 
whaling tonnage than any other man in the country, 
if not in the world. 

During the late civil war, when other owners, dis- 
heartened at the prospects of the fishery, were selling 
their vessels to the government to be sunk, stone- 
laden, at the mouth of Charleston Harbor, Mr. Bourne 
kept his faith in the enterprise and purchased five 
ships, retaining the entire ownership of three of them, 
and prosecuted the business with redoubled vigor, and 
with results proving his sagacity. 

Always interested in politics, first as a Whig and 
later as a Republican, Mr. Bourne has never held any 
political office, except that of alderman, which, during 
the early history of the city, he filled for five con- 
secutive years. Decided in his views upon all ques- 
tions that came before the board, and frank and fear- 
less in expressing them, he encountered persistent 
opposition at the polls, but never failed of an election. 

Mr. Bourne was three times chosen a delegate to 
the National Republican Convention, and at Chicago, 
in 1860, was the first of the Massachusetts delegation 
to abandon Seward and cast a vote for Abraham 
Lincoln. For five terms, of two years each, he was 
elected by the Legislature a State director of the 
Western (now the Boston and Albany) Railroad. In 
politics, as in business, he has relied mainly upon his 
own judgment of men and measures, and always had 
the courage of his convictions. Upon the death of 
Hon. John Avery Parker, Mr. Bourne was chosen as 
his successor in the direction of the Merchants' Bank, 
and upon the death of Charles R. Tucker, in 1876, 
was unanimously chosen president of the bank, a 
position he now holds. He also succeeded the late 
W. H. Taylor, Esq., as president of the Bristol County 
Fire Insurance Company. 

Mr. Bourne's early educational advantages were 
limited to those afforded by the common schools in 
his youth, open for about two months each winter, 
and kept by men poorly paid and often as poorly 
fitted for their work, and by the brief term he at- 
tended Mr. Fry's school in New Bedford. But he 
made good use of them, and was well fitted for the 
larger school of practical affairs in which he has 
taken such conspicuous rank. An eminently suc- 
cessful business man, the secret of his success is an 
open one. It is due to his tireless industry, to his 
promptness that never failed to meet every financial 
obligation, however trivial or however large, to his 
remarkable personal attention to details, and to a 
probity and courage, tempered with caution, that 
have made him sagacious and successful beyond most 
men. Though quick in his insight into affairs, and 
sometimes almost passionate in the conduct of his 
business, he has been just in his decisions and thought- 
ful of those connected with him. 

Though in his seventy-third year, Mr. Bourne, by 
10 



his bodily vigor, energy in business, and spirited in- 
terest in affairs, most forcibly illustrates the value 
of active habits, possessing as he does, at his ad- 
vanced age, the physical and mental elasticity and 
strength generally associated with the prime of life. 



JOSEPH ARTHUR BEAUVAIS. 

Joseph Arthur Beauvais, son of Andrew and Pa- 
tience (Ricketson) Beauvais, was born in South Dart- 
mouth, Mass., Jan. 21, 1S24. His mother was a 
daughter of Clark and Mary (Wood) Ricketson, 
of that town. His father was a native of Bordeaux, 
France. The family having been reduced by the 
French Revolution, and to avoid conscription into 
Napoleon's army, which was then taking boys of 
twelve years of age, he was sent while quite young 
by his widowed mother to this country, whither 
his sister, wife of Capt. James Rider, of Dartmouth, 
had preceded him. He commanded for many years 
packet-ships from New York in the New Orleans 
trade, and later in the South American trade, chiefly 
with Buenos Ayres. His uncle, James Rider, was 
also a successful shipmaster, sailing from New York 
in the New Orleans and European trade. In child- 
hood his father and uncle, with their families, re- 
moved to New York, and afterwards to Astoria, Long 
Island, where his mother died. After her decease, 
Capt. Rider having retired from his seafaring life in 
1832, the families returned to South Dartmouth, and 
he became an inmate of his uncle's family. He was 
tenderly reared and educated by his uncle and aunt, 
to whose sterling characters, excellent precepts, and 
careful training he feels what success he has met with 
in life is largely due. Capt. Rider engaged quite ex- 
tensively in the whaling business in South Dartmouth, 
and subsequently in New Bedford, where he died, 
and where his wife now survives him. 

His early education was obtained in the public and 
private schools of Dartmouth. In 1840 he came to 
New Bedford and attended for a short time the Bush 
Street Grammar School, and was admitted to the 
High School, John F. Emerson, principal. After 
graduating in 1842, he entered the counting-room of 
Barton Ricketson, his uncle, then extensively engaged 
as managing owner of whaling and merchant vessels, 
and also of the New Bedford Iron-Foundry. In 1843 
he became his uncle's book-keeper and confidential 
clerk, where he remained until November, 1851, when 
he assumed a like position in the counting-room of 
J. B. Wood & Co., then largely engaged in the whal- 
ing business. Here he became interested with the 
firm as an owner in their ships, and was at times 
managing owner of several merchant and coasting 
vessels, and also did some business as a broker. 

In 1860 he was chosen treasurer of the New Bed- 
ford Tannery Company, which built the tannery- 
works on Court Street. This enterprise not proving 
remunerative, after a few years the property chauged 



146 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUiNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



hands and the corporation was dissolved. In 1867 he 
was chosen treasurer of the American Tack Com- 
pany, of Fairhaven, and subsequently its president, 
which positions he still retains. 

In February, 1872, he severed a most pleasant and 
harmonious connection of more than twenty- one years 
with J. B. Wood & Co., and formed the firm of Beau- 
vais & Co. (T. B. Fuller, late book-keeper of the 
American Tack Company, as partner), and engaged 
in private banking. In 1874, assisted by H. A. Blood, 
of Fitchburg, Henry W. Phelps, of Springfield, and 
others, he organized the Fall River Railroad Company, 
of which corporation he was president. This corpo- 
ration contracted with Mr. Phelps to build the rail- 
road from New Bedford to Fall River. It was opened 
for travel December, 1875. Within two years after 
the completion of the road he resigned the position of 
president, but is still a director in the corporation. 

In May, 1875, in connection with his partner and 
others, he organized the Citizens' National Bank, of 
which he was chosen president and Mr. Fuller cash- 
ier. To this bank the banking business of Beauvais 
& Co. was transferred. This bank was organized with 
a capital of two hundred and fifty thousand dollars, 
which has been increased to five hundred thousand 
dollars. He was one of the original corporators and 
for some time a trustee of the New Bedford Five 
Cents' Savings-Bank, which position he resigned after 
a few years. In 1878 he became interested in the 
organization of the New England Mutual Aid Society 
for life insurance upon the assessment plan. Of this 
society he was president until the removal of its 
office to Boston rendered the discharge of the duties 
incompatible with his other engagements. 

Mr. Beauvais was origiually a Whig, and identified 
himself with the Republican party on its formation. 
In religion he is a Congregationalist. For some time 
he was clerk of the Trinitarian Church, and during 
eight years was superintendent of its Sabbath-school. 
At present he is a member of the North Congrega- 
tional Church. 

Mr. Beauvais has ever been an active business man, 
and at present is president and treasurer of the 
American Tack Company, president of the Citizens' 
National Bank, director in the Fall River Railroad, 
Grinnell Manufacturing Company of New Bedford, 
Fall River Bleachery, Sagamore Manufacturing 
Company, Border City Manufacturing Company, and 
Globe Street Railway Company of Fall River. 

I n May, 1848, he was united in marriage with Hannah 
Cotton Parker, daughter of Ward M. and Hepzabeth 
(Davis) Parker, and their family consisted of one 
child, Louise Cecile, who married Max Ritter von 
Schmaedel, an artist of Munich, and died, leaving a 
son, Harold Parker von Schmaedel. Mrs. Beauvais 
died in January, 1879, and in June, 1881, he married 
Mary Stetson Mendell, daughter of Ellis and Catha- 
rine (Allen) Mendell. 



CHARLES B. H. FESSENDEN. 

Charles B. H. Fessenden was born in Sandwich, 
Barnstable Co., July 17, 1813. He was educated at 
the Sandwich and Amherst Academies and at Am- 
herst College, graduating from that institution in the 
class of 1833. After completing his law studies at 
the Dane Law School and in law offices he went to 
Michigan in 1838, commencing practice in the village 
of Utica, Macomb Co. In 1839 he was a clerk in the 
Michigan Senate, and in 1842 was a member of its 
House. The latter year he returned to his native 
place, where he opened an office and continued his 
practice until 1853, when, having been appointed 
collector of the port of New Bedford, he removed to 
that city. He held that position until the close of 
Mr. Buchanan's administration. Soon after leaving 
the office of collector, in company with Mr. William 
G. Baker, he purchased the New Bedford Daily Mer- 
cury, which was published and edited by them for 
many years. In 1862 he was elected sheriff of Bris- 
tol County, and was re-elected in 1865 and 1868. In 
1869 he resigned the sheriffalty, having been ap- 
pointed United States assessor of internal revenue 
for the First Massachusetts District. This office he 
held until by statute its duties were merged in those 
of collector, when he was appointed to the latter 
office and retained it until 1876, when the number ol 
revenue districts in the State was reduced to three. 
Since that time he has held the position of deputy 
collector in the Third District, his division being 
nearly coterminous with the boundaries of his old 
district. 

Mr. Fessenden is one of the trustees of the Swairn 
Free School, and senior warden of Grace Church. 

No one who for the last thirty years has been 
familiar with the business, political, and social life 
of New Bedford, can fail to have noticed the value 
which such a citizen as Col. Fessenden is to a com- 
munity. His activity in all good works, his genial, 
winning, and elegant manners, his culture, the keen- 
ness of his mind, and the brilliancy of his conversa- 
tion have all conspired to render him a positive force 
in the development of the city of his adoption. As 
collector of customs and internal revenue he has 
watched over the interests of the government with 
scrupulous care, while at the same time he has won 
and preserved the respect and esteem of those with 
whom he has been called upon to deal. As editor, 
his varied culture and the brightness and elegance of 
his style and sparkling wit held his paper up to a 
standard which dignified the profession of journalism 
in the community, and exerted a powerful influence 
upon the manners and conduct of this community, 
while in his whole career as sheriff of the county, he 
maintained the ancient dignity of the office and gave 
to the courts an impressiveness, the loss of which can 
only result in great injury to the orderly administra- 
tion of justice. Certainly no history of the bench 
and bar of Bristol would be complete which failed to 



NEW BEDFORD. 



147 



record and call to mind the days when Col. Fessenden, 
with his paraphernalia of office, graced the sheriff's 
seat, with the incomparable crier opposite, whose 
" Hear ye ! Hear ye ! Hear ye !" was more truly a 
clarion blast than that blown on the trumpets by the 
heralds of old, whire the "good men and true" of the 
genial clerk seemed to realize in their tone and man- 
ner the ideal utterances of a court of justice. No one 
who was accustomed to practice in that court will ever 
forget the impression there received, and the tradition 
of them will be kept forever. 



J. (4EOROE HARRIS. 

Mr. Harris, who is mentioned on page 96 as editor 
of a paper in New Bedford, became a journalist as 
soon as he was of age, beginning his career as associ- 
ate editor of the Political observer at New London in 
1830 ; afterwards editor of the New Bedford Daily 
■Gazette, and. then acquiring celebrity at Boston as a 
political writer, he was invited in 1838 by distin- 
guished men of Washington City to go to Tennessee, 
where he established the Nashville Union, which re- 
flected the influential political opinions of Gen. An- 
drew Jackson, and represented the rising fortunes 
of James K. Polk from Congressman to Governor and 
President. 

It is well said by a leading journal that in this 
connection it is not uninteresting to the people of 
New London County, Conn., to recall the fact that 
nearly half a century ago, when the two great politi- 
cal parties of the country were almost as equally di- 
vided as they are now, with Henry Clay, of Ken- 
tucky, in the lead of the Whigs, and Andrew Jackson, 
of Tennessee, in the lead of the Democrats, two 
young men, natives of New London County, were 
invited from the North to conduct the two leading 
journals of the West and shadow forth to the country 
the ruling opinions and policy of those two distin- 
guished leaders of men, as emanating from them in 
their retiracy at " Ashland" and the " Hermitage." 

George D. Prentice, of Jewett City, had been called 
to Louisville, Ky., to conduct the Journal as the voice 
of Mr. Clay, and J. George Harris, of Groton, was 
invited to Nashville, Tenn., as editor of the Union. 
It was at a time when Jackson and Clay were re- 
garded, in the language of the day, as "the embodi- 
ment of the principles of their parties" respectively, 
and the Journal and Union became perfectly oracular 
in politics. From their exposed position at the front 
when Kentucky and Tennessee were frontier States, 
where the people were to a great extent a law unto 
themselves, these New London boys had repeatedly 
to stand fire with the wild elements of Western poli- 
tics. Of course they were wide as the poles asunder 
as the representatives of their respective parties in 
the political arena, but their own personal relations, 
established here at an early day, were never dis- 
turbed, although, for the amusement of the public, 



they did a good deal of sharpshooting at each other 
between Louisville and Nashville with their quills, 
which had a tendency rather to strengthen than to 
weaken friendship. The early prestige of the Journal 
as the voice of Mr. Clay and of the Union as that of 
< u'li. Jackson established their influence on a founda- 
tion so firm that it is still maintained by them in the 
Southwest, and in all public affairs they now have 
wider influence beyond the mountains than any other 
political newspapers. 

Mr. Harris was commissioned in 1843 by Daniel 
Webster, then Secretary of State, as a commercial 
agent for Europe, and went abroad in that capacity. 
If we may judge from his voluminous reports to the 
State Department, of which so large a number of 
extra copies were printed by the United States Senate, 
his services were highly appreciated. 

After Mr. Polk's election to the Presidency he in- 
vited Mr. Harris to conduct the official paper at 
Washington, which he declined, as he had before de- 
clined the editorship of the Madisonian, the official 
paper of Mr. Tyler's administration. Preferring a 
life service in the navy to temporary civil service, Mr. 
Harris accepted in 1845 a commission as disbursing 
officer of the navy, which commission, with promo- 
tions to the highest rank of his grade, he still holds 
on the list of officers retired for long and faithful 
services. 

The official and personal relations of Mr. Harris in 
the naval service have ever been exceedingly happy. 
In Hamersly's " Records of Living Naval Officers" 
it is stated that Pay Director J. George Harris was 
attached to the Gulf squadron in 1846-47, and during 
the Mexican war he was a member of Commodore M. 
G. Perry's staff on all his shore expeditions; that he 
was at the capture of Tuxpan, Tabasco, and Vera 
Cruz, receiving from the commodore special letters of 
thanks for services rendered afloat and ashore ; that 
from 1850 to 1854, inclusive, he was attached to the 
Asiatic fleet, and again with Commodore Perry when 
the empire of Japan was opened to the commerce of 
the world. 

In his introductory report of the Japan expedition 
Commodore Perry makes special mention of the aid 
he had received from Mr. Harris in preparing his 
volumes for the use of Congress. 

Mr. Harris spent two years on the coast of Africa, 
in the fleet appointed to suppress the slave trade, and 
his journals, made while on the shores of Liberia and 
Guinea, were copiously used by Mr. Gurley, the gov- 
ernment agent at Liberia, in his reports to Congress. 
For two years he was attached to the Mediterranean 
squadron. On that cruise he sent home to public 
institutions some rare and curious antiquities, which 
are considered the very best specimens of their kind. 
During the civil war he held some of the most respon- 
sible positions of trust in the navy, both ashore and 
afloat, disbursing several millions of public money 
without the slightest deficit or loss to the government. 



148 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



At the organization of the Groton Heights (Conn.) 
Centennial Committee, in 1879, he was elected presi- 
dent of the Centennial Commission, and his admin- 
istration of its affairs, that resulted in such perfect 
success on the 6th and 7th of September, 1881, was 
characterized by good judgment and executive ability. 



CAPT. HENRY TABER. 
Among those who took the "oath of fidelity" in the 
old township of Dartmouth in 1684 was Thomas Taber, 
and among the proprietors of Dartmouth in Novem- 
ber, 1694, we find Joseph Taber, Thomas Taber, and 
Thomas Taber, Jr. Among the early settlers men- 
tioned in the old records we note eleven of the name, 
viz.: Jacob, Jacob, Jr., John, Jonathan, Joseph, 
Philip, Philip, Jr., Stephen, Thomas, Thomas, Jr., 
and William. Thus for two hundred years has this 
good family of Friends been resident in New Bedford 
and neighborhood, and connected with its growth and 
prosperity. 

Capt. Henry Taber, son of Benjamin 3 and Rhobe 
(Aikin) Taber, was born in New Bedford, Mass., 
March 29, 1795. His great-grandfather, Benjamin 
Taber, and Susannah, his wife, had thirteen children, 
— Elizabeth, Joseph, Benjamin 2 , John, Archelaus, 
Joshua, Mary, Jeduthan, Rebecca, Thomas, Jeremiah, 
Lewis, and Seth. Benjamin 2 , born Oct. 10, 1733, died 
Feb. 5, 1820, was twice married: (1) to Hannah, 
daughter of Barnabas and Mary Gardner, of Nan- 
tucket. She died Feb. 16, 1766. Their children were 
Barnabas, Daniel. Benjamin 3 . (2) to Eunice, widow 
of Joseph Gardner, and daughter of Richard and 
Lydia Worth, of Nantucket. She was born in 1731, 
and died in 1814. Their children were Barnabas, Su- 
sannah, and Frances. He was the builder of the first 
whale-boat built in New Bedford. Benjamin Taber 3 , 
born Feb. 2, 1766, married Rhobe, daughter of Thomas 
Aikin, born Jan. 30, 1768, by whom he had eight 
children, — Hannah, Philip A., James, James 2 , Henry, 
Thomas, Shubael, and Rhobe. She died May 11, 1801, 
aged thirty-three. He then married Merab Coffin, 
by whom he had six children,— Benjamin C, Sarah C. 
and Ann F. (twins), Rhobe A., John W., and Avis F. 
He was a block-maker, and a very inventive genius. 
He received or owned a patent for boring logs for 
aqueducts, which business he followed so long as he 
remained in New Bedford. The last part of his life 
was passed in Victoria, 111., where he died, aged eighty 
years. He was a man of sterling integrity, and highly 
esteemed for his numerous good qualities. 

Thomas Aikin, father of Rhobe, came to New Bed- 
ford from Canada. He was a man of limited means, 
also of the Society of Friends, and a blacksmith by 
trade. He had three sons and three daughters, — 
Abial, Charles, Timothy, Rhobe, Abigail, and Luramy. 
Henry Taber remained with the home circle, receiving 
a limited school education and assisting his father until 
he was fourteen. At that age he went to sea as cabin- 



boy with his uncle, John Wood, master of the " George 
and Susan," a ship now owned by Aikin & Swift, and 
doing good service. (His mother died when he was 
but six years of age, and the care of his youth was 
given by his Aunt Luramy, wife of Capt. John Wood. 
She kept house for his father, and was almost a 
mother to the family.) This first voyage took him to 
Virginia, from whence they took a lading of tobacco 
to Liverpool. His second trip was to Port Glasgow. 
His third was to Hamburgh as second mate. His last 
voyage was in the brig " Nancy," Capt. Packard, after 
the war of 1812, from New York to Dublin. He then 
for one year was chief mate under Capt. John Wood, 
on a packet running from New Bedford to New York. 
The fifteen subsequent years he was captain on the 
same line, and commanded four different vessels, 
"Orbit," "Boston," "Experiment," and "Helen," 
owning a one-fourth interest in the last two. In 1832, 
Capt. Taber engaged in trade in New Bedford as a 
grocer and ship-chandler in company with David 
Sherman, as Taber & Sherman, on Centre Street, 
near the wharf. Mr. Sherman soon left for Pough- 
keepsie, N. Y., to look after whaling interests there. 
After two or three years Capt. Taber formed a part- 
nership with his son, William G., and son-in-law, 
John Hunt, under firm-title of Henry Taber & Co. 
This firm continued in successful and prosperous ex- 
istence until March 1, 1866, when Capt. Taber retired, 
and the firm-name changed to Taber, Gordon & Co. 

About 1834, Capt. Taber became quite largely in- 
terested in whaling, and amassed considerable wealth 
from this source. He is now largely interested in the 
various enterprises of New Bedford. He was presi- 
dent of the Mutual Marine Insurance Company, now 
suspended, is a director in the National Bank of Com- 
merce, and is a stockholder in three different banks. 
He has been twice married : (1 ) to Nabby, daughter of 
William and Nabby Gordon, Dec. 16, 1819. She was 
born in New Bedford, March 10, 1800, and died Nov. 
9, 1831. The children of this marriage were William 
G., born Aug. 20, 1821 ; Abby (Mrs. John Hunt), born 
Aug. 16, 1824; and Robert, born Oct. 4, 1831. (2) to 
Sally, sister of first wife, Dec. 9, 1832. She was born 
July 20, 1802. They had one son, Henry A. (de- 
ceased). (William Gordon died June 26, 1835, aged 
eighty years. His wife, Nabby Gordon, died Nov. 
16, 1831, aged seventy years.) 

In politics, Capt. Taber has ever been a Whig and 
a Republican. Believing in the principles of these 
parties he was strong in their support, and, with the 
exception of two years, served in the State Legisla- 
ture from 1838 to 1844. Many years Capt. Taber has 
been one of New Bedford's representative and most 
successful business men. He has been industrious, 
cautious, and conservative, showing great financial 
ability in the many diversified and complicated in- 
terests in which he has been engaged. Of strict in- 
tegrity and frank courtesy, his manly qualities and 
sterling worth have given him stanch friends all 





^^^/ 






//^^ftiZU/t^, 



NEW BEDFORD. 



149 



along the path of life, and never was a friend betrayed 
who trusted his interests in his hands. Those who 
have known him longest are to-day his warmest 
admirers. 

WILLIAM PHILLIPS. 

The firm of William Phillips & Son, for years one 
of the well-known commercial houses of New Bed- 
ford, is a copartnership consisting of William Phillips 
and George R. Phillips, father and son. The busi- 
ness of the firm is that of ship agents and commission- 
merchants, having had considerable interests in the 
whale fisheries and the buying and selling of its prod- 
ucts from the formation of the copartnership to the 
present time. 

The senior member of this house, Mr. William 
Phillips, who is the subject of this short sketch, was 
born at Westport, in the county of Bristol, Jan. 3, 
1801, and is, consequently, at the present time nearly 
eighty-two years of age. His father, Capt. Edward 
Phillips, was born in Dartmouth, in the same county, 
April 5, 1779, and died in Westport Jan. 28, 1831. 
He was married to a lady named Amy Tripp, and 
made his home in that part of Westport known as 
Tripp's wharf, being near Hix's bridge. William 
was the oldest son of a family which consisted of 
eight children, of whom but two sisters and himself 
are now living. 

The age of fourteen found him at work as clerk in 
a store at the head of Westport River. In this occu- 
pation he remained until January, 1820, when he 
came to New Bedford, where he was employed as 
clerk by Levi Standish, of that place. Since that 
time he has lived in New Bedford continuously up to 
the present time. For five years he was engaged in 
that or kindred occupations, and in 1825 entered the 
office of John Avery Parker, of New Bedford, as clerk 
and book-keeper. After remaining with him about 
three years he formed a copartnership with Mr. 
George Russell, and engaged in the business of a ship- 
chandlery and commission-house, under the firm- 
name of Phillips & Russell. 

In 1832 this firm, together with John A. Parker, 
erected the brick building known as Parker's Block, 
at the foot of Middle Street. A few years later, in 
1836, he again entered the office of Mr. Parker, at that 
time being a firm under the name of John A. Parker 
& Son, as book-keeper and confidential clerk. He re- 
mained in this position until the death of John A. 
Parker, in December, 1853, the firm having been dis- 
solved some time previous by the withdrawal of the 
son, Frederick Parker, in 1848. 

Mr. John A. Parker, upon his death, left a large 
estate to be administered upon, and by the terms of 
his will appointed Mr. Phillips accounting executor 
and trustee, with his son, Frederick Parker, and Hon. 
John H. Clifford, the two last of whom died before 
the final settlement of the estate. The final settle- 
ment of this estate was effected in 1880, that being the 



time when the last entries were made and the books 
of the trust closed, although the bulk of the estate 
had long before been distributed. 

The account-books of this trust cover a period of 
twenty-seven years, and being in the handwriting of 
Mr. Phillips they are, among other things, interesting 
as showing the gradual change that years make, " the 
sensible yet imperceptible growth of age." It was 
after the death of Mr. Parker that the firm of William 
Phillips & Son was formed. In the business of the 
last thirty years Mr. Phillips has often been called 
upon to perform duties where integrity and a sound 
knowledge of business were necessary. The offices 
of executor, administrator, and trustee for various 
parties and estates, director in insurance, banking, 
and manufacturing concerns are among the many 
offices of trust and honor that he has been called to 
fill, and has filled acceptably in every instance. 

His life has been almost entirely one of private 
business, — a life whose lack of opportunity for dis- 
play has certainly not created in him any desire for 
it. He is to-day one of the sound practical business 
men, a class of people who are by no means the least 
efficient in helping along good deeds and good morals, 
and now, at the advanced age of eighty-two, he may 
justly feel proud of the reputation for honesty and 
integrity he enjoys, which is one of the results of his 
long life's work. Habits of industry formed and 
practiced through long years become second nature. 
Length of years may impair bodily vigor, but in this 
case there is no indication of any loss of mental 
vigor. 

Daily at his place of business, he presents the ex- 
ample — an example by no means of frequent occur- 
rence — of a man of great age who still has no idea of 
retiring from business. The life of a private business 
man whose promises are kept and whose credit is 
good is apt to be uneventful as far as the purposes of 
a biographical sketch are concerned. Such a life is so 
because good credit accompanies or follows correct t 
business habits, and such habits mean the smooth 
running of affairs ; while affairs run smoothly, when 
each day, though it bring its work and obligations, 
leaves its obligations complied with and its labor 
performed. Such a life has been that of the subject 
of this sketch. 

But lives with no startling events, no notorious or 
famous acts, are the foundation and superstructure of 
society. The famous and eventful lives may well 
considered the architectural embellishments, but they 
must have the solid structure to form themselves 
upon. Half of the beauty of a picture is a suitable 
background. Trimming is a good thing in its place, 
but the most essential thing is to have something to 
trim. Life is not a dream is the assertion of more 
than one experience, and the lives of great events 
are rendered possible only by just such lives as the 
one in question. Existence to the mass is upright 
and downright business. The value of right living, 



150 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



straightforward conduct and integrity, is not easily 
measured. We are apt to be dazzled by the strong 
glare of what are termed great achievements, and, in 
consequence, place their common value too high ; but 
to the people at large, to the common brotherhood of 
man, for the growth and stability of good solid char- 
acter and true worth, the example of a well-done 
life's work is of the highest kind of value. E. J. L. 



WILLIAM C. N. SWIFT. 
William Cole Nye Swift, son of Reuben and Jane 
(Nye) Swift, was born on the Nye farm in Fairhaven, 
Mass., April 27, 1815. (For ancestral history, see bi- 
ography of R. N. Swift, Acushnet.) When William 
was five years old his father removed to New Bedford, 
where he received the educational advantages of pri- 
vate and academic schools. He entered Brown Uni- 
versity in 1831, being in the class of 1835, but left 
towards the end of his sophomore year on account of 
his health. He returned to New Bedford, and began 
his long and successful business career by entering 
the counting-room of Benjamin Rodman as assistant 
book-keeper. He gave satisfaction, and was soon pro- 
moted to book-keeper, in which capacity he remained 
until 1835. His father, largely engaged in the live- 
oak trade, then offered him a partnership in the firm 
of E. & R. Swift & Co. Accepting the partnership, 
William at once entered into active labor, going to 
Ossabaw Island, on the coast of Georgia, to superin- 
tend the getting out of live-oak ship-timber. From 
this time on, for many years, this was his business. 
He visited various parts of Florida and Louisiana 
examining lands and purchasing valuable live-oak 
lots. He was vigorous, and, although meeting many 
discomforts, privations, and hardships, enjoyed the 
life. The above-mentioned firm existed until 1837, 
and from that time Mr. Swift continued in the live- 
oak business steadily for ten years, and has been en- 
gaged in it at intervals since that time. 

In June, 1838, he was a passenger on the ill-fated 
steamer " Pulaski" when she was blown up by the 
explosion of one of her boilers on a passage between 
Savannah and Baltimore. Mr. Swift escaped in one 
of the boats, and he and another New Bedford man 
were the first to land through the surf. The land 
they reached was an uninhabited island in Stump 
Sound, on the coast of North Carolina. 

In 1843, Mr. Swift, who had before owned portions 
of whaling-vessels, bought the ship " Plowboy" and 
sent her on a voyage for sperm whales. In 1845, he, 
with his brother Obed, bought the " Formosa." In 
December, 1845, he went to Europe, and during the 
next year contracted with the English government to 
furnish spars. He was in Europe nearly a year, a 
large part of the time in Paris, where he gave much 
time to the study of French. In June, 1847, he mar- 
ried, and in July of that year went again to Europe, 
accompanied by his wife. They remained there over 



a year, and were living in Paris at the time of the 
revolution of the 24th of February, 1848, and during 
the three terrible days in June, when the provisional 
government was overturned. In 1849 he again went 
to Europe for a short time on business, and again in 
1851, and was in Paris on the 2d of December, at the 
time of the coup d'etat of Louis Napoleon. (Mr. Swift 
has ever since maintained an interest in European, 
and especially French, politics, which he has followed 
closely.) 

While he was in Europe Mr. Swift established what 
would probably have been an extensive and lucrative 
business, having made contracts with the governments 
of France and Holland, as well as with that of Eng- 
land; but in 1849 Mr. Jireh Perry, Mrs. Swift's father, 
died. He had an extensive business, and was the owner 
of several whale-ships, and Mr. Swift was induced to 
give up his European timber trade and attend per- 
sonally to managing the estate in connection with 
Mr. Eben Perry, the son of Mr. Perry. From that 
time Mr. Swift has extended his business in whaling. 
His agents, Aikin & Swift, have now twelve vessels 
engaged in that pursuit. 

Mr. Swift married Eliza Nye Perry, daughter of 
Jireh and Nancy (Nye) Perry, of New Bedford. Her 
great-grandfather, Dr. Samuel Perry, was a well- 
known and honored physician, who practiced in and 
near New Bedford. Her grandfather, Dr. Ebenezer 
Perry, was also a successful physician of New Bed- 
ford. Her father, Jireh Perry, was connected with 
the whaling business during his whole life, com- 
mencing as clerk for Charles & Seth Russell, and, 
growing up in the business, accumulated a large for- 
tune. 

Mr. and Mrs. Swift have the following children: 
Henry W., who graduated from Harvard College in 
1871, and from the Harvard Law School in 1874. 
He is now practicing his profession in Boston. Fred- 
erick, who graduated at Harvard in 1874, and is now 
a member of the firm of Aikin & Swift, in New Bed- 
ford, agents and managing owners of whaling-vessels. 
William N., w r ho graduated at Harvard in 1874, and 
from Harvard Medical School in 1879, is now a phy- 
sician in New Bedford. Franklin, who is in the 
United States navy, having graduated at the Naval 
Academy at Annapolis in 1880. He was made passed 
midshipman in June, 1882. They also have a daugh- 
ter, Elise, who is the youngest of the family. 

Mr. Swift is a man of fine appearance, courteous, 
hospitable, and affable. His cultivation and wide 
experience have given him a varied and thorough 
knowledge of men and events, and he has always 
been distinguished for sterling integrity of character, 
and for energy, enterprise, and good judgment. These 
qualities have made him successful in business, and 
in earlier years, when he gave some attention to poli- 
tics, influential in his party in the State. He has for 
years been one of the prominent business men of New 
Bedford, and has, among other interests, been for a 



a 








NEW BEDFORD. 



151 



long time connected with the Bank of Commerce, of 
New Bedford, having been a director since 1849, and 
being its vice-president at the present time. 

In politics Mr. Swift was ;i Whig until 1856, and 
since then has been a Democrat. He at one time had 
great influence in Massachusetts politics, owing to his 
intimacy with President James Buchanan, but he 
never abused his power, either by recommending a 
friend for office or for personal advancement, and 
could never be prevailed upon to accept office him- 
self. 

Mr. Swift has a place on Orchard Street in New \ 
Bedford, where he and his family live during the 
winter months; but his residence is in South Dart- ! 
mouth, where he has a farm called "Rockland," of 
about a hundred and twenty-live acres, on the shore 
of Buzzard's Bay. This has been the home of the 
family in summer since 1856. 



DR. EDWARD P. ABBE. 

Probably no country was ever settled by better 
citizens than by those Huguenots who came from 
France to New. England in its early colonial days to 
find the liberty of religious thought denied them in 
their native land. Their firm religious belief brought 
persecution upon them with no other effect than to 
drive them from France to the new world of freedom 
across the ocean. Thomas Abbe was one of a num- 
ber of this faith who came to Enfield, Conn., in 1638, 
and became a resident. He was a man of some im- 
portance, was one of the commissioners who laid out 
the town, and was selectman, etc. It is said that the 
whole town was originally owned by three men, — Abbe, 
Terry, and Parsons. He was a farmer, married, in 
Enfield, Mary Pees ; so it is inferred that he was quite 
a young man when he left France. He had four 
children, — Thomas, Hannah, Sara, and Obadiah. 
Thomas Abbe inherited the land where he and his 
endants lived and cultivated it, marrying, in 1692, 
Penelope Terry, by whom he had five children, — 
Thomas. Mary. Penelope, Sara, and John 1 . John 1 
married Sara Root, and had eight children, — Sara, 
Obadiah, Hannah, Timothy D. (died young), Tim- 
othy, Daniel, Roxalana, and John 2 . John' 2 married 
Charity Simonds in 1764. Their children were John 3 , 
Sara. A-enath, Nancy, Roxalana, Charity, and Tim- 
othy. John 3 , born Sept. 11, 1765, married, in 1790, 
Hannah, daughter of Samuel and Hannah (Bradley) 
Billings, "! Soniers, Conn. (They were both descend- 
ants of the English Puritans.) The following chil- 
dren who attained maturity were born in Enfield: 
Hannah, Harriet, and Alanson. In 1804 he sold the 
lands which had been inherited in direct line from 
Thomas, the emigrant, and removed to Warehouse 
Point, in the town of East Windsor, Conn. Here 
were born five children,— John B., Loretta, Sophro- 
nia, James M., Ann A., and here Mr. Abbe died in 



1847, aged eighty-two years. Mrs. Abbe died in 1839, 
aged sixty-seven. 

Alanson Abbe, third child and oldest son of the 
above, was born in Enfield, Conn., June 17, 1795. 
He was graduated from Yale Medical School in 1821, 
and settled in Litchfield, Conn., where he had a large 
and lucrative practice, and became known for his suc- 
cess in orthopaedic surgery. He removed to Boston 
in 1839, where he practiced his profession until a few 
years before his death. He married (1) Eliza Wood- 
rutf, daughter of Hon. Jonathan and Rachel (Steele) 
Barnes, of Tolland, Conn. They had five children 
who lived to mature years, — Elizabeth F., Edward P., 
Frederick R., Burr R., and William A. (2) Hephzibah, 
daughter of Benjamin Burgess, of Boston, Mass. 
They had one child, Benjamin. (3) Margaret Liv- 
ingston D., of Albany, N. Y. Dr. Alanson Abbe died 
of paralysis in April, 1864, when almost seventy years 
of age. His first wife died Dec. 31, 1887, aged thirty- 
eight years. 

We give a condensed genealogy of Mrs. Abbe's 
(Eliza W. Barnes) ancestry as far as attainable : John 1 
Steele, first secretary of Connecticut colony, died 1664, 
leaving the following children by his wife Rachel : 
John 2 , Lydia, Mary, Sarah, Hannah, Samuel. John 2 

married Mercy , and had Benoni, Henry, Daniel, 

Mary, John, and Samuel. Samuel and his wife Mercy 
had Thomas, Samuel, Jerusha, William, Abiel, Daniel, 
and Eliphalet. Eliphalet married Catherine Marsh- 
field, and had Josiah, Catherine, Mercy, Theophilus, 
Eliphalet, Elijah, Rachel, Ruth, and Jerusha. Jo- 
siah married Elizabeth, daughter of Rev. Benjamin 
Colton, first minister of West Hartford, Conn. They 
had Elizabeth, Amanda, Eliphalet, Josiah, Marsh- 
field, Rachel, Catherine, George, and Marshfield 2 . 
Stephen Barnes and his wife Mary, of Branford, 
Conn., had children born in Branford, — Benjamin, 
Stephen, Sarah, and Experience. Stephen married 
Martha Wheadon, of Branford, and moved to South- 
ington. Their children were Maiy, Stephen, Jona- 
than 1 , Martha, William, Nathan, and Asa. Jona- 
than 1 married Elizabeth Woodruff, of Southington, 
Conn. Their children were Jonathan 2 , Elizabeth, 
Mary, Stephen, Sylvia, Lois, Levi, Joel, and Tru- 
man. Jonathan 2 (graduated from Yale College in 
1784) married Rachel Steele and had children, — Jon- 
athan 3 , Julius S., Edwin, Randolph, Eliza W., Wil- 
liam, and Josiah. All these sons of Judge Barnes 
were professional men. 

Edward Payson Abbe, son of Dr. Alanson and 
Eliza W. (Barnes) Abbe, was born in Litchfield, 
Conn., Nov. 28, 1827. He was fitted for college at 
Phillips' Andover Academy, and was graduated from 
Yale in 1848, and from Harvard Medical College in 
1852. The next year he settled in New Bedford, 
Mass., and began the practice of his profession, which 
has steadily increased, and which has been his life 
work. He married, May 2, 1854, Mary Hooper, 
daughter of William G. and Eunice (Hooper) Black- 



152 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTS, MASSACHUSETTS. 



ler, of New Bedford. She came of an honorable 
lineage. On her father's side she was descended from 
Thomas Gerry, Esq., born in Newton Abbot, Eng- 
land, in 1702, and from Madam Elizabeth (Green- 
field) Gerry, born in Boston, in 1716. These were 
also the parents of Elbridge Gerry, Governor of Mas- 
sachusetts and fifth Vice-President of the United 
States. Her maternal grandfather was Hon. Na- 
thaniel Hooper, lineal descendant of Bishop Hooper, 
of England, and his family has been for several gen- 
erations prominent in the State. They have three 
children who are now living, — William, Edward, and 
Mary Hooper. Mrs. Abbe was a woman greatly 
beloved. She had great energy of character and 
strong self-reliance, and was an earnest, active, and 
valued member of Grace (Episcopal) Church. She 
died Dec. 18, 1881. 

Dr. Abbe has quietly and without ostentation pur- 
sued his profession unweariedly for nearly thirty 
years, and has never found time nor inclination to 
engage in other pursuits. He has been successful in 
his chosen field, enjoying a large practice among all 
classes of people. He stands to-day high in the 
esteem of the leading medical men of this section, 
and is consulting surgeon at St. Mary's Hospital, 
councilor of the Massachusetts Medical Society, and 
was president in 1879-80 of the South Bristol Med- 
ical Society. 

Republican in his political affiliations, he has never 
cared for official preferment. He honorably served, 
however, as member of the school board five years, 
but has sought honors only in the line of his profes- 
sion. 



ANDREW MACKIE, M.D. 

Andrew Mackie, M.D., was born in Wareham, 
Mass., Jan. 24, 1794, and died at his residence in 
New Bedford, May 2, 1871. He was son and grand- 
son of physicians, each successful. His father, Dr. 
Andrew Mackie, of Wareham, was a leading practi- 
tioner in Eastern Massachusetts. His grandfather, 
Dr. John Mackie, of Southampton, L. I. The son 
was fitted for college under the care of Rev. Noble 
Everett, of Wareham, graduated at Brown University 
in 1813, studied medicine with his father and elder 
brother, Dr. John Mackie, of Providence, R. I., and 
at the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New 
York, and commenced practice in Plymouth, Mass., 
in 1817, and there and New Bedford his professional 
life was passed ; that he stood well in respect to his 
associates is shown in the fact that he was twice vice- 
president of the Massachusetts Medical Society, and 
gave by election its annual address in 1850. He kept 
up his reading of current medical literature to the 
last; but had doubtless seen so many glittering spe- 
cialties come and go that, though not rejecting, he 
was jealous of new novelties. 

At the annual meeting of the South Bristol Medi- 



cal Society, held in New Bedford, May 10, 1871, the 
following resolutions were adopted : 

" Resolved, That by the death of Dr. Andrew Mackie, of New Bedford, 
the members of this society lose au associate of marked professional ability 
and uprightness of character. 

" Resolved, That, one of the founders of our society, tie has claims to 
our gratitude for his unvarying support of it, a support given from an 
often expressed conviction of the correctness of the principles under- 
lying its organization, that by measures promotive of professional good 
that of our fellow-men will be promoted. 

"Resolved, That as individuals our gratitude is due him for the ex- 
ample of steadfast devotion to duty and high moral principle which has 
governed his course ; that, as a man, a friend, and a physician, his mem- 
ory will ever be precious. 

" Resolved, That we tender our sincere sympathy to his widow and his 
children in their bereavement." 

In early life he united with the Congregational 
Church, and was ever a faithful and consistent mem- 
ber. In 1834 he was chosen deacon of the North 
Congregational Church of New Bedford, and retained 
his official relation till his death. A man is valuable 
who is strictly conscientious. We have the memory 
of a man scrupulous to know the right and perfectly 
fearless to do it at any cost. In his life of seventy- 
seven years he left the testimony of an honest and 
conscientious man. A strong man, he was strong in 
his convictions. He reproduced the Puritan idea, 
modified only to less sternness. A massive strength, 
a solid faith, a fearless utterance, and though genial, 
and especially so in his family, where he considered 
everybody's comfort before his own, yet a character 
which, if aroused to wrath, one would dread to .en- 
counter. Such men are capable of great severity. 
He was satisfied with long life. He saw his family 
long settled, his sons in useful professions. He had 
the respect of his fellow-citizens as a just man and 
the regard of those in his own work, to some of whom 
he was a patriarch. 

Fifty years of consistent Christian life are his tes- 
timony. Duty was his watchword ; duty fulfilled is 
preparation. It does take years to make such a prep- 
aration. Fruit does not ripen in blossom-time. A 
great oak is many years from the acorn. A good life, 
stalwart, vigorous, true, it takes years to build it up. 
Be patient, young men. Character is a plant of slow 
growth, but the reward of patient continuance is cer- 
tain. 

Dr. Mackie married, Dec. 4, 1821, at Plymouth, 
Mass., Hetty A., daughter of Capt. Lemuel Bradford, 
who was killed in the war of 1812, and a lineal de- 
scendant of Governor Bradford. 

Of their five children, Rev. Andrew was a dean of 
the Episcopal Church of Northern Indiana, died in 
the spring of 1878, aged fifty-five; John H., M.D. ; 
George F. died at twenty-three, he was a captain in 
the merchant service; Elizabeth C, wife of George 
Hastings, of New Bedford; and Amelia B., who died 
at five years. Mrs. Mackie died Aug. 30, 1880, aged 
seventy-seven. 





AA_ 



Wuxa^XI V\A&JlMaJU 





G^U d 




NEW BEDFORD. 



153 



JOHN HOWELL MACKIE, A.M., M.D. 

John Howell Mackie, A.M., M.D., son of Dr. 
Andrew and "Hetty Amelia (Bradford) Mackie, of New 
Bedford. His father was a son of Dr. Andrew Mackie, 
of Wareham (an eminent physician of that section 
of the State, and a surgeon in the United States army 
during the Revolution), and a grandson of Dr. John 
Mackie, of Southampton, L. I. His mother was a 
lineal descendant of Governor Bradford. He was 
horn at Plymouth, Mass., Aug. 24, 1826. Educated 
at private schools and under private tutors, he pur- 
sued his professional studies at Harvard College (on 
whose roll of honor his name stands), and at the 
Jefferson Medical College, in Philadelphia, where he 
graduated as M.D. March 9, 1850, and in the same 
year established himself in practice in New Bedford, 
where at this time, 1882, he is one of the leading sur- 
geons and physicians. His reputation as a surgeon 
is not confined to his city or county, but is recog- 
nized all through the United States, he having per- 
formed many of the most important and difficult 
operations in surgery, and being frequently called in 
consultation in various parts of his own as well as 
other States in New England. From the Massachu- 
setts Medical Society, of which he has been an hon- 
ored member since 1850, he has received many hon- 
ors, having been a councilor for many years, and been 
chosen to represent the State Society at the meetings of 
the Rhode Island, New Hampshire, Connecticut, and 
New York Medical Societies. He was also chosen a 
delegate from the Massachusetts Medical Society to 
the International Medical Congress of 1876, a con- 
gress composed of the most eminent men from all 
parts of the civilized world, and became a member of 
that congress. In 1876 he was chosen anniversary 
chairman of the Massachusetts Medical Society, and 
presided at the annual dinner in Music Hall, Boston, 
where among more than one thousand members and 
guests was Dom Pedro, Emperor of Brazil, and other 
distinguished strangers. 

In 1882 he was chosen vice-president of the Massa- 
chusetts Medical Society. He is a permanent mem- 
ber of the American Medical Society, also a member 
and in 1S63 and 1864 was president of the Bristol 
South District Medical Society. He is now (1882) 
president of the New Bedford Society for Medical Im- 
provement. He was appointed consulting physician 
and surgeon to St. Joseph's Hospital in 1875, and still 
retains the position. In the late war he was an acting 
surgeon in the United States navy from May 13, 1861, 
until March, 1862, when, his health being affected by 
his service in the Gulf of Mexico, he resigned his 
position, and was soon after appointed an acting as- 
sistant surgeon in the army, and during the rest of the 
war was in charge of hospitals at the North. Since 
1863 he has been a United States examining surgeon 
for the Pension Bureau. He is a member and in 1881 
was elected a trustee and member of the council of 
the Massachusetts Medical Benevolent Society. 



From 1868 to 1871, inclusive, he was a member of 
the New Bedford City Council. In 1879 he assisted 
in the arduous work of organizing the first Hoard of 
Health in the city of New Bedford, and in 1880 and 
1881 was its chairman. He also served as quarantine 
physician, and organized a system of quarantine 
which received the unqualified indorsement of the 
national authorities. Dr. Mackie has been largely 
called upon as a medical and surgical expert before 
the sessions of all the courts in Bristol County. His 
well-known thorough knowledge of his profession and 
the perfect clearness and honesty of his testimony are 
thoroughly appreciated by juries in the county of 
Bristol. In politics he was a Whig until the death 
of the party, when he became a Republican, and has 
since acted and voted with that party. When a young 
man he became an Episcopalian, but in later years 
has gone back to the faith of his fathers, and although 
not a member of the church, is a constant attendant 
at the old North Congregational Church, where for so 
many years his father was an honored member and 
deacon. His character is formed very much upon 
his father's, having the same stern devotion to the 
calls of duty, whatever they may be, and the same 
uncompromising sense of honor and devotion to his 
professional duties. Charitable to the poor, equally 
ready to respond to the call of the humble and the 
lowly as well as to the honored and wealthy, he is a 
worthy successor to an honored name and reputation. 
Jan. 1, 1860, he married Alice Weston, daughter of 
Henry Tobey, of Falmouth, Mass., formerly of George- 
town, S. C, by whom he had four children, one daugh- 
ter and three sons, of whom only one is now living. 



CHARLES ALMY. 



Charles Almy, son of Pardon and Mary (Cook) 
Almy, was born in Tiverton, R. I., June 8, 1819, of 
parents resident in Little Compton. He is a de- 
scendant in the seventh generation from William 
Almy, who came from England to New Jersey in 
very early colonial days, and afterwards permanently 
settled in Rhode Island, where he became a large 
land-owner. His son Job, born 1640, died at Ports- 
mouth, R. I., in 1684. The descendants of William 
Almy are numerous in Rhode Island and the con- 
tiguous parts of this State. The line of descent 
from William to Charles is William 1 , Job'-, Job 3 , 
John 4 , Sanford 5 , Pardon*, Charles 7 . The laud first 
occupied by William lay at Little Compton and Tiv- 
erton, and is largely held to-day by his descend- 
ants. Sanford Almy, born 1759, died 1844, a large 
real-estate owner, having several farms, was an ac- 
tive Democratic politician, and all his life in public 
positions of trust and honor. He was State senator 
for many years. He manned Lydia Gray, by whom 
he had fifteen children. He was a man of strong in- 
tellect and sterling worth, and, while quiet and unas- 



154 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



suming, led public opinion and had the confidence of 
all. Both he and his wife lived to advanced years. 

Pardon Almy, their eighth child, born 1792, died 
1864, derived such advantages of education from the 
common schools as to be competent to teach, but soon 
became a farmer on a portion of the paternal acres, 
and was an agriculturist during his life. He was a 
man of good judgment and business sagacity. He 
held a colonelcy in the militia and was a deacon of 
the Baptist Church. He was quite retiring in dispo- 
sition, never seeking office, and accepting it as a duty 
only when he was considered the best man for the po- 
sition. He was of uniformly even disposition, and 
was rarely provoked to anger. 

He and four brothers lived on separate places in 
close proximity to each other, and they were all of 
strong physique and commanding appearance. They 
prided themselves on the amount of labor they could 
accomplish, and the superior manner in which it was 
done. They were social and hospitable, and none of 
them addicted to any vices. They were all good 
types of the best element of our intelligent New Eng- 
land yeomanry, and valuable and valued citizens. 
Each held an office which gave him an appellation for 
life. George was "Esquire," Frederick was "Col- 
onel," Oliver H. was " Judge," John was " Major," 
and Pardon was " Deacon." 

Pardon married Mary Cook, a lineal descendant of 
Governor William Bradford. They had seven chil- 
dren attaining mature years, of whom Charles was 
oldest. 

Charles Almy was reared a farmer, and from early 
years was accustomed to labor. He had good common 
school and academic education, and commenced 
teaching school when but seventeen. He was a 
teacher for seven consecutive years, and gave good 
satisfaction. In 1843 he opened a country store at 
Tiverton, where he remained until Jan. 1,1846, when 
he removed to New Bedford and engaged in dry-goods 
and tailoring business at "Old 4 Corners," corner 
Union and North Water Streets. He shortly after, 
in partnership with George A. Bourne, as Almy & 
Bourne, started the auction and commission business 
now conducted by George A. Bourne & Sons, and was 
connected therewith four or five years. 

He soon became interested in whaling, and devoted 
himself largely to that lucrative business, relinquish- 
ing the management of his store to his brother San- 
ford, who purchased it in 1861. Mr. Almy continued 
whaling until the breaking out of the civil war. In 
1854 he built a whaling ship (four hundred tons), 
the "Seconet," at Eairhaven, and afterwards a bark 
of three hundred and eighty tons for merchant ser- 
vice, which he named for his daughter " Helen W. 
Almy." This vessel is now running between San 
Francisco and the Sandwich Islands. For twenty-one 
years Mr. Almy's office was in the building where he 
first began his New Bedford business life. The com- 
mencement of his present insurance business was in 



1864, when he was induced to take the agency of the 
National Travelers Accident Insurance Company, of 
New York. This proving to be profitable, he accepted 
agencies from life and fire insurance companies, and 
has built up a fine business. 

Like the stock from which he sprung, Mr. Almy 
has independent habits of thought and a strong sense 
of justice. He would be untrue to his ancestry if he 
supported wrong, even though countenanced by a 
powerful and wealthy majority. "There is a minor- 
ity nearer right than the majority," and with that 
minority Mr. Almy has willingly taken his place. 
Anti-slavery in the dark days when opposition to 
that gigantic evil caused almost social ostracism, anti- 
rum from principle long before an organization of a 
Prohibition party, he has steadily adhered to those 
principles until slavery has ceased to be in our land, 
and the best elements of all classes are demanding 
the prohibition of the manufacture, sale, and use of 
intoxicating liquor as a beverage. He has given freely 
his time, his influence, and his money in advocacy of 
the right. 

Originally a Democrat, he became a Free-Soiler in 
1848, and supported Free-Soil and Republican candi- 
dates and measures until the organization of the Pro- 
hibition party, and since then has been one of its 
most active leaders. He has received the nomination 
of that party for member of Governor's Council, Sec- 
retary of State, and was its candidate for Governor 
in 1880, 1881, and 1882. He has the friendship and 
confidence of the best citizens of New Bedford, served 
on the school board of the city several years, and was 
its chairman for three years ; has been elected alder- 
man, representative to the Legislature, and has refused 
several nominations for the mayoralty, twice when 
the nomination was equivalent to an election. 

He was one of the original corporators of the New 
Bedford Five Cent Savings-Bank, organized in 1855, 
and has been connected with it continuously ever 
since as trustee and clerk. He has been a director in 
the New Bedford Gas-Light Company since its early 
organization. He was president of the Lyceum of 
the town of New Bedford for twelve consecutive years, 
from 186U, during the period of its greatest prosperity. 
He was one of the early trustees of the Free Public 
Library, and one of the building commissioners of 
the Free Public Library building. He joined the 
First Congregational Church (Liberal Unitarian) in 
1846, and has been one of the most constant attend- 
ants at its services. 

He married, Oct. 28, 1846, Mary A., daughter of 
Benjamin and Cynthia (Smith) Cummings, of Dart- 
mouth. They have four children, — Helen Wayne, 
Charles, Francis and Frederick (twins). Charles has 
taken the degrees of A.B. and LL.B. from Harvard 
University, and is now an Assistant United States At- 
torney in Boston. Francis has taken the degrees 
of A.B. and A.M. from Harvard, and is secretary and 
treasurer of the class of 1879. He is now in the em- 





zt 




NEW BEDFORD. 



155 



ploy of the Erie and Western Transportation Com- 
pany (Anchor Line) at Chicago. Frederick graduated 
at Harvard in 1880, and is now a student in the law 
department of the same school. He is also secretary 
and treasurer of his class. 



HON. WARREN LADD. 

Hon. Warren Ladd was horn at Bradford (now 
Groveland, Mass.), July 21, 1813. He married Lucy 
Washburn, daughter of Hon. Abel Kingman, of North 
Bridgewater (now Brockton), Nov. 22, 1842. They 
have five children, — Herbert Warren, Sarah Ella, 
Florence Kingman, Anna Winthrop, and George 
Milton. 

Nathaniel Ladd, Esq., the father of Warren, was 
born in Haverhill, Mass., Sept. 17, 178G. He removed 
to Bradford in 1810. For many years he was chair- 
man of the board of selectmen, a justice of the peace, 
secretary and treasurer of the Groveland Mutual Fire 
Insurance Company, deacon of the Congregational 
Church, and for about sixty years was one of its most 
active and influential members. He married Sally, 
daughter of Col. Zebulon Ingersoll, of Haverhill, 
July 14, 1811. Her father, born in Gloucester Sep- 
tember, 1757, was a merchant, a ship-builder, and an 
active, energetic, and successful business man. Her 
mother was Ruth, daughter of Benjamin Moody, of 
West Newberry, and her grandmother, Ann, the 
daughter of Dr. Moses Bradstreet, of Kittery, Me. 
Warren's ancestors run back through Nathaniel (6), 
Nathaniel (5), Nathaniel (4), John (3), Samuel (2), 
to Daniel (1), who came from London in the ship 
"Mary and John" in 1633-34. There is a tradition 
that Dauiel was the son of Nathaniel, of Dartmouth, 
Kent County, England, and that the first Ladds came 
from France with William the Conqueror, and settled 
in Deal, Kent Co., where a portion of land was granted 
them. 

Warren Ladd was educated in the public schools, 
and at the Merrimack Academy. Coming to New 
Bedford in July, 1840, he entered the employ of the 
New Bedford and Taunton Railroad Company as 
clerk in the freight office; was soon promoted to 
freight agent, and then to general agent at New Bed- 
ford. In 1862 he was appointed superintendent of 
the road, which position he held until 1877. His con- 
nection with this road continued from its opening, in 
1840, to its consolidation with the Boston, Clinton 
and Fitchburg Railroad, a period of about thirty- 
seven years. This long term of service is the highest 
possible compliment to his integrity, ability, and 
faithfulness. Though actively engaged in arduous 
and responsible duties, he found time for intellectual 
culture, and by a judicious course of reading acquired 
a general knowledge of scientific, mechanical, and 
economical subjects. He took a deep interest in 
municipal affairs, and gave his influence and active 
effort to the promotion of every measure which in 



his judgment promised to increase the growth and 
prosperity of the city. For this reason he was re- 
peatedly called to the service of the city: for five 
years as member of the Common Council and one 
year as its president; for five terms a member of the 
Board of Aldermen ; for several years one of the 
school committee, and a trustee of the Free Public 
Library. Of the latter he may rightly be called the 
father. At the laving of the corner-stone of the 
present library building, Mayor Howland, in his ad- 
dress referring to the origin of the library, said, — 

"On the 8th of seventh month (July) of the same 
year (1851), Warren Ladd, a member of the Common 
Council from Ward one, introduced an order into 
that branch of the city government 'for the raising 
of a committee to consider the expediency of estab- 
lishing in this city a Free Public Library.' This 
order was adopted in the Common Council but was 
non-concurred in by the Board of Aldermen. This is 
believed to be the first order ever introduced into any 
representative body for the. establishment of such an 
institution, and to this gentleman must and does 
belong the honor of having taken the initiatory step 
toward the establishment of a library for the public 
by the people themselves." 

Mr. Ladd was an early and persistent advocate of 
the introduction of water, and one of the three com- 
missioners under whose direction the water-works 
were built. As showing the breadth of his views and 
his terseness in stating them, we quote from a report 
(written by him) of a committee which had the 
matter under consideration : 

" Your committee are fully of the opinion that the 
introduction of an ample supply of pure water into 
the city is an imperative necessity, and one which 
should not be much longer delayed. It is part of 
wise statesmanship to look at the future, to anticipate 
its wants and guard against its casualties. Cities, like 
men, flourish and prosper only by their own exertions, 
and it becomes those whom the people have placed 
in power to be equal to the present emergency. We 
have the interest and honor of the city in our hands. 
We know its wants and necessities, and can compre- 
hend the crisis in our affairs. Shall we grasp and 
control the crisis, turn it with a steady hand to our 
interest and prosperity? or allow it silently and 
timidly to pass by and float beyond our reach ? Shall 
we legislate only for to-day, and shrink from looking 
the great future in the face ; or shall we, knowing the 
necessity and perceiving the remedy, fearlessly per- 
form our duty?" 

He was upon the committee to which was referred 
the question of introducing gas ; was an earnest ad- 
vocate of the construction of common sewers, and in- 
troduced into the Common Council the first order for 
the appointment of a committee to consider the ex- 
pediency of purchasing a steam fire-engine. The en- 
largement and improvement of the city common was 
in a great measure due to his influence and exertion. 



156 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



In the late civil war he was a member of the Com- 
mittee on Enlistments, and took an active part, as its 
records show, in every effort made by the city to aid 
the national government in putting down the rebel- 
lion. He has been connected as director with sev- 
eral corporations, and is now president of the New 
Bedford and Fairhaven Street Railway Company, 
and a trustee of the Five Cent Savings-Bank. For 
thirty years he has held the commission of justice of ; 
the peace. 

Naturally conservative, Mr. Ladd has none of that 
blind reverence of the past which prevents one from 
keeping abreast with the spirit of the age, and adopt- 
ing any new devices and improvements that genius 
and enterprise may invent or discover. 

In politics, originally an ardent Whig, he early 
became an equally earnest and active Republican; 
has been chairman of the Republican City Committee, 
and in 1876 was a Presidential elector from the First 
Congressional District. He has written largely for 
the press; was for many years the New Bedford cor- 
respondent of the Haverhill Gazette over the signature 
of " Warren," and has contributed many able articles 
to the New Bedford papers over the nom de plume of 
"Julius." 



WILLIAM HATHAWAY, Jr. 

According to an account in an old English history, 
Thomas Hathaway (the earliest ancestor in America) 
sailed from England in the " Isabella," bound for 
Marblehead, previous to the year 1680. He mar- 
ried Mary Starbuck, daughter of Nathaniel and Mary 
Starbuck, about the year 1680. His son Thomas 
moved to New Bedford (then Dartmouth). His son 
Jonathan had two sons, Jonathan and Thomas, from 
whom descended the subject of our sketch, William 
Hathaway, Jr., also his wife. 

Jonathan Hathaway had three children, — William, 
Elisha, and Jabez. William had four children, and 
was the father of William Hathaway, Jr. Thomas 
Hathaway had four children, — Thomas, Gilbert, I 
Elizabeth, and Mary. Thomas, Jr., was the father of 
Mary Hathaway, who married her cousin, William 
Hathaway, Jr. Their descendants are four, — Au- 
gustus, William, Mary, and Thomas. 

William Hathaway, Jr., was born in New Bedford, 
July 17, 1798. Having as a boy made two voyages to 
London with his father, he acquired a taste for the 
sea, which led him later to pass twenty years in the 
merchant service. He made many voyages to ports 
in the Mediterranean, — Trieste, Palermo, Malaga, 
Cadiz, Seville, and Gibraltar,— also to France, Hol- 
land, Russia, England, Ireland, West Indies, and the 
Southern ports of the United States. 

These voyages were marked with pleasant occasions 
which filled his mind with delightful memories. A 
few years since, at his home, an officer in the navy, 
his guest at the time, recalled the pleasant inter- 



change of courtesies which they had enjoyed upon 
each other's ships in the Mediterranean forty years 
before, and it was the first time they had met since 
then. His favorite city was St. Petersburg, of which 
he always speaks with enthusiasm, and often enjoys 
relating an interesting incident which occurred in his 
presence in that city during the raising of a magnifi- 
cent and colossal monolith of red granite to the 
memory of Alexander I., when, by the plain common 
sense of a common sailor, by wetting the ropes and 
thus shrinking them, the great work was completed 
when science failed. 

Later, in company with Capt. Matthew Luce, he 
engaged in the whaling business, which copartnership 
continued for eighteen years, and until the decease of 
Capt. Luce. Mr. Hathaway continued the business 
until the time of the Rebellion, when he retired. 

Three of the vessels were sold to the government 
for the stone fleet to blockade Charleston Harbor. 
Two were destroyed by rebel privateers. The first, 
the "Virginia," was taken by the "Alabama," the 
second by the "Shenandoah." 

The bark "Virginia" was taken by the "Ala- 
bama" Sept. 17, 1862, and was the ninth vessel de- 
stroyed by Semmes. 

The following is an account, written from facts re- 
ceived from one of the sufferers. The " Virginia" 
sailed from New Bedford three weeks before she was 
taken. They had been recruiting at the Western 
Islands, and were only a short distance from there 
when captured by the "Alabama." There was no oil 
on board at the time. The captain, supposing the 
" Alabama" a friendly steamer, as she was sailing 
under English colors, ordered a boat lowered to go to 
her, thinking they might have letters ; but, just be- 
fore starting, seeing a boat from the steamer coming 
towards them, they drew theirs back to the deck. 
The boat from the steamer neared, and ten men, 
under Lieut. Waddell (afterwards commander of the 
privateer "Shenandoah") boarded the "Virginia." 
Great was their dismay when Lieut. Waddell, after 
saying "good-morning" to the captain, passed imme- 
diately by him and commenced pulling down the 
colors. Simultaneously the English flag on the 
" Alabama" was lowered and the Confederate flag 
hoisted in its place. As soon as the flag on the " Vir- 
ginia" was taken down, Lieut. Waddell threw it over 
his arm, and approaching the captain with a haughty 
air, said, "Capt. Tilton, you are a prize to the Con- 
federate steamer ' Alabama.' I will give you all two 
hours to leave the ship, and allow you two changes of 
clothing, which must be taken away in bags. You 
are then to be sent on board the 'Alabama,' as your 
ship is to be burned." 

There was great consternation on board, but no one 
dared to raise an objection. Before the last boat left 
they set fire to the "Virginia" in three places. As 
they stepped on the deck of the "Alabama" each was 
handcuffed, and remained in that condition through 




, 



v/^/ y*/ s< //* & <- ot ' cc x/^{ 



NEW BEDFORD. 



157 



fifteen long days and nights. The disheartening 
sight of the burning ship was before them for over 
twelve hours, from eleven in the morning till twelve 
at midnight. 

The flames flashed forth at first with all fury, as if 
battling with the raging winds, emblematic ofSemmes' 
barbarity. As night drew around them the winds 
abated and the flames grew less and less, till the mid- 
night hour revealed only a spark, the last bright 
symbol of what their noble ship had been to them, 
now only a phantom in imagination. Oh, that day's 
experience, what a thought ! so weird, so terrible in 
their overwrought and excited brains. Even the 
large Newfoundland dog partook of the distracted 
feelings of the ship's company. He was enraged 
when the pirates came on board, and after coolly sur- 
veying them he rushed to the highest place in the 
stern and growled and barked fiercely. He seemed 
to know they were disturbing the peace. The ill- 
omened guests showed some consideration by allow- 
ing the poor creature to follow his friends. On the 
"'Alabama" the dog seemed sorrowful and full of 
compassion for their ill fate. 

The men were confined on deck all the time, through 
sunshine and storm, weary with exposure and fatigue. 
Through the tedious days and nights the wind at 
times blew so heavily that in their awkward position, 
witli hands confined, they were at its mercy, tossed 
about in their effort to steady themselves by holding 
on the rail as be-t they could, the handcuffs chafing 
their wrists, causing extreme pain, so increasing their 
intense physical suffering. During the fifteen days 
three other ships were captured, and two of them 
burned. The last one taken (the " Emily Farnham") 
they made use of to rid themselves of all the prisoners ; 
placed them, numbering eighty men (from the three 
burned vessels), on board, including the dog, and sent 
them to Liverpool, from which place most of them 
shipped for home. Capt. Tilton had deep scars upon 
his wrists, caused by the handcuffs, and died soon 
after reaching home, being completely broken down 
by the sad and painful experience. 

Mr. Hathaway has been a director of the Commer- 
cial Bank of New Bedford for more than forty years, 
and also held the same position in the New Bedford 
Institution for Savings. He has always been marked 
for his system and order. "Not one member of his 
family has ever been obliged to pick up the smallest 
thing belonging to him." He has a place for every- 
thing, and keeps everything in its place to a remark- 
able degree for one of his advanced age. Although 
eighty-five years of age, he has quite good health, has 
never, used spectacles in the daytime, and sometimes 
reads in the evening without them. He is one of the 
most generous of fathers, and particularly thoughtful 
of the welfare of those about him. 

Thomas Hathaway, Sr., was born in New Bedford 
in 1732. Being the oldest son, he inherited the prin- 
cipal part of his father's estate, and in 1764 commenced 



the business of ship-building upon the Acushnet River, 
and carried it on with profit until the Revolution 
(1776). He erected the three-story dwelling on the 
southwest corner of South Water and School Streets, 
in New Bedford, and made it his residence in 1772. 
It was an elegant private residence. for those days, and 
a mark for the British soldiers in 1778, but not much 
injured. 

At the breaking out of the war Mr. Hathaway es- 
poused the Tory cause, being connected by marriage 
with the family of Col. Bradford Gilbert, of Nova 
Scotia. His wife was Miss Deborah Gilbert, a 
daughter of that gentleman. In January, 1777, 
owing to his Tory principles, Mr. Hathaway was 
obliged to leave the States. He went to Nova 
Scotia, and remained nearly six years in the family 
of Col. Gilbert, with the exception of thirteen 
months' service upon a British ship-of-war. Before 
leaving home he placed his family for safety in his 
country residence, a short distance north of New Bed- 
ford, where his wife lived in retirement, devoting her- 
self to the instruction of her four children. 

Her son, Thomas Hathaway, Jr., often spoke of his 
mother as " a lady of great personal dignity and re- 
finement," qualifications borne in his character to a 
very great degree. He was a fine scholar in mathe- 
matics and an excellent penman, and often boasted 
that his instruction was entirely from his mother. 

He was their oldest child, and was born in 1768. 
Sept. 5, 1778, the British under Gen. Grey landed to 
burn New Bedford, and hiding her plate and valua- 
bles, Mrs. Hathaway trusted to the loyalty of her 
husband to protect her; but she was treated with vio- 
lence and given a shock from which she never recov- 
ered, but gradually failed, and died in 1783, soon after 
her husband's return. 

Soon after the Revolution the noted Jemima Wil- 
kinson came to New Bedford on a proselyting tour, 
and was there at three different times, once remaining 
nearly a year. She made two tours to Connecticut, 
preaching nearly every day, and gathered many fol- 
lowers. In these two journeys she was accompanied 
by Thomas Hathaway, who joined her society in 1784, 
and his son, Thomas Hathaway, Jr. In 1788 she left 
New Bedford, with a large band of followers, for 
Philadelphia, purposing to go to Western New York 
from there and establish a colony in that great wil- 
derness. Thomas Hathaway sold all his property, 
much of it at a sacrifice, and, with his four children, 
— Thomas, Mary, Elizabeth, and Gilbert, — accompa- 
nied her. He was the leader of an exploring party 
sent the next year to find a locality, but after going 
as far as Painted Post, on the Canisteo, they returned 
with an unfavorable report. Nothing daunted, she in 
1790, with her whole following, passed up the Susque- 
hanna to Newtown, now Elmira, under the guidance 
of Gen. Sullivan, who had fought the Indians in that 
section in 1779. There he left the party, and with 
great difficulty they made their way to the outlet of 



158 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



Crooked (Keuka) Lake, which Thomas Hathaway 
was one of the three of the company to first discover. 
During the troublous times and discomforts of the 
establishment of this colony, Thomas Hathaway, Sr., 
and Thomas Hathaway, Jr., were of great aid by rea- 
son of their fertile ingenuity, good judgment, and 
strong, practical common sense. They were fitted 
well for this work, and much of the hardship rested 
upon them. Thomas, Jr., and Gilbert, his brother, 
built the first sail-vessel on Seneca Lake, for the 
transportation of supplies from Geneva. 

Thomas Hathaway, Sr., in company with other 
gentlemen, bought large tracts of the public lands. 
He was a stanch follower of the Friend to his 
death, and gave freely of his possessions to gratify 
her many whims. He died in Jerusalem, N. Y., in 
1798, aged sixty-six years. His daughter Mary mar- 
ried Eliphalet Norris, and lived most of her life upon 
a plantation in Maryland. His daughter Elizabeth, 
a lady of rare brilliancy of mind and dignity of char- 
acter, married Judge Joshua Ferris, of Tioga County, 
N. Y., a gentleman of culture, and for many years 
the principal surveyor of public lauds in the southern 
section of the State. He also held many offices of 
trust in the gift of the government, his commissions 
being from Presidents Washington, Adams, and Jef- 
ferson. Gilbert Hathaway was a large landholder in 
Yates County, N. Y., and lived to the age of eighty- 
one years. 

Thomas Hathaway, Jr., was for many years a regu- 
lar Friend, and belonged to the society of Jemima 
Wilkinson until his marriage in 1793 to Mary, 
daughter of Elnathan Botsford, who was a follower 
of Jemima Wilkinson, from New Milford, Conn. 
The rules of the society forbade marriage, and both 
were excommunicated and forbidden to enter her 
meetings. Jemima endeavored to alienate his father 
against them that she might control his large prop- 
erty, but did not succeed. He purchased five hun- 
dred acres of land at one dollar per acre, for which 
his father had paid twenty-five cents per acre. This 
was sold in 1855 by his descendants for sixty-five 
dollars per acre. He was for many years one of the 
principal surveyors of Western New York, and was 
prominent in civil and military matters. He lived 
fifty-nine years on the farm in Milo, Yates Co., where 
he first settled, raised seven children, and died May 
23, 1853, aged eighty-four years. His wife was a more 
than ordinary woman in many ways, and died Nov. 
3, 1866, in her ninety-sixth year. They were buried 
in the first cemetery laid out in the county, and done 
by Mr. Hathaway himself. 



SIMEON II A WES. 
Simeon Hawes was born on Tarkiln Hill, New 
Bedford, Mass., Aug. 14, 1818. His paternal grand- 
father, Levi Hawes, was a native of Stoughton, Mass., 
and a farmer by occupation. Levi died at the age of 



forty, from the effects of an injury he had received. 
He left a widow and several children, of whom Levi, 
Jr., was one, born May 25, 1792, in Stoughton, Mass. 
In early life he was a hatter by trade, but during a 
period of more than sixty years he was a farmer on 
Tarkiln Hill, in the town of New Bedford, Mass., 
where he settled previous to 1818. He was a worthy 
member of the Congregational Church, and for more 
than half a century was a deacon of the same. He 
was respected, and those who knew him best were his 
warmest friends. He married, first, Harriet Peirce, 
in 1813. She was a relative of Mayor Peirce, of Bos- 
ton, and was born June 16, 1796, and died Feb. 20, 
1820. They had four children, — Levi, Harriet, Simeon, 
and Jason L. Harriet (deceased) married Calvin 
Marshall, of Easton, and had children, — Levi and 
Jason L., died young. Simeon alone remains of this 
family. Levi Hawes married for his second wife, 
July 16, 1820, Azubah, daughter of Lieut. Jonathan 
Capen, of Stoughton, Mass. His wife was a Miss 
Glover, a member of a very prominent family. 

Of this union there were Eleanor, Azubah (de- 
ceased), Levi (deceased), Jonathan C, Thomas R., 
Elisha, and David C. Mrs. Hawes died August, 
1879, aged eighty-eight years, and Mr. Hawes died 
April, 1880. Simeon Hawes, above referred to, spent 
his boyhood days upon his father's farm, receiving 
such advantages for an education as the district 
schools of that day afforded. At sixteen we find him 
working on the farm by the month for Capt. William 
Hathaway, and during the two following years he 
worked at ship-building for Wilson Barstow, of Matta- 
poisett. At nineteen he returned home, and con- 
tinued to reside with his father, working on the farm, 
until he was twenty-four. April 25, 1841, he married 
Maria E., daughter of Joseph and Polly Brightman, 
of Westport, Mass. She was born June 2, 1818, and 
died May 26, 1880. Their children are John F., An- 
drew S. (deceased), Charles S. (deceased), Sylvanus 
T., Harriet E., Levi (deceased), George W., Cynthia 
A., Mary A., and Joseph B. Mr. Hawes settled on 
his present farm in his native town soon after his 
marriage, and has resided here ever since. For more 
than fourteen years he has been interested in the 
manufacture of lumber at Smith Mills and in Acush- 
net; for twenty-six years he has been engaged in the 
ice business, and owns a quarter-interest in the New 
Bedford Ice Company, which has proved remunera- 
tive, and for many years was the superintendent of 
" paving streets and roads." 

Mr. Hawes has met with some severe losses by fire, 
first in 1877, when his interest at Smith Mills was 
destroyed, and second, June 7, 1882, when his house, 
his ice buildings, etc., were destroyed, causing a loss 
of more than fifteen thousand dollars. In politics, he 
is a Republican. He was a member of the Common 
Council one year, but, as a rule, has not been an 
aspirant for political honors. Mrs. Hawes was a 
member of the Baptist Church, and he is a liberal 





^^Z^^T^ 






e*sf% c^t^ 'L? . tfQ? €<^o<s~(^3 



NEW BEDFORD. 



159 



supporter and attendant upon the Congregational 
Church. His sons John F. and Sylvanus T. are en- 
gaged with their father in the manufacture of lumber 
at Smith Mills, under the firm-name of Hawes & Sons. 



CAPT. JONATHAN CAPEN HAWKS. 

Capt. Jonathan Capen Hawes, son of Levi by his 
second wife, Azubah Capen, was born on the home 
farm, Tarkiln Hill, New Bedford, Mass., May 8, 
1826. He remained at home assisting his father on 
the farm summers and attending the district school 
winters until he was some fourteen years of age, 
having in the meantime, however, lived with bis uncle, 
Thomas Capen, in Stoughton, Mass., and attended 
school in that place some six months. 

At fourteen he left home to learn the sailmaker's 
trade of one William T. Cook, and after a short time 
returned home and went to school. 

At sixteen, in 1842, he commenced his whaling life 
as a common sailor in ship " Roman," Alex. R. 
Barker, master. They went to the Northwest coast 
via Good Hope, returning via the Horn, thus com- 
pleting his first trip around the world in about two 
years. His second trip was with the same captain 
and ship as a boat-steerer ; time, thirty months. 
During his third voyage, as third officer, he visited the 
eastern coast of the Eastern Continent, and was 
gone some four and one-half years from home. His \ 
next trip took him into Behring's Strait, — this time ' 
as first mate. They lost their ship at Fort Clarence, 
and Mr. Hawes returned home via California and the 
Isthmus. 

At twenty-eight years of age, in 1854, Mr. Hawes 
became master of the ship " Eliza Adams," Edward 
C. Jones, agent. They went into the North Pacific 
Ocean, were very successful, and returned after being 
absent thirty-one months. His second trip as master 
was in the ship " Emma C. Jones," visiting the coast i 
of Western Africa and St. Helena. After a voyage j 
of some twenty-four months he returned home and 
remained some time, when he again took command of 
a ship, this time the "Milo," and visited the North 
Pacific and Arctic Oceans. It was during this voyage 
that he was captured by Capt. Waddell,of the "Shen- 
andoah." He compromised with Capt. Waddell by 
giving bonds to the amount of forty-six thou- 
sand dollars, and he was permitted to proceed to 
San Francisco with his ship and some two hundred 
men. 

He closed his career as a whaler in 18G9, and has 
since resided in his native town. Since his return he 
has been engaged in the lumber business with his 
brother Simeon in the Acushnet Saw-Mill. In poli- 
tics he has been a Republican. In 1874 he was mem- 
ber of the City Council, and in 1876 member of the 
board of aldermen. He has been three times married. 
First to Jerusha Blake, of Stoughton, June 1 ( J, 1854. 
They had two children, — Addie R. (deceased;, who 



married John Leonard, of New Bedford, and has one 
son, John H. Frederick B. is a young man, and re- 
sides at home. Mrs. Hawes died at sea, in the North 
Pacific, Aug. 8, 1868, and her remains were brought 
home and interred in the cemetery at Acushnet. Capt. 
Hawes married for his second wife, Nov. 20, 1869, 
Mrs. Sylvia R. Leonard, widow of John W. Leonard, 
and daughter of James and Phoebe Tucker, of Dart- 
mouth. They had one. daughter, Alice T., who died 
at ten years. Mrs. Hawes died June 13, 1876, and 
the captain married for his third wife, April 10, 1877, 
Mary W., widow of Albert Collins, and daughter of 
Noah and Hannah Davis, of Fall River. Of this 
union there have been three children, viz., Jonathan 
C, Jr. (deceased), Mary A., and Grace W. 

Capt. Hawes and his brother Simeon are among the 
wide-awake business men of Acushnet Avenue. They 
make no pretensions to wealth or fame, but are living 
in a quiet way, surrounded with the comforts of happy 
homes, the legitimate result of industry and frugality. 
They enjoy the confidence of their townsmen, and are 
worthy representatives of one of the old families of 
New England. 



EDWARD HASKELL. 
Anything written of the mercantile history of New 
Bedford would be decidedly incomplete without some- 
thing more than a mere mention of Edward Haskell, 
one for so many years identified with its business in- 
terests. He was son of Deacon Calvin and Ann 
(Hersey) Haskell, and was born in Still River, Mass., 
about 1828, and passed his early life in school, but on 
account of the business reverses of his father was 
compelled to go to work early, and finally was in the 
employ of a Boston firm, for whom he came to New 
Bedford as a young man to dispose of a stock of goods, 
intending only to remain a short time ; but meeting 
with success, his employers concluded to keep him in 
trade here, especially as he liked the place and found 
warm friends. In 1849 he began business for himself 
in a small way on the west side of Purchase Street, 
between William and Union Streets, as a dry-goods 
merchant. He was successful, full of energy, and 
very popular, and after a year or so passed there, 
moved across the street to the middle store of the 
number lately occupied by him. Here his business 
rapidly increased, and he showed remarkable business 
capacity in securing the class of goods most salable, 
and introduced many departments not strictly classed 
as dry goods. For more than thirty years Mr. Ha>- 
kell continued in trade on the same site, and was 
compelled to enlarge the capacity of his premises 
frequently, and finally, at the time of his death, Dec. 
11, 1882, the firm of Edward Haskell & Co. (formed 
in 1876) occupied four stores, consolidated into one 
large emporium of trade. In spite of competition of 
the closest kind, Mr. Haskell had a steady advance 
in his business from his very first day of trade, and 
stood for years as the leading and representative mer- 



160 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



chant of New Bedford. He married, first, Sarah 
Claflin, of Pawtucket, R. I., by whom he- had one 
child, George Edward, now the junior member of the 
mercantile house of Abram French & Co., Boston, 
Mass. He married, second, Louisa B., only daughter 
of Alexander H. and Louisa (Crandall) Seabury, of 
New Bedford. They had two children,— Mary Cran- 
dall and Helen Parker. Mr. Haskell was for many 
years a prominent and active member of the North 
Congregational Church of New Bedford, and was one 
of its deacons, and for eleven years was superintendent 
of its flourishing Sabbath-school, in which he was 
greatly interested. 

He was a man of very fine taste in art, and was a 
rare judge of paintings, statuary, and other kindred 
works. He was very fond of pets, had a great fancy 
for fine horses, pigeons, fowls, etc., and raised many 
of them. He was an enthusiastic lover of flowers, 
and engaged with all the ardor of his nature in hor- 
ticulture. He was a member of the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society, and was awarded a silver 
medal for his collection of " Nymph;eas" in its an- 
nual exhibition in 1881. Among the lovers and cul- 
tivators of flowers he took a high rank. He was a 
man of positive character, carrying nearly everything 
he undertook to completion. He had a pleasant, 
winning manner, and treated every one with the most 
perfect courtesy. He was firm in opposition to any- 
thing he deemed wrong, but equally as strong in ad- 
vocating anything for the improvement and elevation 
of mankind. He was generous and hospitable to a 
fault, and many acts of his kindness are known only 
to those who received the benefits of his broad char- 
ity. In many things Mr. Haskell was sensitive to 
the utmost degree. His love for the beautiful was 
manifested in everything, in the adornment of home 
and grounds, in the decoration of his place, in per- 
sonal appearance and dress, in artistic display of 
goods, etc. In the home circle he was a loving hus- 
band, and a father who gratified, if possible, every 
wish. He was a strong friend, a very pleasant and 
social companion, with a large number of personal 
friends in the leading circles of society. He gave at 
all times his time and money freely for church and 
benevolent purposes. A fluent and effective speaker, 
he was always ready to respond when asked to speak 
for any good cause, and was one of the most unselfish 
of men, seeming only to be fully happy when doing 
something for the happiness or benefit of others. In 
him the poor lost a true friend, and New Bedford one 
of her keenest business men and public-spirited citi- 
zens. 



FREDERICK PARKER. 

Frederick Parker was the son of the well-known 
merchant of New Bedford, John Avery Parker. He 
was born during the residence of his parents at West- 
port, the 15th of May, 1806. On the completion of 



his collegiate course at Brown's University, Provi- 
dence, R. I., he entered his father's office, and in a 
short time became a co-partner with him, under the 
firm-name of John A. Parker & Son. 

In business affairs he possessed in a marked degree 
the power of discerning the abilities of men. This 
acuteness of judgment enabled him to select for em- 
ployment those of such character and efficiency as 
led to a remarkable uniformity of success. He re- 
mained in business with his father until 1848, when 
on his change of residence to the city of New York, 
the copartnership was dissolved. 

The death of John Avery Parker in 1853 recalled 
him to New Bedford to fulfill the duties incumbent 
upon him as one of the executors of his father's es- 
tate, the final settlement of which he did not live to 
see. From this time until his death he resided there 
engaged in the commission and whale-fishery busi- 
ness. 

In 1854, on the resignation of the Hon. James 
Arnold, he was elected a director of the Bedford Com- 
mercial Bank (now the National Bank of Commerce), 
which position he held until his death. 

Mr. Parker married a member of one of the old 
families of New Bedford, Abby Coggeshall, daughter 
of Haydon Coggeshall, on Feb. 11, 1829. They 
visited Europe in 1832, and again in 1841, remaining 
over a year each time. He erected in 1859 on Acush- 
net Avenue, New Bedford, a handsome residence. 
He had lived in it but a few months when a sudden 
accident terminated his life. 

Mr. Parker had no children, but be adopted at an 
early age the orphan daughter of his wife's eldest 
brother, who had been his most intimate friend. To 
her and her son he bequeathed his fortune. 

Mr. Parker was striking in appearance, being six 
feet in height, of very handsome physique, and fine 
erect carriage. He was a stanch friend to those dear 
to him, and was well known for his generous hospi- 
tality. His place in the estimation of the public was 
high, as the following, from the New Bedford Daily 
Mercury of Oct. 22, 1861, shows : 

" Frederick Parker, Esq., of this city, died about 
three o'clock yesterday afternoon. His death, so 
sudden, produced a shock in our community, where 
Mr. Parker has so long resided and in which he has 
been so prominent. It is a public loss which will be 
keenly felt, not alone by those who formed the circle, 
and that was large, of Mr. Parker's personal friends, 
but by the mass of our citizens, who more or less will 
be affected by it. A man of wealth, money was not 
his idol ; it was not an end with him but a means, 
and he dispensed it with a liberal hand. Those who 
knew him most intimately speak in warm terms of his 
unaffected kindness and of his forgetfulness of self in 
his unwearied devotion to those dependent upon him." 





6/ /^c&s ' 



ACUSHNET. 



161 



Conclusion. — We cannot more fittingly close our 
history of this grand old municipality than by quot- 
ing the language of one of her most illustrious and 
honored citizens, the Hon. William W. Crapo: 

" Beautiful, indeed, for situation is this city of 
New Bedford. Few places are there on this continent, 
or elsewhere, which so well unite the institutions, 
benefits, and advantages of the city with the fresh- 
ness and simplicity and comfort of rural life. Lying 
between green pastures on the one hand and the still 
waters of the river on the other, fronting upon this 
bay. which i> as charming as the Bay of Naples, and 
rising with the elevation of conscious pride from its 
shores, its physical condition and position are delight- 
ful beyond exception. We rejoice to observe and re- 
member that those who have shaped its outward for- 
tunes have been studious to make it attractive and 
healthful as the home of a cultured and enlightened 
people. Its well-made and well-kept avenues and 
streets, shaded by long lines of trees, which our 
lathers have planted ; its complete and cleanly drain- 
age, which the incoming and outgoing tides make 
perfect and efficient; its abundant and pure water, 
distributed and available for all the purposes of do- 
mestic, mechanical, and protecting use; its trained, 
alert, and electric fire department; its well-diffused 
system for gas-lighting ; its schools, its churches and 
chapels, and bethel ; its hospital, its home for orphans, 
its many unions of hearts and hands for good works; 
its comfortable and pleasant homes, after the best 
methods of New England life, combine to make this 
municipality worthy of our best affections and of our 
constant effort for its prosperity and peace." 



CHAPTER XIII. 



ACUSHNET. 1 



ACUSHNET is alphabetically the first, and chrono- 
logically the last town in Bristol ; the section of land 
which bears this name being until recently parts of 
other towns. It is a pleasant little township in the 
southerly and easterly part of the county. It is 
bounded northerly by Freetown, easterly by Roches- 
ter (in Plymouth County), southerly by Fairhaven, 
and westerly by New Bedford. It derives its name 
from the Indian name of this section of old Dart- 
mouth, which was variously spelled in the records of 
the seventeenth century, — Cushenagg, Accusshaneck, 
Acushena, Acquessent, Acusshna, Aquishnet, Aquset, 
and Acushnet. 

From 1664 to 1787 nearly all of Acushnet that 
now is was a part of old Dartmouth; from 1787 to 
1812 it was a part of New Bedford ; and from 1812 



1 By Capt. Fraiijilyn Howland. 



11 



to 1860 it was included in Fairhaven. The subject 
of dividing the town of Fairhaven was agitated a 
long while before the act occurred. The people in 
the north part of the town felt that as that section 
was sparsely populated they did not get their share 
of the appropriation, especially for schools. Then 
after the old Presbyterian meeting-house was torn 
down, the question came where to build a new one. 
The people in the village of Fairhaven wanted it 
nearer them, and finally succeeded in having it built 
on an acre-lot just north of Woodside Cemetery, on the 
Fairhaven road. This building was subsequently 
burned by an incendiary fire. The meetings were 
then held down in Fairhaven village; this was the 
straw that broke the camel's back, and the " north- 
enders" renewed their purpose for a division. Among 
the zealous advocates of the division and one of the 
leaders of the movement was Rev. Israel Washburn, 
who owned the farm on which he resided, situated 
next north of the present Laura Keene farm in 
Acushnet. Mr. Washburn was a man of firmness, of 
i a strong, positive nature, with a good intellect and 
: readiness of speech, and was well calculated to be 
chosen as leader in such a movement. He was born 
in this town in 1796, in the last house on the north 
side of the road leading eastward from White's fac- 
tory. He was for many years in the Methodist min- 
istry, before and after his residence in Acushnet at 
the time of the division, a part of which time he was 
in the grocery business at Parting Ways, as I. Wash- 
burn & Son (William H. Washburn). His name 
heads a petition made to the General Court of the 
winter of 1858-59, praying for a division of the town. 
The petition was before the legislative committee, 
but no other action was taken than to refer the sub- 
ject to the next General Court. The petitioners at 
once set about procuring all that was necessary to aid 
them to success at the following session. 

In a warrant issued for a town-meeting in Fair- 
haven April 4, 1859, article eleven asked action on 
the petitions of Rev. Israel Washburn and others, 
" now referred to the next Legislature," with refer- 
ence to a division of the town, and it was voted that 
a committee of five be nominated by the chair to de- 
fine a line of division of the town and report. This 
committee as appointed and chosen consisted of Isaac 
Wood, Arthur Cox, Jonathan Cowen, Cyrus E. Clark, 
Charles H. Adams, and John Ellis. This committee 
reported at a meeting of June 2, 1859, and this same 
committee was requested to appear before the next 
Legislature and present all the facts in the case that 
could be procured by them. They did so, and not 
only that, but a petitioii in favor of the division was 
also presented, signed by a large number of the resi- 
dents of the south part of the town. A result of this 
was that the committee of the Legislature before 
which the matter was heard reported in favor of the 
division, and the report was adopted. 

The Legislature at once passed the following : 






162 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



"Act to Incorporate the Town op Acushnet. 

"Section 1. All that part of the town of Fairhaven which lies 
northerly of the following described lines, viz. : Beginning at a stone 
monument at ' Tripp's Corner,' in the division lines between the towns 
of Fairhaven and Mattapoisett ; thence from sandstone monument in a 
south-westerly direction in a straight line to the southeast corner of 
the ' Royal Hathaway farm,' so called ; thence in the south line of said 
farm to the southwest corner bounds thereof; thence continuing westerly 
in the same direction to the centre of the channel of Acushnet River, or 
division line between the town of Fairhaven and the city of New Bed- 
ford, is hereby incorporated into a separate town by the name of Acush- 
net, and the said town of Acushnet is hereby vested with all the powers 
and privileges, rights and immunities, and shall be subject to all the 
duties and requisitions to which other towns are entitled and subjected 
by the Constitution and laws of the commonwealth. 

"Section 2. Tho inhabitants of said town of Acushnet shall be 
hidden to pay to the collector of taxes of the town of Fairhaven all the 
arrearages of taxes legally assessed upon them before this act takes 
effect, and also their proportion of State and county taxes as may be 
assessed upon them before taking the next State valuation, said propor- 
tion to be ascertained and determined by the last valuation of the said 
town of Fairhaven ; and said town of Acushnet to pay four twenty-thirds 
of the debts due and owing from the town of Fairhaven at the lime of 
the passage of this act, and be entitled to receive four-twenty-thirds of 
all the real and personal property and assets owned by or due to the 
said town of Fail haven, and shall he liable to refund to said town of 
Fairhaven four-twenty-thirds of the 'surplus revenue' when the said 
is called for according to the provisions of law. 

"Section 3. The said towns of Fairhaven and Acushnet shall be 
respectively liable for the support of all persons who now do and who 
may hereafter stand in need of relief as paupers whose settlement was 
gained by or derived within their respective limits. 

" Section 4. The towns of Fairhaven and Acushnet shall hold the fol- 
lowing described property, situated in their respective limits, as valued 
by their committee, appointed June twenty-fifth, in the year eighteen 
hundred and fifty-nine, 'for the purpose of presenting information to 
the Legislature to enable them to make a just and equitable apportion- 
ment of the public property, debts, and burdens between the towns,' 
viz.: The town of Fairhaven shall exclusively hold the almshouse, farm, 
and property appertaining thereto; the High School house, lot, and fix- 
tures contained therein ; the engine-house and lot in Oxford village, and 
the engine and fixtures contained therein; the engine-house and lot in 
the village of Fairhaven, and the engine and fixtures therein; two 
second-hand engines now in the village, the town-house lot, the watch- 
house and lot, L. S. Aiken's gravel lot, one safe in the town clerk's 
office, and so much of other property as will make nineteen-twenty- 
thirds of the public property as valued by said committee. The town of 
Acushnet shall exclusively hold the engine-house and lot, together with 
the engine and fixtures, in Acushnet village; the school-house and lot 
in school district number eighteen, two town pounds, the 'Freeman 
Hathaway' lot, the 'Samuel Stacy' lot, and so much of other property 
as will make four-twenty-thirds of the public property as valued by 
said committee. All other property which may hereafter be found to 
belong to the town of Fairhaven, and not specified by the said commit- 
tee at the time of the passage of this act, shall be divided on the same 
basis, viz., nineteen-twenty-thirds to the town of Fairhaven and four- 
twenty-thirds to the town of Acushnet. 

"Section 5. The town of Acushnet shall remain a part of the same 
districts, representative, senatorial, councilor, and congressional, as the 
town of Fairhaven until said districts are altered by due authority of 
law." 

Section 6. This section provides the manner of calling the first 
town-meeting and preparing the first list of voters. 

The act of incorporation was approved Feb. 13, 1860. 
It was signed by N. P. Banks, Governor, and Oliver 
Warner, Secretary of State. Fairhaven, at the time 
of the "set off," was in the Twelfth (Bristol) Repre- 
sentative District, together with Freetown and Berk- 
ley. The district was entitled to two representatives. 

The first public meeting of the legal voters of the 
new town was held March 14, 1860, in the "engine- 
house," which stands in the village on the north side 
of the road, nearly opposite the parsonage house of the 



Methodist Society. Jones Robinson, Esq., who re- 
sided on the Fairhaven road, a prominent man in 
public affairs, was chosen moderator. Jabez Wood 
was elected town clerk, collector, and treasurer. The 
other important offices were filled as follows: For se- 
lectmen, assessors, and overseers of the poor, Cyrus 
E. Clark, Benjamin Wilson, and Benjamin White; 
for school committee, Jabez Wood for three years, 
Rev. Philip Crandon for two years, and George P. 
Morse for one year ; and Philip A. Bradford was 
chosen constable, an office to which he has been re- 
elected every year since. On the 24th of the follow- 
ing month Mr. Crandon resigned the office of school 
committee, and Walter Spooner was chosen his suc- 
cessor. There have been but few changes in the offi- 
cers of the town, which speaks well for their fidelity. 

The office of town clerk, collector, and treasurer 
was filled from 1860-65, inclusive, by Jabez Wood ; 
from 1866-70, inclusive, by Benjamin White; 1871, 
by George P. Morse ; 1872, by George F. Glasse, who 
was partially disabled in the late war; from 1873-81, 
inclusive, George P. Morse ; and in 1882 Caleb Slade 
was chosen. For selectmen, overseers of the poor, 
and assessors, Cyrus E. Clark served in 1860-65 ; Ben- 
jamin Wilson, in 1860-63; Benjamin White, in 1860- 
63, 1867-70, 1872-73; Capt. Pardon Taber, Jr., from 
1864-82, inclusive; Walter Spooner, from 1864-82, 
inclusive, excepting the year 1879; John Tuck, in 
1871 ; Joshua Morse, in 1875-78 ; Joshua Leonard, 
from 1878-82, inclusive. The following persons have 
served on the school committee : Jabez Wood, Rev. 
Philip Crandon, George P. Morse, Walter Spooner, 
Marcus Ashley, Amos H. Has well, George T. Russell, 
Jr., Rev. Josephus W. Horton, Richard Davis, Jr., 
Frederick Wing, Walter A. Davis, Augustus White, 
Charles L. Russell, Leonard Keene, Jonathan Taber, 
George F. Glasse, Burrage Y. Warner, Capt. Edward 
R. Ashley, Thomas E. Bradley, Caleb Slade, Perez S. 
Doty. The longest term of service was that of George 
P. Morse, who was a member of the committee. 

Acushnet being in the district with other towns, it 
is entitled to a representation to the General Court but 
occasionally. It has sent four since its incorporation. 
The first representative was William H. Washburn, 
Esq. Mr. Washburn was a son of Rev. Israel Wash- 
burn, and for many years a resident of the town, 
being engaged in the grocery and wheelwright busi- 
ness. Always interested in the welfare of the town, 
he was especially so during the war, when he had 
charge of enlisting, drafting, and filling quotas, and 
served two years in the Legislature to the great satis- 
faction of his constituents. The next was Walter 
Spooner, Esq., who has faithfully served the town in 
many capacities. He was in the House two years. 
Mr. Spooner, who is the son of Dr. Rounsevel Spooner, 
is from " honorable" stock, his great-grandfather 
being Hon. Walter Spooner, and his grandfather was 
Hon. Alden Spooner, who was an uncle of the Hon. 
Nathaniel Spooner, all of .this town. 



ACUSHNET. 



163 



The third representative was Benjamin White, Esq., 
a highly-esteemed citizen of the town, and who has 
been honored by it with many offices of trust and re- 
sponsibility. In consequence of redisricting the 
State, Mr. White was in the Legislature but one year. 

The next one was Capt. Joseph Burt, Jr. He for- 
merly resided in New Bedford, did good service in the 
army, and since the war has lived in this town, which 
he represented one year. Acushnet has furnished one 
senator to the General Court, Hon. Joshua Morse fill- 
ing the office. The above were all Republicans. 

Acushnet is fifty-five miles from Boston, and its 
only railroad facilities are the Old Colony, which 
passes along and about a mile west of its western 
boundary. The land is generally quite even, and the 
soil in some parts well adapted to agricultural pur- 
poses. Most of the land is high, dry, and admirably 
suited to residence. Perry Hill, though but a mile 
from the river, on the easterly side of the town, is 
nearly one hundred and fifty feet above the sea. A 
spot near this was selected as one of the stations of 
the State Trigonometrical Survey. In addition to 
the beautiful Acushnet River, which flows southerly 
through its centre, it has another attractive stream 
which flows out of its southeast angle and empties 
into the Mattapoisett River. 

The Acushnet water, which supplies the city of 
New Bedford, is from ponds located in the north part 
of the town, and from which flows the Acushnet 
River. The reservoir of nearly three hundred acres 
is located in a romantic spot. The dam which is 
built to form this impounding reservoir and to elevate 
the waters of the Acushnet to forty feet above mean 
tide is on the Wilson farm, about seven miles from 
New Bedford. The drainage above this dam com- 
prises between three and four thousand acres, and is 
exceedingly well adapted for the collection and stor- 
age of a large supply of pure water. The reservoir 
is two and a half miles long and from one-eighth to 
nearly one-half mile wide, giving a storage capacity 
of four hundred million gallons of water. 

In 1875 Acushnet had a total population of 1059, 
most of whom are engaged in general farming, mar- 
ket gardening, and producing milk. The number of 
farms is 142, covering 8041 acres, which, together 
with 4600 acres of woodland, is valued at $446,750. 
The geological formation is feldspathic gneiss and 
granite. It has seven saw-mills, which turn out 
large quantities of long lumber, shingles, box-boards, 
and bark, which are exported. 

The personal property of the town is valued at 
$122,500; total valuation, $569,250; rate of taxation, 
about 80 cents per $100. The products of manufac- 
ture are $51,356, and of agriculture $101,994; total, 
$153,344. 

Considerable business has been and is still carried 
on on the stream above the village. The first fulling- 
mill in this section was on this stream. The building 
is still standing and has been used as a saw-mill by 



the Acushnet Saw-Mill Company, consisting of Sim- 
eon and Jonathan Hawes and N. Hervey Wilbor. 
Since 1809 there is turned out here annually about 
six hundred thousand feet of box-boards, sixty-six 
thousand feet of long lumber, and forty thousand 
shingles. 

There was originally only a saw- and grist-mill 
here, afterwards a fulling-, dressing-, and carding- 
mill, at which time it was in possession of William 
Rotch. Subsequently for many years it was owned 
by Morgan & Lund, and used for the manufacture of 
paper. 

About a mile up the stream, on a cross-road, was 
originally another saw-mill. The property came into 
the hands of Phineas White, who built a cotton-mill 
there in 1811. Mr. White had associated with him 
Capt. Joseph Whelden and Ansel White. Business 
prospered, and Capt. Whelden withdrew and built a 
stone cotton-factory on the stream a mile farther 
north, the walls of which are now standing. 

On a stream which enters the Acushnet near the 
Whelden Mill is situated another saw-mill, run by 
George P. and Edward Morse. Ansel White, brother 
of Phineas, withdrew from the lower factory and built 
a cotton-mill in connection with a saw-mill which 
stood on the stream to the westward of Long Plain. 
No cotton machinery has been run in town for many 
years. The Phineas White mill privilege was pur- 
chased by S. B. Hamblin, an extensive lumber mer- 
chant, who uses it exclusively for sawing. 

Another item of business worth noting is that of 
Ebenezer Leonard, who has carried on boat-building 
in town since the 1st of January, 1852. He has con- 
structed during the time nine hundred and twenty- 
seven whale-boats for the New Bedford shipping, car- 
rying them thence, a distance of six miles, on trucks. 
This gives an average of about thirty-one boats a 
year, and some years he has built one a week. 

Many of the inhabitants of Acushnet have been 
engaged in the whale fishery ; among the number the 
following with others were master-mariners: Jacob 
Taber, Cornelius Howland, Pardon Taber, Jr., God- 
frey Macomber, Andrew Wing, William Ashley, Ma- 
son Taber, Edward R. Ashley, Joseph Bennett, Obed. 
Nye, Henry Packard, David Corcoran, James R. 
Allen, Stephen Hathaway, Martin Bowen, Stephen 
Kempton, Marcus Taber, Stephen Braley, Francis 
Butts, Stephen Taber. 

Quite an extensive business has been carried on in 
town in the manufacture of candle- and soap-boxes. 
The principal ones engaged in it now are John Lom- 
bard and Emory Cushman, on the Long Plain road. 
The factory of the latter occupies the site of one of 
the oldest landmarks in the county. It is situated 
about three quarters of a mile to the north of Parting 
Ways and an eighth of a mile eastward of the road. 
There was a saw- and grist-mill here in the early day 
of the settlement of this section, and subsequently a 
fulling-mill. Wool was carded, cloth fulled and 



164 



HISTORY OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS. 



dressed, and buttons made here. Near the factory 
stood, till quite recently consumed by fire, one of the 
oldest houses in the county. It was exceedingly old- 
fashioned, the upper story projecting beyond the lower 
one several feet all around. A massive stone chim- 
ney was in the centre, and doors and windows were 
very antique. It was built by Jacob Taber, and was 
subsequently occupied by his son Amaziah. Thankful, 
daughter of Amaziah, became the wife of Gideon 
Wood, of Dartmouth, and the old farm came into the 
Wood family by will from Amaziah to Gideon's son 
Thomas, where it has remained till very lately. The 
last one of the Wood family that occupied it was 
Jabez, the son of Thomas ; he was the first town clerk 
of Acushnet. Henry T. Wood, of New Bedford, son 
of Thomas, has a painting by the artist William A 
Wall of the old house and an interesting scene near 
it. Amaziah Taber, who was a Friend, was on peace- 
ful and confidential terms with the.Indians, who were 
numerous about here then. During the King Philip 
war some scouts had been up in the Squawbetty coun- 
try, to the eastward of the house, and had captured 
some of these Indians. As they were marching past 
the old house on their way to the camps of the white 
men they halted, and Amaziah had a conversation 
with them. This real incident is very faithfully rep- 
resented in the painting. 

Another old dwelling is the Tobey house, a gable- 
roofed building on the east side of Mill road, about 
one quarter of a mile above the bridge in the village. 
It was at one time occupied by Dr. Elisha Tobey, one 
of the earliest physicians of the locality. He was 
born in 1722, probably in this house. Capt. Lemuel 
S. Aiken, of Fairhaven, says that when the British 
marauders made their excursion through the village 
of Acushnet in 1778, a party left the main body 
where the Mill road begins near the bridge, and 
went up as far as this old house, the first one they 
came to. The good wife was baking pork and beans, 
and, attracted by the appetizing odor, they made a 
raid on the oven in the cellar, and soon put its con- 
tents out of sight. Capt. Aiken goes on to say, 
"They then robbed the house of what they wanted 
and endeavored to destroy the rest. But the British 
pilferers, in going down the cellar, left the door wide 
open, and that effectually prevented their seeing an- 
other door immediately behind it leading to a room 
where their mos.t valuable clothing was deposited, and 
by that means was saved. Another instance of the 
same occurred at Bartholomew Tuber's (just northeast 
of the present village of Fairhaven). They burned 
several houses at the Head of the River, among them 
one belonging to Capt. Crandon, who, to revenge 
himself on the British marauders, would not suffer his 
new house to be placed over the old cellar, nor suffer 
the cellar to be filled up, until his son, having the 
management in some measure of his father's business, 
accomplished it. It was at Acushnet village that 
Lieut. Metcalf was mortally wounded. He was from 



Boston, and belonged to the Continental army. The 
first building they burned after leaving the Head of 
the River was a house a half-mile below Parting 
Ways, on the west side of the road, on the premises 
now owned by David Russell, then occupied by Col. 
Pope, of the Continental army. Eldad Tupper, a 
Tory, well acquainted in these parts, acted as their 
guide, and would inform them of all holding office or 
commissions. As they proceeded south near by they 
came to Stephen and Thomas Hathaway's. The lat- 
ler was a man of handsome property for those days 
and without children, but he had a ward living with 
him (Jonathan Kempton), who eventually inherited 
it. At the time the fleet anchored he was at the lower 
end of Sconticut Neck, and he left immediately for 
home to remove the household furniture to a place of 
safety. 

"After packing up he took a small trunk, contain- 
ing quite a valuable quantity of silver. As he stepped 
out of the door he was met by their advance-guard, 
who told him they would relieve him from any fur- 
ther care of the trunk. After taking what things 
they wanted from the house, they collected beds and 
bedding in a chamber and set fire to them, and very 
luckily shut the doors. They took Mr. Kempton a 
prisoner, and told him they should take him to New 
York. He entreated them to set him at liberty. 
After carrying him to the end of a lane leading to the 
house they consented, after taking one of the two 
pairs of breeches that he had on. That he had two 
pair they knew from having robbed him of his watch, 
but they informed him that they must fire at him as 
a deserter, which they did, whether with the inten- 
tion of hitting him or not he never knew. The ball, 
however, hit a large cherry-tree, one of a number 
that lined the lane leading to his house. Mr. Kemp- 
ton returned to the house in time to extinguish the 
fire." 

This Stephen Hathaway house still stands on a 
rocky hill on the east side of the Fairhaven road, a 
half-mile north of the Acushnet line. A quarter of a 
mile south of this house, on the same side of the road, 
and a few yards northeast of a well at present in the 
highway, stood a store belonging to either Obed or 
Micah Hathaway. This was also burned. No more 
damage was done by the excursionists until they 
reached the Fairhaven line, an eighth of a mile far- 
ther south. 

Good service was done by Acushnet men in the 
wars of 1776, of 1812, and of 1861-65. The following 
is the roll of honor of the last war : 

Samuel Pierce, Artemas Morse, Leander Washburn, Lyman N. Caswell, 
Linus E. Caswell, George Pierce, Charles E. Robinson, Francis F. 
Bennett, Thomas W. Chapman, Clarence L. Burlington, David B. 
Pierce, Mason W. Page, George F. Gibhs, William Oesting, William 

F. Terrell, John Stoner, John W. Collins, Jasou S. Peckham, Alden 
Spoon er, Lyman Spooner, Andrew A. Cole, Arthur H. Brook, George 
D. Bisbee, Francis Pittsley, William Pittsley, Levi Pittsley, Albert 

G. Braley, Julius .Valentine, James C. Johnson, Henry Smithson, 
Victor Bencaco, George llealey, James T. Hall, Robert Lynch, Horace 
Webster, Daniel V. Smith, David P. Caswell, Clarence A. Bearse, 



ACUSHNET. 



165 



Zacchens II. Wright, Alexander 0. Pierce, Joseph S. Spooner, Thomas 
S. Potter, William B. dishing, John Kllis, George S. Fox, John W. 
Pierco, The